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CHARACTERISTICS
CONTAGIOUSNESS
DEADLINESSNOTORIETYTRANSMISSION
SURVIVAL TIME
INFECTIOUS DOSE
SYMPTOMOLOGY
INCIDENCE FATALITIES
DALYs (Disability-adjusted life years)
MOST VULNERABLE
TREATMENT
GENERAL SOURCES
Old sources for deaths
2
NDisease nameAlternative namePathogen typePathogen namePathogen sizePathogen size, groupedR0, average estimateContagiousness categoryR0 lowerR0 upperold valuesNoteSource 1Source 2Source 3Story?Case fatality rate, %NoteSourceGoogle hitsGoogle News hitsNews hits as % general hitsNotoriety to fatalities ratioSearch term usedPrimary mode of transmission StoryTransmission noteSourceSurvival time on surfacesSurvival time on surfacesSurvival time on surfacesSurvival in ideal conditions (ie. blood, faeces)Ideal conditions noteSourceInfectious doseNoteSource 1Source 2Source 3Incubation period, averageIncubation period, rangeIncubation period sourceViral load in acute stageViral load sourcesGlobalUnited StatesEuropeAfricaNotesSource 1Source 2Global
United States
EuropeAfricaNotesSource 1Source 2Source 3Source 4Source 5Source 6Source 7Source 8Global
United States
EuropeAfricaNoteSourcePopulationsHotspotsSource 1Source 2Primary treatmentEffectivenessResistanceContainment level requiredSource 1Source 2http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/index-eng.php#v
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X = not plottedlength or (if spherical), diameter of virion, bacterium or parasite, nmlength or (if spherical), diameter of virion, bacterium or parasite, nmR0 / basic reproduction numberBased on R0. < 1 or 1: not very. 1 < 3: quite. 3 < 5: very. 5 < 10: highly. 10+: extremelyhealthy adult(.co.uk) date retreived Jan 20182000-2018, data retreived 3/1/2018inflammation rating, higher = disproportionately more coverageGoogle hits / world case fatality ratedayshourshours, lower estimatedayspathogen particles required to infect
(* = animal dose)
http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1002512http://www.phidias.us/hazard/query/query_detail.php?c_hazard_ID=67daysdaysvirus particles / 1mLNew cases per yearNew cases per yearNew cases per yearNew cases per yearhttp://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates/en/index1.htmlhttp://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm6153.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_mortality_from_H5N1Years lived with disease or lost to early mortalityYears lived with disease or lost to early mortalityYears lived with disease or lost to early mortalityYears lived with disease or lost to early mortalityWho gets infected the most?Nations, areaslevel
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1Anthrax (untreated)
Woolsorters' disease
bacteriumBacillus anthracis4,0001 µm < 10 µm6.5highly20.0%10,700,00025,6000.2453,500,000airborne70 years!100,000http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_dose20,250-0--https://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_6Jamrog.pdfhttps://www.google.com/search?sourceid=chrome-psyapi2&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8&q=anthrax%20case%20fatality%20rate
5
2Bubonic plague (treated)Black DeathbacteriumYersinia pestis1,5001 µm < 10 µm1not very15.0%https://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdf2,050,0008950.0413,666,667bitefleas that have fed on rodents372100human blood100http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL5_sect_VIII_a.pdf10-40,000,00041-7https://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdf-0-1-2000 cases a year, mortality rate unknown http://www.cdc.gov/plague/maps/-globally 1-2000 cases a year, mortality rate unknown esp. in undeveloped countires http://www.cdc.gov/plague/maps/http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008401http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_disease_case_fatality_rates
6
3Bubonic plague (untreated)Black DeathbacteriumYersinia pestis1,5001 µm < 10 µm1not very60.0%https://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdf2,050,0008950.043,416,667bitefleas that have fed on rodents372100human blood100http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL5_sect_VIII_a.pdf10-40,000,00041-7https://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdf-0-1-2000 cases a year, mortality rate unknown http://www.cdc.gov/plague/maps/-globally 1-2000 cases a year, mortality rate unknown esp. in undeveloped countires http://www.cdc.gov/plague/maps/http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008401
Antibiotics: streptomycin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol
Effective if treatment begins within 24-36 hours of onsethttps://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_disease_case_fatality_rates
7
4C. difficilebacteriumClostridium difficile1,2501 µm < 10 µm1.3quite0.52animal R0 figure24.0%1,300,0002,7600.215,416,667fecal-oral6090<100http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/5/08-1186_articlehttp://www.bio-protocol.org/e1002-7,300-http://www.aricjournal.com/content/1/1/20-http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/how-long-do-bacteria-and-viruses-live-outside-the-body.aspxhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21558767http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/2/10-1611_article
8
5CampylobacterbacteriumCampylobacter, various species4,0001 µm < 10 µm0.2not very1.2%3,440,0005,7700.17286,666,667food0.628in cold water500http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/campylobacteriosis550-4,000-http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/80751/1/9789241564601_eng.pdf-http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/how-long-do-bacteria-and-viruses-live-outside-the-body.aspxhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/campylobacter-coli-eng.phphttp://www.mssanz.org.au/modsim2011/B2/parshotam.pdfhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1236927/
9
6Chicken poxVaricellavirusVaricella zoster175
100 nm < 1 µm
8.5highly7100.0%4,180,0005,7100.14418,000,000,000airborne0.242unknownhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/var-zo-eng.php100,000,000148,162,4665,301,79211,326,03731,844,8912016, both sexes, Varicella and herpes zosterhttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool12,4722956533,9482016, Varicella and herpes zosterhttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool923,53018,47339,852285,5152016, Varicella and herpes zosterhttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_disease_case_fatality_rateshttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/var-zo-eng.php
10
7ChikungunyavirusChikungunya virus65<100 nm3.5very0.4%2.8% in children, 1.6% in old people7,480,00039,4000.531,870,000,000biteaedes mosquito4-8https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/0804_MER_Chikungunya_Modelling.pdfhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs327/en/
