|Principle, Strategy, Practice|
For improving teaching and learning...
|Why?||When?||How?||Key Questions for FrLv! Discussion||Who will help to bake this cake?|
|Categories for Grouping||Specifics||Reasons, Evidence|
observations that support this? E.g., brain activity research?
|Likely to be beneficial: topics, purposes, or situations||Unlikely to be beneficial: topics, purposes, or situations||Guidelines, Resources|
e.g, Apps, etc. ...for effectively using this principle, strategy, practice...
|1. Big Picture||Context Matters|
Culture, goals, characteristics of learners; role of topic within larger curriculum; permanence or fluidity of content;...)
|e.g., Some cultures shun giving or receiving public criticism||e.g., Course includes students whose previous success/failure in math varies greatly.||e.g, Course pre-reqs limit students to those already successful, comfortable with Math||Guidelines for recognizing and dealing respectively with cultural differences, esp. for “hot” topics||What about culture in online courses? Lack of but more about integrating culture in the online courses.||Winona|
|1. Big Picture||Ubiquitous Personal Devices |
Require, forbid, guide, … students’ use of smart phones, etc….? Faculty use?
|What about culture in online courses? Lack of but more about integrating culture in the online courses.||Tom Tu (China?)|
|1. Big Picture||Caring & Change|
Who cares? Why bother?
1. What do you most want to gain?
2. What do you most cherish and want not to lose?
|What about culture in online courses? Lack of but more about integrating culture in the online courses.|
|1. Big Picture||LMS and other BIG tech and curricular changes||Instructional Bottlenecks: Login for new LMS; activating and testing microphone for Webex and other online activites!! Zoom and webcamera!||Rona, Penny, Janice,|
|1. Big Picture||Triage for Transitions' Bottlenecks|
e.g., switching LMSs -
Identify, prioritize, and deal with the bottlenecks! Guidance and Other Resources (ask students, teachers)
Find ways to “lower thresholds”
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PAY OR COERCE SOMEONE ELSE TO MANAGE YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM TRANSITION
Managing your iPhone transitions...
LOGGING IN!!!! (OPENING ACCT; REMEMBERING PASSWORD)....WHERE TO "GO" TO LOGIN....HOW CONFIRM THAT EVERYONE WHO NEEDS TO LOGIN IS REALLY READY TO DO SO? HAS DONE SO? [Lexia, Gabe's students who NEVER login...]
|Big Bang ; Collapse and Re-Big Bang; centralize/decentralize pendulum; Moore's Law||SWG explanation of pendulum theory of institutional change...|
In what ways are most students, faculty, other academic professionals overloaded - more in 2017 than previously?
In consequence, what ways do each of these Principles, Strategies, Principles become more/less important? Does overload alter recommendations for why, when, how?
|2. Roles||Changing Academic Support Roles |
Who is responsible, able, available to support the improvement and effectiveness of teaching and learning?
How are the roles of faculty and other academic professionals changing? Differentially for kinds of institutions, etc.?
Including, but not limited to, Information Technology, Instructional Design, Faculty Development, Student Support Services, ...
|2. Roles||Libraries and Librarians|
What kinds of resources are emerging, changing?
How can/should the roles of libraries and librarians change?
|2. Roles||Coaching Role|
(Not Content Expert)
How students, faculty, and other academic professionals (especially newcomers to academia) take on "coaching roles"? Why should they?
Does the Coaching Role become especially important for some emerging curricular strategies (e.g., Competency-Based Curriculum)? For changing educational goals and needs?
|3A. Curriculum - Focus||Identifying & Opening Instructional Bottlenecks |
"Inst. Bottleneck" = Topic or activity that is often difficult for learners to master, AND which impedes their progress on subsequent topics.
Especially, Instructional Bottlenecks essential for cumulative learning.
|Ask any experienced teacher about "instructional bottlenecks" found in some course he/she has taught many times. E.g., the distributive property in beginning algebra; “... the rank scale concept (Languages/Linguistics)...” - SEE COMMENT FOR MORE||Identify, prioritize, and deal with the bottlenecks! (ask students, teachers) Find ways to “lower thresholds”|
|3A. Curriculum - Focus||Notation & Syntax |
Notation & Syntax are challenging Instructional Bottlenecks across many disciplines!
In some subjects (algebra, chemistry, ...) effective learning and usage of advanced topics is highly dependent on thorough mastery of "beginning" notation and syntax. "Mastery" requires both understanding the rules and facility in their use.
|3A. Curriculum - Focus||Standardization of Course Content vs. Academic Freedom|
Interchangeability vs. Faculty Autonomy/Responsibility for Curriculum
What factors influence decisions? Media, online/hybrid/F2F
|3B. Curriculum - Approaches||Small Steps & Cumulative/Spiral Curriculum Design|
For many subjects, courses, topics and for many learners, small steps are essential. Not for all.
