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CategoryWhat we look at?Why we look at it?Characteristics
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BudgetNational government budget at a high level. This is planned government expenditure for the upcoming year, and not the actual expenditure.
To develop this category the Index drew on work from [Open Spending](next.openspending.org).


Open budget data allows for well-informed publics. It showing what money is spent on, how public funds develop over time, and why certain activities are funded. See here a list of cases how budget data has been used in the past. Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Budget for each national government department
* ministry, or agency.
* Descriptions for budget sections

Level of granularity
Budget separated into sub-department, political program, or expenditure type
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SpendingRecords of actual (past) national government spending at a detailed transactional level. Data must display ongoing expenditure, including transactions. A database of contracts awarded or similar willnotbe considered sufficient. Also a database only showing subsidies will not be sufficient. To develop this category the Index drew on work from [Open Spending](next.openspending.org).

Open spending data shows whether public money is efficiently and effectively used. It helps to understand spending patterns, and to display corruption, misuse, and waste. Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Government office which had the transaction
* Date of transaction Name of vendor
* Nominal amount of individual transaction

Level of granularity
Individual record of each transaction
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ProcurementAll tenders and awards of the national/federal government aggregated by office. It does not look into procurement planning or other procurement phases such as implementation (i.e. actual money transfers, which are part of our spending category). To develop this category the Index drew on work from the [Open Contracting Partnership](http://standard.open-contracting.org/latest/en/schema/).



Open procurement data may enable fairer competition among companies, allow to detect fraud, as well as deliver better services for governments and citizens. Monitoring tenders helps new groups to participate in tenders and to increase government compliance.
Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

**Tender phase
* Tenders per government office
* Tender name Tender description
* Tender status

**Award phase
* Awards per government office
* Award title
* Award description
* Value of the award Supplier's name
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Election results
This data category looks at results for all major national electoral contests. Election data informs about voting outcomes and voting process. What are electoral majorities and minorities? How many votes are registered, invalid, or spoilt? The Index consulted the National Democratic Institute (NDI) to develop this data category, but didnt take their latest recommendation which will be consider for the next edition. For more information, see the NDI’s [Open Elections Data Initiative](http://openelectiondata.net/en/guide/key-categories/polling-stations/).
To enable highest transparency, the Index assesses polling station data. Data for electoral zones does not suffice. Polling stations are the locations voters are assigned to leave their vote. Having this data allows for more varied analyses, e.g. whether voters can reach a polling station.
Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

Results for major national electoral contests (such as general elections)

This data needs to include:
* Number of registered votes
* Number of invalid votes
* Number of spoiled votes (not required, if a digital voting system is assessed, that does not recognize spoiled votes)

Level of granularity
Data available at polling station level
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Company register
Lists of registered (limited liability) companies. The submissions in this data category do not need to include detailed financial data such as balance sheets.
This category draws on the work of [OpenCorporates](http://api.opencorporates.com/documentation/API-Reference).




Open data from company registers may be used to many ends: enabling customers and businesses to see with whom they deal, or to see where a company has registered offices.Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Name of company Company address
* Unique identifier of the company
* Register available for entire country (usually assessed through sample: it is answered with „Yes“ if a register indicates companies in different regions).
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Land ownership
Maps of lands with parcel layer that displays boundaries. Also a land registry with information on registered parcels of land.
The assessment criteria were developed in collaboration with Cadasta Foundation. For more information on land ownership datasets, see [Cadasta Foundation's Data Overview](http://cadasta.org/open-data/overview-of-property-rights-data/).


The Index focuses on assessing open land tenure data (describing the rules and processes of land property). Responsible use may enable tenure security and increase the transparency of land transactions.The following characteristics must be included in cadastral and registry information submitted.

* Parcel boundaries
* Parcel ID Property Value (price paid for transaction or tax value)
* Tenure Type (public, private, customary, etc.)
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National maps
A geographical map of the country including national traffic routes, stretches of water, and markings of heights. The map must at least be provided at a scale of 1:250,000 (1 cm = 2.5km), a scale feasible for most countries. The Index developed this category based [on a landmark report of the United Nations Commitee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UNGGIM)](http://www.isprs.org/documents/reports/The_Status_of_Topographic_Mapping_in_the_World.pdf).



Geographic information is instrumental for many use cases, including journey planning, the mapping of topography, as well as demographic indicators.Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Markings of national traffic routes
* Markings of relief/heights
* Markings of water stretches
* National borders Coordinates

Note: To qualify, data must contain geographic projections that enable to interpret coordinates
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Administrative Boundaries
Data on administrative units or areas defined for the purpose of administration by a (local) government.
The development of this category draws on work of [FAO Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL)project]((http://www.fao.org/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show?id=12691&currTab=simple), as well as the [UNGIWG](http://www.ungiwg.org/coreDB).