11
8CholerabacteriumVibro cholerae, some strains1,3001 µm < 10 µm2.1quite1.632.631.6%21,300,00053,5000.251,306,748,4661,000,000infectious dose is serotypes O139, O1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_dose33,334,000,00094,000055,000estimated. http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S0042-96862012000300013&script=sci_arttext55,319estimated. AFR-D + AFR-E endemic + African non-endemic countries http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S0042-96862012000300013&script=sci_arttexthttp://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130110/srep00997/full/srep00997.htmlhttp://www.who.int/gho/epidemic_diseases/cholera/case_fatality_rate/en/
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9Common coldRhinovirusvirusMany viral strains. Rhinoviruses most common.30<100 nm6highly0.0%6,820,00010,1000.15#DIV/0!airborne0.131nasal mucous0.4http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/virol/rhino.htm1000http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/rhinovirus-eng.php------http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5uMf4qCmghEC&pg=PA201&lpg=PA201&dq=rhinovirus+%22basic+reproductive+number%22+OR+%22basic+reproductive+rate%22&source=bl&ots=M5hiyWlzzL&sig=NG0Ydv1t-UJ3o1GGGeyLMkP5KHE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hpo3VLWrJebB7Aa9xIHIBw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=rhinovirus%20%22basic%20reproductive%20number%22%20OR%20%22basic%20reproductive%20rate%22&f=falsehttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/rhinovirus-eng.php
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10Dengue fevervirusDengue fever virus50<100 nm3very0.1%4,730,0007,0000.159,460,000,000biteunknownhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/msds50e-eng.php101,064,19323,44808,109,7192016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool37,780102872016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool2,956,863286899,9172016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.idpjournal.com/content/3/1/12http://www.cdc.gov/dengue/faqFacts/fact.html
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11DiphtheriabacteriumCorynebacterium diphtheriae4,0001 µm < 10 µm6.5highly677.5%554,0005820.117,386,667body fluidsunknownhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/msds51e-eng.php4,275311872,2062016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1,1123138752016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool86,92815863870,9242016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.cdc.gov/diphtheria/clinicians.html
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12E. colibacteriumEscherichia coli 2,0001 µm < 10 µm1.2quite0.324.0%20,500,00032,4000.16512,500,000fecal-oral1~2100,000,000infectious dose varies in different strains, can be as low as 10-100 organismshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_dose50,500,000260,000100103,0001,497,724 deaths from diarrhea in 2012 (WHO GBD 2014). enteropathogenic + enterotoxigenic E. coli: est. 17.1% of childhood diarrhea deaths, applied to total. (no estimate proportion available for all diarrhea deaths incl. adults). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24023773; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762858/#!po=34.3750103,065602,717 deaths from diarrhea in 2012 (WHO GBD 2014). enteropathogenic + enterotoxigenic E. coli: est. 17.1% of childhood diarrhea deaths, applied to total. (no estimate proportion available for all diarrhea deaths incl. adults(. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24023773; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762858/#!po=34.3750http://aem.asm.org/content/69/7/3687http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs125/en/http://www.mssanz.org.au/modsim2011/B2/parshotam.pdfhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/escherichia-coli-eng.php#footnote14
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13Ebola
Ebola virus disease
virusEbolavirus, various species14,000
10 µm < 100 µm
2.5quite1450.0%10,300,00045,4000.4420,600,000body fluids0.51487 day survival in semen5https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phac-aspc.gc.ca%2Flab-bio%2Fres%2Fpsds-ftss%2Febola-eng.php&ei=KSJEVI_mCqPg7QaIooDgBg&usg=AFQjCNEiBmo7OAsASyqJsRY3QzjgQr2NjA&sig2=JvZD-hqLKkrlbH-lA6i-3A50,000,000,0004100412016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool40042016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool331003302016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/transmission/qas.html
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14EchinococcosisTapewormparasiteEchinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis (worms)4,000,000> 1 mm1.5quite1.231.67Xinjiang, China: R0=1.67 in one paper, 1.23 in anotherhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669505https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29161869not fatal, though multiocular echinococcosis is444,000390.009#DIV/0!parasite204,2022818,655116,3372016, both sexes, Cystic echinococcosishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1,0123956042016, Cystic echinococcosishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool136,5282276,34883,4962016, Cystic echinococcosishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/echinococcus-granulosus-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.html
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15
Guinea worm disease (untreated)
DracunculiasisparasiteDracunculus medinensis (worm)1,000,000,000> 1 mm20extremely0.320Values are theoretical. 20 is value without intervention. Values read from Table 7 in source. Guinea-worm disease is being successfully tackled (R0 < 1) and is on the verge of eradication. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. https://mysite.science.uottawa.ca/rsmith43/GuineaWorm.pdfGuinea worm disease is mega-contagious when untreated, but it's on the brink of eradication thanks to better treatment. Only 27 people were infected with Guinea worm in 2016, all of them in Africa.777,0004,0900.53#DIV/0!waterborneSpreads through drinking water contaminated with water fleas that have swallowed the larva, which remain intact in the digestive system. The female larvae grow into adult worms 60-100cm long and 0.1-0.2cm across. This takes 10-14 months. The worms then migrate to extremities such as the feet, and try to break through the skin. The worm can be removed by surgery or by pulling it out, often by wrapping it around a stick. This can take months: worms can be a metre long and only 1-2cm can be removed per day.Drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae.https://mysite.science.uottawa.ca/rsmith43/GuineaWorm.pdf2700272016, both sexes, Guinea worm diseasehttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1001http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool
None - prevention only
https://www.science.gov/topicpages/d/dracunculiasis+guinea+worm.html
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16Hand, foot and mouthHFMDvirusCoxsackievirus A1630<100 nm3.5veryR0 = average across virus types0.1%1,120,0002,7900.251,866,666,667body fluids14.0150soil18212http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/9/1/02-0112_articlehttp://www.antimicrobialtestlaboratories.com/coxsackievirus.htmhttp://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D8191.PDFhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/msds44e-eng.phphttp://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/bathing/recreadischap6.pdfhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050796/
20
17Hantavirus
Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
virusHantavirus140
100 nm < 1 µm
1.3quite36.0%varies by strain872,0004,2100.482,422,222
airborne, fecal-oral
Transmitted by rodent urine & faeces, person-to-person is rare,813.5unknown7-28200000https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286007/175,0003,667EU: 2014https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/hantavirus-infection-annual-epidemiological-report-2016-2014-datahttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/hantavirus.html29US: 2016https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vYxFAAAAYAAJ&q=hantavirus+r0+OR+%22basic+reproduction+number%22+OR+%22basic+reproductive+rate%22&dq=hantavirus+r0+OR+%22basic+reproduction+number%22+OR+%22basic+reproductive+rate%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjuvLuhhsnYAhUGI8AKHTijDfIQ6AEIYjANhttps://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/technical/hanta/virology.htmlhttps://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/diseases/hantavir.htmlhttps://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/technical/hps/faq.htmlhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236425-clinicalhttps://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/surveillance/annual-cases.html3https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/hantavirus.htmlhttps://books.google.co.uk/books?id=B58bCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA7&dq=hantavirus+r0+OR+%22basic+reproduction+number%22+OR+%22basic+reproductive+rate%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjuvLuhhsnYAhUGI8AKHTijDfIQ6AEIRTAG#v=onepage&q=hantavirus%20r0%20OR%20%22basic%20reproduction%20number%22%20OR%20%22basic%20reproductive%20rate%22&f=false
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18Helminthiases
Parasitic worm infection
parasiteAny parasitic worm250,000,000> 1 mm2.9quite2.9http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01154.x/asset/j.1365-2656.2006.01154.x.pdf?v=1&t=jcahev3z&s=d04f7bc9cf185ca7d8ff0a285e5a0a51c92fdb8b121,000260.02#DIV/0!fecal-oralSoil contaminated with human fecesNANANANAPrevalence 1.5 billion i.e. 1.5 billion people globally - 24% of world's population - are infected with soil-transmitted helminthshttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs366/en/
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19Hepatitis AvirusHepatitis A virus30<100 nm1.3quite1.111.55US. Van Effelterre et al 2006: The value of the R0 for HA in the United States estimated from the model is, depending on model assumptions, 1.31–1.55 in region 1, 1.27–1.44 in region 2, and 1.11–1.30 in region 3.https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/43/2/158/3335974,820,00019,4000.40#DIV/0!fecal-oralClosely associated with unsafe water or food, inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene.unknownhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/hepatitis-a-virus.html2915-50159,515,772629,6721,694,94820,917,4892016, both sexes, Acute hepatitis A. However seroprevalence data suggest tens of millions of infections occur each year.http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/hepatitis-a-virus.html5,249701056292016, Acutehttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool450,6593,8186,41157,9582016, Acutehttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolDrug users, travellers, gay men
Developing countries: Central and South America, Africa, India, Middle East and Asia
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs328/en/https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/hepatitis-a-virus.html
None - prevention only
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs328/en/https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/hepatitis-a-virus.htmlhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs328/en/
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20Hepatitis BvirusHepatitis B virus42<100 nm4.0very1.456.62110.8%13,300,00014,0000.111,773,333,333body fluids0.7167
'extraordinarily small'
http://infectionnet.org/notes/hepatitis-viruses/12,500,000118,976,405492,7581,415,30132,499,5252016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool100,2788301,53018,4712016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool3,823,83425,08042,894826,5732016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt04-hepb.pdfhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/hepatitis-b-eng.php
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21HIV (treated)
Human immunodeficiency virus
virusHuman immunodeficiency virus120
100 nm < 1 µm
3.5very252.1%58,400,0007,300,00012.52,780,952,381sexual contact77151-6500050% infective dose 1 virion (min) to 65,000http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/lecture/hiv3.htm75,0001,865,24545,61195,4421,326,5572016, both sexes, all HIV/AIDShttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1,033,7517,11628,716786,0962016, All HIV/AIDShttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool57,575,392418,8361,592,00844,564,3912016, All HIV/AIDShttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.aidsmap.com/Wide-variations-between-US-states-in-HIV-mortality-rates/page/2117475/http://www.aidsmap.com/Survival-outside-the-body/page/1321278/
25
22HIV (untreated)
Human immunodeficiency virus
virusHuman immunodeficiency virus120
100 nm < 1 µm
3.5very2580.0%58,400,0007,300,00012.573,000,000sexual contact77151-6500050% infective dose 1 virion (min) to 65,000http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/199488961,865,24545,61195,4421,326,5572016, both sexes, all HIV/AIDShttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1,033,7517,11628,716786,0962016, All HIV/AIDShttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool57,575,392418,8361,592,00844,564,3912016, All HIV/AIDShttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.aidsmap.com/Survival-outside-the-body/page/1321278/
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24Influenza (bird flu)Avian fluvirusInfluenza A virus (H5N1)100