Multi-course spiral or cumulative curriculum design can help.
1. For undergraduates, K-12, grad students?
2. For professional development: cumulative progress without trying to change too much, too fast?
|3B. Curriculum - Approaches||Explicit and/or Implicit Instruction|
Which kinds of learning can be effective even without direct, explicit explanations? Without narrative, expository explanations? I.e., which kinds of learning can be effective through instructional ACTIVITIES? What factors influence the development of an effective BALANCE of explicit and implicit instruction?
|3B. Curriculum - Approaches||"Play" and Gamification|
How can/should emerging strategies and resources from the entertainment (gaming, animation, ...) world help improve teaching and learning?
How can/should teaching and learning activities integrate practices of linking reward/punishment to performance in animated, interactive play?
In what kinds of situations, and to what extent can people only learn effectively when they are emotionally engaged? Esp. relevant for persistance of effort?
|3B. Curriculum - Approaches||Emotional Engagement|
When essential, appropriate, or inappropriate? How monitor effectiveness, risk? Power of humor?
|3B. Curriculum - Approaches||Open Educational Resources|
How find, develop, evaluate, adapt OERs?
What factors influence the usefulness of OERs? Take advantage of lower cost instructional resources than commercially published textbooks.
What accomodations might be required of learners, teachers, institutions to take better advantage of OERs?
Revisit MERLOT! [check with Bonnie Mullinix]
|Dale Bonnie Rona|
|3B. Curriculum - Approaches||Classroom Assessment Techniques||CATS are scalable (low-stakes to SOTL research), easy to implement, work well with faculty who are "new" to improving teaching and learning||Make students' thinking visible, quick way to implement active learning, good for assessment, documenting teaching improvement, documenting teaching effectiveness,||I||Can use a 3x5 notecard, the back of scrap paper or CMS (like Moodle), a Google Form|
|4. Action & Attention||To Learn Something: Teach/Explain It|
Summarize, restate, annotate, argue with oneself, teach someone,
|Large numbers of people who report “I really learned that when I taught it…”||Useful when learners can easily confirm correct info, interpretations; Less beneficial when all learners are having similar difficulties?||Annotation tools that enable and encourage learners to restate, comment on readings and other instructional resources and share those annotations|
|4. Action & Attention||Motor Activity for Learning|
Essential, Required, Forbidden? (Especially for “Active Learning”?)
"To learn something, you've got to do something" - power of motor activity to increase learning and retention; role of note-taking and annotation vs. recording...
|4. Action & Attention||Managing Attention |
Refreshing breaks vs. distraction vs. multi-tasking
Benefit of cumulative, effective "Time on Task" dependent on attention/distraction?
When we say someone is “not paying attention” to some learning task, do we mean that the person is responding with less speed and accuracy?
|Use of entertainment, interruptions (breaks), multi-tasking, … How extend EFFECTIVE “time on task”?|
Listening vs. Studying? Active Note-Taking/Annotation vs. Recording
|5. Group||Constructive Collaboration|
Among faculty & other academic professionals; Among students - required, forbidden, guided, …? Include student peer review of each other’s work…. team-based learning
|5. Group||Social Dimension of Learning|
Impact of learning independently, alone, asynchronously; Team-based learning (How NOT to lose team-based, collaborative learning when increasing independent learning?)
|6. Feedback & Assessment||Programmatic Assessment - Real, Useable|
How can USEABLE information about what works, what doesn’t, and what is liked/disliked be elicited and collected? How can assessment and feedback info be shared in ways likely to increase its impact? [Not merely irritate or be ignored.]
|6. Feedback & Assessment||Errors are Essential for Learning|
Communicate “high expectations” - but not too high. Maximize errors - but not too many. Minimize errors - but not too few. How identify optimal error rates? Vary by individual learner? Vary by topic? How support, sustain optimal error rates? Goal: Increase learning without undermining confidence.
|AEFL system... treat error rate and role of exogenous music (distractive?) as independent variables...? Anyone already doing so? Any research about "optimal" error rates? "optimal" background musical for learning? vs. enabling learners to modify their own error rates, background music, ...or have a system that can do so.|
|6. Feedback & Assessment||Feedback to Learner|
During learning activities, based on some form of assessment of learner's progress.
Elements of feedback: immediacy, frequency, media, cultural, emotional, …
Include student peer review of each other’s work?
|Independent learning? Online learning strategies?Asynchronous learning?||Quizzes, tests, assignments, exams, …; Media?||Badges||Rona??|
|I am interested in the Science of Teaching and Learning. Brain research. This might be the Action/Attention category. I am not sure. B. Dailey|
|Pls replace this text with one of your own Favorite Principles, Practices, Strategies|