Open data about administrative zones has many use cases: Who are the politicians candidating in my region? Which government bodies administer my region? How is wealth distributed across regions? The Index assesses two administrative boundary levels (e.g. federal states = level 1, and municipalities = level 2).
Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Boundary level 1
* Boundary level 2 (not required, if country has only one level)
* Coordinates of administrative zone (latitude, longitude)
* Name of polygon Borders of polygon

Note: To qualify, data must contain geographic projections that enable to interpret coordinates
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LocationsA database of postcodes/zipcodes and the corresponding spatial locations in terms of latitude and longitude (or similar coordinates in an openly published coordinate system). The data has to be available for the entire country. The Index drew on work of the [Universal Postal Union](http://www.upu.int/fileadmin/documentsFiles/activities/addressingAssistance/manualAddressingAddressingAndPostcodeManualEn.pdf) to develop this category.




Open location data shows the addresses of public and private buildings. While mainly used to route postal services, this data has many use cases: to calculate the number of persons in a city district, to provide homes with services, or for direct mailing and marketing.
Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Zipcodes Addresses (required, if zip code does not include the address)
* Coordinates (latitude, longitude)
* Data available for entire country

Note: To qualify, data must contain geographic projections that enable to interpret coordinates
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National statistics

Key national statistics on demographic and economic indicators such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or unemployment and population statistics. These statistics can be published as aggregates for the entire country.
As Open Data Watch states "official statistics provide an indispensable element in the information system of a democratic society, serving the Government, the economy and the public with data about the economic, demographic, social and environmental situation." Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Country population (Required: census data, updated every year, Optional: vital statistics of birth and death)
* Gross Domestic Product (measured in current or constant prices, updated quarterly, last update must not be more than 3 months ago)
* National unemployment (absolute numbers, or expressed as percentage of entire population, updated quarterly, last update must not be more than 3 months ago)
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Draft legislation
Data about the bills discussed within national parliament as well as votings on bills (not to mix with passed national law). Data on bills must be available for the current legislation period.
This data category draws on work by the National Democratic Institute (NDI)and the [Declaration of Parliamentary Openness](https://openingparliament.org/declaration/).


Open data on the law-making process is crucial for parliamentary transparency: What does a bill text say and how does it change over time? Who introduces a bill? Who votes for and against it? Where is a bill discussed next, so the public can participate in debates?Following data is required. It must be online for the data to qualify for assessment:

* Content of bill
* Author of bill
* Status of bill
* Available for current legislation period

Following data is assessed optionally (only if available):
* Votes on bill per member of parliament
* Transcripts of debates on bill

Note on optional data:
This category is newly added in 2016. Not all data needs to be available online in order to qualify. The Index team used minimum requirements to explores how much data is currently available online. In future editions the category may require more data elements.
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National lawThis data category requires all national laws and statutes to be available online, although it is not a requirement that information on legislative behaviour e.g. voting records is available.
This data category draws on work by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the [Declaration of Parliamentary Openness](https://openingparliament.org/declaration/).
Access to open data on a country's legal code (i.e. national law) supports compliance with law, enables to keep track of legal changes, and also enables public deliberation around a law.Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Content of the law / status
* Date of last amendment Amendments to the law (if applicable)
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Air qualityData about the daily mean concentration of air pollutants, especially those potentially harmful to human health. Data should be available for all air monitoring stations or zones in a country, but at least for 3 major cities.
The Index evaluates the openness of key pollutants as defined by the [World Health Organisation (WHO)](http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/outdoorair_aqg/en/).



Air quality is a key factor for human health and environment.Following data must be online to qualify for assessment:

* Particulate matter (PM)
* Sulphur oxides (SOx)
* Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
* Carbon monoxide (CO)
* Ozone (O3)
* Available per air monitoring station (at least for 3 major cities)

Following data is assessed optionally (if available):
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
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Water qualityWater quality data by water source.

The data category regards the quality of designated drinking water sources. If data on designated drinking water sources is not available, it refers to environmental water sources (lakes, rivers, groundwater).

Data per each individual water source is desirable. But for this year the Index also accepted if a country only published country-wide aggregated reports. As the review shows, we either find local and granular data, or aggregated national reports.




This information is essential for both the delivery of services and the prevention of diseases.
In order to satisfy the minimum requirements for this category, data should be available on level of the following chemicals:

* Fecal coliform
* Arsene Fluorides
* Nitrate Total Dissolved Solids Available for the entire country

Level of granularity
* Data per water source (optional)
* National water quality report (if national dataset by water source is not available)
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