100 nm < 1 µm
1not very1460.0%3,500,00062,9001.85,833,333"bird flu"airborne2635unknownhttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/H5N1_Influenza_A2,00013https://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdf1803201332013http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/influenza-a-eng.phphttp://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130710/srep02175/full/srep02175.htmlThose in areas with infected wild rodents or domestic animals
Antibiotics: streptomycin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol
Effective if treatment begins within 24-36 hours of onsethttps://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H5N1
27
25Influenza (seasonal flu)virusInfluenza viruses, various species85<100 nm2.5quite230.1%810,0009,3001.1810,000,000"seasonal flu"airborne12790http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/influenza-a-eng.php375,00026,000-range 250-500,000. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs211/en/-unknown. http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/206/suppl_1/S1.full.pdf+htmlhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/influenza-grippe-b-c-eng.phphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_reproduction_numberhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_disease_case_fatality_rates
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23Influenza (Spanish flu)1918 pandemicvirusInfluenza A virus (H1N1)100
100 nm < 1 µm
3very1.822.5%608,0005,8900.9724,320,000"Spanish flu"airborne5.6http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/11/06-0426_articlehttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&ved=0CE4QFjAF&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mdpi.com%2F1999-4915%2F2%2F8%2F1530%2Fpdf&ei=PvBEVKO5Hcau7Abyy4GADw&usg=AFQjCNGSB-f7wflPOcjC933IbtZwfvUtPA&sig2=rCX6dQtdVhSGXsBFXF-VIQ75,000,000650,000-est. 50-100m, 1918-19--http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/1/05-0979_articlehttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCgQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcis.uchicago.edu%2Foutreach%2Fsummerinstitute%2Fepidemics%2Fpresentations%2FWeber.ppt&ei=b5U3VNP_DoTP7gb6joGwDQ&usg=AFQjCNFw3QCdUNXC11CgV8_D__3LyaGt5w&sig2=dfHcL3cMQqk-P8xOJqUTrg
29
26Influenza (swine flu)virusInfluenza A virus (H1N1)100
100 nm < 1 µm
1.5quite1.41.60.2%5,670,00082,3001.52,835,000,000"swine flu"airborne0.42500https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&ved=0CE4QFjAF&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mdpi.com%2F1999-4915%2F2%2F8%2F1530%2Fpdf&ei=PvBEVKO5Hcau7Abyy4GADw&usg=AFQjCNGSB-f7wflPOcjC933IbtZwfvUtPA&sig2=rCX6dQtdVhSGXsBFXF-VIQ360,00012,500-2009, during first year virus circulated. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(12)70121-4/fulltext--http://www.panama-guide.com/article.php/20090517152331424http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2013/01/study-puts-global-2009-pandemic-h1n1-infection-rate-24
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27Leishmaniasis
Kala-azar, Dum-Dum fever
parasiteLeishmania parasites4,0001 µm < 10 µm8.5highly5.9115.9: dogs: canine outbreak in Brazil. 11: dogs, canine outbreak on Malta. No data for humans. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10190170https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14372742,620,0002,8400.11#DIV/0!bitesandflyunknownhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/leishmania.html7
At least a week to many months
https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/leishmania.html798,8065821128,4042016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool13,6690436,2752016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool981,05501,107288,5882016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolMalnourished people, migrants or those living near them, those affected by climate changehttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs375/en/Resistance against sodium antimony gluconate has been documented for all species2https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/leishmania.html
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28Leprosy
Hansen's disease
bacterium
Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis
5,0001 µm < 10 µm2.8quitehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1381230/?page=32,560,0007,6300.30#DIV/0!body fluidsdroplets from nose and mouth during close and frequent contact with infected personunknownhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/mycobacterium.html55,31735108,8142016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool2016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool31,654327,3912016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolMultidrug therapy: dapsone, rifampicin, ClofazimineSome resistance to dapsone2http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs101/en/https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/mycobacterium.html
32
29Lyme diseaseLyme borreliosisbacteriumBorrelia, various species16,500
10 µm < 100 µm
4.4very3.850.2%9,050,0006,7000.074,525,000,000bite50000*http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0101009-10----http://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/stats/http://izt.ciens.ucv.ve/ecologia/Archivos/ECO_POB%202008/ECOPO6_2008/Hartemink%20y%20col%202008.pdf
33
30Lymphatic filariasisElephantiasisparasite
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori
75,000,000> 1 mm16extremely2.730Sub-Saharan Africa: Mathematical modelling showed that the reproduction number (R0) estimates vary from 2.7 to 30, with large variations between and within regions.https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-015-1166-x384,0001,8000.47#DIV/0!bitenematodes (roundworms) of the family Filariodidea transmitted via mosquitosunknownBrugia spp.https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/brugia-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.htmlmany yearsMicrofilariae are found in the blood 3 to 12 months after infection Footnote 4 Footnote 7 . The infection remains asymptomatic in many cases for years, although microfilariae are circulating in the bloodhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/brugia-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.html7,604,356004,341,1262016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool2016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1,188,96800670,8312016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolDrug: Diethylcarbamazine is drug of choice. Also ivermectin, albendazole, and doxycycline. Preventive chemotherapyLimited. Diethylcarbamazine has a limited action against adult worms. None reported2https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/brugia-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.htmlhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/brugia-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.html
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31Malaria (P. falciparum)parasitePlasmodium falciparum2,0001 µm < 10 µm115astronomically~1>3000Smith et al 2007: Estimates of the basic reproductive number (R0) ranged from near one to more than 3,000 in a sample of 121 African populations. Median was 115. Johnston et al 2013: For malaria, R0 can be expressed as the product of the vectorial capacity (the number of infectious mosquito bites that result from mosquitoes taking blood meals on a fully infectious human in a single day), the duration of the human infectious period, and the efficiency of transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Previous value of 80 was estimate for Northern Nigeria in 1970s.http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.0050042https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3630126/https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HT0--xXBguQC&pg=PA409&lpg=PA409&dq=p+malariae+R0&source=bl&ots=IdheOUXXlg&sig=P2BjZqar0hMywV04BgBfjDyEASw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwijzL6ootDYAhXI1qQKHZrpARwQ6AEIWzAG#v=onepage&q=p%20malariae%20R0&f=falseCan be ultra-contagious because one infected person can be bitten by many mosquitos, who then go on to bite many people each. But contagiousness varies a lot by area: one study (Smith et al 2007) found the R0 of P. falciparum ranged from about 1 to over 3000 in different parts of Africa.0.5%13,600,00085,9000.632,720,000,000bite0-1 to 10infectious dose for unspecified malaria strainhttp://www.malariasite.com/malaria/Transmission.htm213,098,07300192,357,2862016, both sexes, all Malaria typeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool719,55100643,6422016, All malariahttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool56,201,2330051,394,6622016, All malariahttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.malariajournal.com/content/11/1/19http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0050042
35
XMalaria (P. malariae)parasitePlasmodium malariae3,8001 µm < 10 µm16extremelyEstimate for Northern Nigeria in 1970shttps://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HT0--xXBguQC&pg=PA409&lpg=PA409&dq=p+malariae+R0&source=bl&ots=IdheOUXXlg&sig=P2BjZqar0hMywV04BgBfjDyEASw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwijzL6ootDYAhXI1qQKHZrpARwQ6AEIWzAG#v=onepage&q=p%20malariae%20R0&f=false0.5%13,600,00085,9000.632,720,000,000bite0-1 to 10infectious dose for unspecified malaria strainhttp://www.malariasite.com/malaria/Transmission.htm213,098,07300192,357,2862016, both sexes, all Malaria typeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool719,55100643,6422016, All malariahttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool56,201,2330051,394,6622016, All malariahttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.malariajournal.com/content/11/1/19http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0050042
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32Marburg
Marburg haemmorhagic fever
virusMarburg virus1,0001 µm < 10 µm1.6quiteAngola 2005 epidemichttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.005094850.0%http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs_marburg/en/7,150,00050,7000.7114,300,000body fluidsto humans from fruit bats, then human-to-human4In 1967, simultaneous outbreaks in Marburg, Frankfurt (Germany), and Belgrade (Yugoslavia, now Serbia) were reported following the handling of viscera, body fluids, and/or kidney tissue cultures from African green monkeys imported from Ugandahttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/marburg-virus.html1 to 10https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/marburg-virus.html6.53-10https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/marburg-virus.html
Healthcare workers
Uganda, Angola, DRChttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs_marburg/en/None yet provenNANA4https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/marburg-virus.htmlhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/marburg-virus.html
37
33MeaslesvirusMeasles virus650
100 nm < 1 µm
15extremely12180.3%12,800,00026,3000.214,266,666,667airborne0.12-10,000http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/7/168,955,2386689,4043,064,1202016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool68,11921041,6102016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool5,724,7521467613,497,9272016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measleshttp://www.cdc.gov/measles/about/transmission.html
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34
Meningitis (meningococcal, treated)
Meningococcal disease
bacteriumNeisseria meningitidis 7,0001 µm < 10 µm1.3quiteserogroup C meningococcihttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3988355/11.5%If treated. Even when the disease is diagnosed early and adequate treatment is started, 8% to 15% of patients die, often within 24 to 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/1,060,00014,0001.39,217,391"meningitis" AND "meningococcal"
airborne, body fluids
person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. 1-10% of the population carries N. meningitidis, the bacterium, in their throat at any given time, rising to 10-25% in epidemics.unknownhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/neisseria-meningitidis.html42-10http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/561,3723,23914,528386,7162016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool127,4243701,61866,0432016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool8,327,14017,37984,7814,652,1702016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolBabies, preschool children, young people
The 'meningitis belt' – an area of sub-Saharan Africa stretching from Senegal to Ethiopia
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/Antibiotics including penicillin, ampicillin and ceftriaxoneLimited.2https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/neisseria-meningitidis.html
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35
Meningitis (meningococcal, untreated)
Meningococcal disease
bacteriumNeisseria meningitidis 7,0001 µm < 10 µm1.3quiteserogroup C meningococcihttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3988355/50.0%If untreated, meningococcal meningitis is fatal in 50% of cases and may result in brain damage, hearing loss or disability in 10% to 20% of survivors.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/1,060,00014,0001.32,120,000"meningitis" AND "meningococcal"
airborne, body fluids
person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. 1-10% of the population carries N. meningitidis, the bacterium, in their throat at any given time, rising to 10-25% in epidemics.unknownhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/neisseria-meningitidis.html42-10http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/561,3723,23914,528386,7162016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool127,4243701,61866,0432016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool8,327,14017,37984,7814,652,1702016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolBabies, preschool children, young people
The 'meningitis belt' – an area of sub-Saharan Africa stretching from Senegal to Ethiopia
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/Antibiotics including penicillin, ampicillin and ceftriaxoneLimited. 2https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/neisseria-meningitidis.html
40
36MERS
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Camel flu
virusMERS coronavirus127
100 nm < 1 µm
0.5not very45.0%14,500,000287,0002.032,222,222airborne25unknownhttp://www.ehs.colostate.edu/WOHSP/Illness_Policy_Info_Emergency_Response_Packets/Agent_Fact_Sheets/Middle_East_Respiratory_Syndrome_Virus_Fact_Sheet.pdf17002June 2013-June 2014. 209 deaths to 11 June, 2014 minus 38 deaths to 20 June, 2013. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/MERS-CoV_summary_update_20140611.pdf; http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/update_20130620/en/2Oct 2013-OCt 2014, 1 in Algeria http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/06/10/us-health-mers-algeria-idUSKBN0EL1P820140610; 1 in Egypt (suspected) http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/05/05/us-health-mers-egypt-idUSKBN0DL0BQ20140505. 1 death in Tunisia in April 2013 (not counted here) http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2014/06/report-tunisian-mers-cases-shows-testing-challengeshttp://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20590http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S120197121401491Xhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_disease_case_fatality_rates
41
37MRSA
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
bacteriumStaphylococcus aureus1,0001 µm < 10 µm1.6quite0.25320.0%9,270,00014,5000.1646,350,000surfaces73842100,000https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&ved=0CFsQFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phac-aspc.gc.ca%2Flab-bio%2Fres%2Fpsds-ftss%2Fstaphylococcus-aureus-eng.php&ei=KSJEVI_mCqPg7QaIooDgBg&usg=AFQjCNG5JOHXYqZwCmKvVZ8zVdxFT69ROg&sig2=47gsLPgoNtv49wVRWGlUqA100,000-11,000----http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/staphylococcus-aureus-eng.phphttp://www.crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?ID=22010001059#.VDeZP9R4q5whttp://www.medicinenet.com/mrsa_infection/page7.htm
42
38MumpsvirusMumps rubulavirus200
100 nm < 1 µm
13extremely11141.0%5,830,0008,8600.15583,000,000airborne--1----http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/content/handbook10-4-11http://ocw.jhsph.edu/courses/publichealthbiology/PDFs/Lecture2.pdf
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39NorovirusNorwalk virusvirusNoroviruses, various serotypes31<100 nm2quite0.0%3,010,00027,4000.9130,100,000,000
fecal-oral, surfaces
1228less than 10https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/norovirus-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.html1.375150,00069060,000est. for all caliciviruses, 9.9% of deaths from diarrhea among children under 5 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762858/#!po=34.3750, applied to 1,497,724 total global deaths from diarrhea, incl. adults (2012, WHO GBD). another estimate: 218,000 child deaths / year. http://www.ghjournal.org/the-epidemiology-of-noroviruses-in-ghana-a-case-study-of-norovirus-detection/59,669602,717 deaths in Africa from diarrhea in 2012 (WHO GBD 2014). 9.9% of child diarrhea deaths from caliciviruses (incl. norovirus). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762858/http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/norovirus/tables/evidence-table-q3-ron.htmlhttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/8/13-0472-t3https://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/norovirus/229110-ANoroCaseFactSheet508.pdfhttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/8/13-0465_article
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40Pneumonia (pneumococcal)bacteriumStreptococcus pneumoniae875
100 nm < 1 µm
2quite1.93.7Pneumococcal disease, Finnish model: the basic reproduction number is 2.0 (range of plausible values 1.9–3.7)http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.00560797.5%Mortality rate of pneumococcal pneumonia is 5 – 10% despite antimicrobial treatmenthttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/streptococcus-pneumoniae.html35,400,000598,0001.7472,000,000
airborne, body fluids
coughing, sneezing, kissing2
1-3, speculated
https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/streptococcus-pneumoniae.html
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41Pneumonic plague (untreated)Black DeathbacteriumYersinia pestis1,5001 µm < 10 µm3.2very100.0%https://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdf312,0004100.13312,000airborne37210010,000,000,000http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Yersinia_pseudotuberculosis_infection31-4https://www.aabb.org/tm/eid/Documents/212s.pdf-0----http://www.researchgate.net/publication/6993284_Transmission_potential_of_primary_pneumonic_plague_time_inhomogeneous_evaluation_based_on_historical_documents_of_the_transmission_networkhttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/plague.pdfhttps://public.health.oregon.gov/DiseasesConditions/CommunicableDisease/ReportingCommunicableDisease/ReportingGuidelines/Documents/plague.pdf
46
42PoliovirusPoliovirus30<100 nm6highly5722.0%20,300,00050,0000.2592,272,727fecal-oral320015416 cases in 2013, http://www.polioeradication.org/dataandmonitoring/poliothisweek.aspx assuming case fatality rate of 5%, rounded to nearest 514274 cases in Africa in 2013, http://www.polioeradication.org/dataandmonitoring/poliothisweek.aspx, assuming case fatality rate of 5%, rounded to nearest 5http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1002512
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43Rabies (treated)virusLyssaviruses, various species180
100 nm < 1 µm
1.6quite1.221.0%13,600,00034,2000.251,360,000,000bite0-deaths due to vaccine complications (not sure what this means DM)unknown13,340555,7182016, both sexes, all Rabieshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool13,289555,6772016, All rabieshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool744,246228200377,2242016, All rabieshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool
Asia and Africa. India has the highest rate of human rabies in the world, primarily because of stray dogs,[83] whose number has greatly increased since a 2001 law forbade the killing of dogs.[84] Effective control and treatment of rabies in India is also hindered by a form of mass hysteria known as puppy pregnancy syndrome (PPS). Dog bite victims with PPS (both male and female) become convinced that puppies are growing inside them, and often seek help from faith healers rather than from conventional medical services.[85] An estimated 20,000 people die every year from rabies in India — more than a third of the global toll.[84]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabieshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puppy_pregnancy_syndromeVaccine, washing the woundVaccine given before onset of symptoms is 100% effectivehttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/jeanna-giese-rabies-survivor/http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TRyXTLXNA2YC&pg=PA662&lpg=PA662&dq=rabies+%22fatality+rate%22+vaccinated&source=bl&ots=sZQ1wRKW68&sig=Cd7arUDNIjuxRgSWLpLfaJHupPI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zks-VPOGBoKS7AaQ0YCAAw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=rabies%20%22fatality%20rate%22%20vaccinated&f=false
48
44Rabies (untreated)virusLyssaviruses, various species180
100 nm < 1 µm
1.6quite1.22100.0%13,600,00034,2000.2513,600,000bite0-unknownhttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=20&ved=0CK0BEBYwEw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phac-aspc.gc.ca%2Flab-bio%2Fres%2Fpsds-ftss%2Frab-eng.php&ei=KSJEVI_mCqPg7QaIooDgBg&usg=AFQjCNGZx7rlokxJlDVWP2WN6zhrTBqjfw&sig2=k7X40YGQV2VTtm7e94Pq7w13,340555,7182016, both sexes, all Rabieshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool13,289555,6772016, All rabieshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool744,246228200377,2242016, All rabieshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool
Asia and Africa. India has the highest rate of human rabies in the world, primarily because of stray dogs,[83] whose number has greatly increased since a 2001 law forbade the killing of dogs.[84] Effective control and treatment of rabies in India is also hindered by a form of mass hysteria known as puppy pregnancy syndrome (PPS). Dog bite victims with PPS (both male and female) become convinced that puppies are growing inside them, and often seek help from faith healers rather than from conventional medical services.[85] An estimated 20,000 people die every year from rabies in India — more than a third of the global toll.[84]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabieshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puppy_pregnancy_syndromeVaccine, washing the woundVaccine given before onset of symptoms is 100% effectivehttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/jeanna-giese-rabies-survivor/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_disease_case_fatality_rateshttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/rab-eng.php
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45RotavirusvirusRotaviruses, various species80<100 nm18extremely0.0%mostly causes death in children & infants3,500,0007,3300.21#DIV/0!fecal-oral760<100http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt13-rotavirus.html450,000-230,0002008. children <5 http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/surveillance.html http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/rotavirus232,0002008. http://www.path.org/publications/files/VAD_rotavirus_africa_fs.pdfhttp://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0042320#pone-0042320-t003http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/1/13-0019_articlehttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/rotavirus-eng.php
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XRubella
German measles
virusRubella virus60<100 nm6highly570.0%5,990,0009,0000.15#DIV/0!airborne10-60http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/rub-eng.php-1----
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46SalmonellabacteriumSalmonella enterica3,5001 µm < 10 µm0.8not very1.0%17,400,00025,1000.141,740,000,000food0.690wet swine faeces, one strain can survive for 6 years on rubber & concrete!100http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL5_sect_VIII_a.pdf115,000284,100http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/salmonellosis-nontyphoidal4,1002006 estimate. global estimate in this paper is 155,000. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/6/882/F2.expansion.htmlhttp://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/how-long-do-bacteria-and-viruses-live-outside-the-body.aspxhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002555641300148Xhttp://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/198/1/109.long
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47SARSvirusSARS coronavirus115
100 nm < 1 µm
2.4quite1.23.69.6%5,670,00034,3000.6059,062,500airborne17respiratory secretions20000since 2004, no new cases anywhere in world. http://www.cdc.gov/sars/media/0http://www.cdc.gov/sars/media/http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/11/8/pdfs/04-0449.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_reproduction_numberhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome
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48Scarlet feverbacteriumGroup A streptococcus: Streptococcus pyogenes and streptococcus dysgalactiae2,0001 µm < 10 µm2.8quite570.5%2,290,0005,2100.23458,000,000body fluidsunknownhttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/strep-pyogenes-eng.php-3----http://www.emedicinehealth.com/scarlet_fever/page10_em.htm
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49Schistosomiasis
Snail fever, Bilharzia
parasiteParasitic flatworms called schistosomes15,000,000> 1 mm3.1very2.393.75Mali, Schistosoma spp.http://www.pnas.org/content/94/1/338.full.pdf1,640,0001,3700.08#DIV/0!waterborneParasites infect freshwater snails71,385,4100064,713,8822016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool10,095008,7092016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1,863,610001,656,6722016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool
Tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia, South America. 92% of those requiring treatment live in Africa.
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs115/en/https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/schistosoma-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.htmlhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/schistosoma-pathogen-safety-data-sheet.html
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50ShigellosisbacteriumShigella, various species2,0001 µm < 10 µm1.5quiteUS, disease is underreportedhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24008913653,0004,5100.69#DIV/0!
1 - intramuscular
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51Sleeping sicknessAfrican trypanosomiasisparasiteTrypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense23,500
10 µm < 100 µm
0.8not very0.4231.2180.423 median R0 estimate for T. b. gambiense, 1.218 median R0 estimate for T. b. rhodiesiense. Can vary widelyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282146/3,600,00041,5001.2#DIV/0!bitetsetse fly4,966004,9662016, both sexes, African trypanosomiasishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool2,286002,2862016, African trypanosomiasishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool128,44200128,4422016, African trypanosomiasishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.who.int/features/qa/52/en/
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52SmallpoxVariola virusvirusVariola virus275
100 nm < 1 µm
6highly5715.0%2,370,0007530.0315,800,000airborne1http://www.absa.org/abj/abj/040903nicas.pdf000eradicated0eradicated
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53Syphilis (untreated)bacteriumTreponema pallidum10,500
10 µm < 100 µm
0.9not very33.0%10,300,0003630.00431,212,121sexual contact11-our calcs57http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1360276/38,838,005309,0421,658,91115,095,6462016, both sexes, all Syphilishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool109,5697217981,3282016, All syphilishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool9,415,74613,55934,0146,938,3422016, All syphilishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syphilishttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2476079/?page=1
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54Tuberculosis (untreated)bacteriumMycobacterium tuberculosis 3,0001 µm < 10 µm10extremely1.41060.0%13,500,00084,3000.6222,500,000airborne60120wood, faeces<10https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=13&ved=0CHkQFjAM&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phac-aspc.gc.ca%2Flab-bio%2Fres%2Fpsds-ftss%2Ftuber-eng.php&ei=KSJEVI_mCqPg7QaIooDgBg&usg=AFQjCNFifPMWHqE30pqhPTge6aPlMeTVug&sig2=om5rubwGRsmTwETKmR05oA109,019,29610,760186,5372,305,8942016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool1,213,05795623,435421,3762016, All tuberculosishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool43,557,93421,580806,69716,473,0312016, All tuberculosishttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosishttp://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/tuber-eng.php
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55TyphoidbacteriumSalmonella enterica, serotype Typhi3,5001 µm < 10 µm2.8quite20.0%fatality: 1-4% if treated 8,870,0007,0300.0844,350,000fecal-oral100,000http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/salmonella-ent-eng.php11,773,8791,3071,8791,485,4062016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool128,17591219,2462016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool8,843,0343395171,396,2342016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolAntibiotics such as CiprofloxacinResistant strains have been discoveredhttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Salmonella_enterica_serovar_Typhihttp://www.plosntds.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002642http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3484760/
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56vCJD
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
prionMisfolded PRNP (prion protein)variesvaries0.7not very0.0011.35Hypothetical R0 via blood transfusion transmission, UKControversy about beef, not very transmissable via blood transfusion even without safeguards.100.0%Always fatal, death usually within one year of onsethttps://www.cdc.gov/prions/vcjd/about.html326,0006,3802.0326,000several yearsincredibly resilient, resistant to all common disinfectants & alcohols, immersion of undiluted bleach for 1 hour is only partially effective, Resistant to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, ultrasonication, nucleases, boiling, heat; autoclaving - 15 to 30 min at 121·C or 132·C will not effectively inactivate pathogen, 1 hour at 132·C is recommended), only sodium hydroxide for 1 hour is effective450-7303https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/creutzfeldt-jakob-agent-kuru-agent.html
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57West Nile fevervirusWest Nile virus50<100 nm9highly2,590,00022,9000.88#DIV/0!bitemosquitoes, ticks. human-to-human transmission can occur via infected breast milk, organ transplantation, blood transfusion, and via vertical transmission (from mother to child during pregnancy)42-143https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/west-nile-virus.html
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58Whooping coughPertussisbacteriumBordetella pertussis800
100 nm < 1 µm
15extremely12174.0%death rate in infants4,500,0003,2400.07112,500,000airborne
coughs and sneezes
<100https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=23&ved=0CMUBEBYwFg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phac-aspc.gc.ca%2Flab-bio%2Fres%2Fpsds-ftss%2Fbordetella-pertussis-eng.php&ei=KSJEVI_mCqPg7QaIooDgBg&usg=AFQjCNFEMnwoU5HbhHgLtrfXp7JJxY6zfA&sig2=t9soKF3TSHfUWcMOLbNnRQ2009-106-20https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bordetella_pertussis#cite_note-1http://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/24227794/resident-microbiota-affect-bordetella-pertussis-infectious-dose-host11,627,370172,444398,2514,864,1302016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool73,006234347,2452016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool6,249,8573,0206,2494,032,7592016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-toolhttp://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/vpd/surveillance_type/passive/pertussis_standards/en/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_reproduction_number
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59Yellow fevervirusYellow fever virus50<100 nm3verycalced7.5%Those suffering from acute illness. WHO: 'Although most infections are asymptomatic, some lead to an acute illness characterized by two phases. Initially, there is fever, muscular pain, headache, chills, anorexia, nausea and/or vomiting, often with bradycardia. About 15% of patients progress to a second phase after a few days, with resurgence of fever, development of jaundice, abdominal pain, vomiting and haemorrhagic manifestations; up to half of these patients die 10–14 days after the onset of illness.' Canada.ca: 'The case fatality rate of patients who develop hepatic and renal failure is 20 to nearly 50 %'http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/yf/en/7,450,0005,0900.0799,333,333bitemosquitosurvives best at low temperatures below -60°Fhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/yellow-fever-virus.htmlunknownhttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/yellow-fever-virus.html53-6http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/112,38400109,3572016, both sexeshttp://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool5,799005,6572016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool374,01500365,8022016http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool
Tropical regions of Africa and South America
http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/yf/en/No anti-viral drug available, but treatment for symptoms of dehydration, liver and kidney failure improves outcomes-3http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/yellow-fever-virus.htmlhttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89102003000400013
65
60Zika
Zika virus disease
virusZika virus40<100 nm4very1.86.6Various R0 estimates: 3.8 Barranquila, Colombia, 2015. 2.33 Rio de Janeiro, 2016. 4.3-5.8 Yap Island, 2007. 1.8-2.0 French Polynesia, 2013-14. Colombia 3, 3.9, and 6.6.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27846442https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28240195https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2692308110,400,000502,0004.8#DIV/0!
bite, sexual contact
mosquito
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