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1885-12-281885-12-30First Session of the Congress: The Journey BeginsOn 28 December 1885, 72 social reformers, journalists and lawyers congregated for the first session of the Indian National Union at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay; the conference was renamed as the Indian National Congress. Session of the Congress, Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay
1886-12-271886-12-30Second SessionThe second session of the Congress took place under the leadership of Dadabhai Naoroji in Calcutta. The number of delegates had increased to 434. Towards the end of the session, the Congress decided to set up Provincial Congress Committees across the country. Naoroji
1890-12-261890-12-30Sixth SessionIn his presidential address, Pherozeshah Mehta said “To my mind, a Parsi is a better and a truer Parsi, as a Mohammedan or a Hindu is a better and truer Mohammedan or Hindu, the more he is attached to the land which gave him birth, the more he is bound in brotherly relations and affection to all the children of the soil, the more he recognises the fraternity of all the native communities of the country".
1892-07-071892-07-26Dadabhai Naoroji becomes the first Asian to be elected to the British ParliamentIn the 1892 Parliamentary Elections in Britain, Dadabhai Naoroji was elected from the Finsbury Central seat as a candidate of the Liberal Party. He won despite a leading British politician chastising the public for "stooping so low as to vote for a brown man".,_1892.jpg/220px-Dadabhai_Naoroji,_1892.jpgwikipediaDadabhai Naoroji
1892-12-281892-12-30Eighth Session At its Allahabad Session in 1892, the Congress criticised the Indian Councils Act of 1892, which had just been put into operation by the colonial government. They said that the Act did not give the Indian people the right to elect their own representatives. Allahabad Session was presided over by W.C. Bonnerjee
1895-12-271895-12-30Eleventh Session The Congress at its Eleventh Session was buoyed by a substantial increase in the number of delegates from 1163 in 1894 to 1584. An elated President Surendranath Banerjea congratulated the Congress for bringing together “the scattered element of a vast and diversified population”, and making them vibrate with the new born sentiment of an awakened nationality. Banerjea
1896-12-281896-12-31Resolution Blaming the British for FamineUnder the leadership of Rahimatulla M Sayani, the Congress at its Calcutta Session, passed a resolution blaming the British for the famine that had devastated many parts of India. They condemned the provisions of the existing famine code as being “inadequate” and attacked the government for the manner in which it was blocking private relief., British Royal Photography Services
1897-12-271897-12-29Congress slams Tilak's arrestThe shadow of Bal Gangadhar Tilak arrest on charges of sedition, loomed large over the Amraoti Session. Surendranath Banerjea made full use of his brilliant oratorical skills while voicing his solidarity with Tilak. "For Mr. Tilak, my heart is full of sympathy, my feelings go forth to him in his prison house. A Nation is in tears,” he said. Gangadhar Tilak
1899-12-271899-12-29Drain of WealthAt its fifteenth session in Lucknow in 1899, the Congress demanded that the British government put a stop to the ‘drain of wealth’ from India to England that had been taking place as a result of colonial rule. By raising this matter, the Congress attacked a concept that formed the very basis of colonialism. It is no coincidence that the Congress raised this under the presidentship of R.C. Dutt, who along with Dadabhai Naoroji, had been consistently criticising the British for the drain of wealth. Dutt
1901-12-261901-12-28Mahatma Gandhi appears on the Congress PlatformThe 1901 Calcutta Session was the first time Mahatma Gandhi appeared on the Congress platform. Then a lawyer based in South Africa, Gandhi ji urged the Congress to support the struggle against racial discrimination and exploitation in the country. Travels AfricaMahatma Gandhi in Africa
1904-12-261904-12-28Bombay Session, 1904At its Bombay Session, the Congress protested the violation of rules by Lord Curzon as he used revenues from India for his forward policy in Tibet. The Congress also recorded its emphatic protest against the Curzon administration’s proposal to divide Bengal, a province which was at the forefront of the anti-British struggle. Curzon after a hunt
1905-12-271905-12-30Fissures emerge at BenaresThe divisions between the ‘moderates’ led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Surendranath Banerjea and the ‘extremists’ led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak came to the fore in this session. While Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai wanted the Congress to boycott the visit of the Prince of Wales in protest against the Bengal Partition, the moderates opposed any such move. Krishna Gokhale
1906-12-261906-12-29Congress declares Swaraj as its aimTo counter the increasing influence of the extremists, the moderates invited Dadabhai Naoroji to come from England to preside over the session. However, the vocabulary of the extremists triumphed in a way as Naoroji declared Swaraj as the “only and chief remedy”. “In self government lies our hope, strength and greatness,” he said. Bal Pal: Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal
1907-03-291907-03-29Gandhi’s first SatyagrahaOn March 29, 1907, Gandhiji led his first Satyagraha in Transvaal, South Africa, protesting against the Asiatic Registration Act. The legislation mandated that every Asian who wished to reside or possess property in South Africa had to register his or her name with the authorities. The punishment for not doing so was deportation without the right to appeal. Gandhi in Africa
1907-12-261907-12-27The Surat SplitThe Surat Session of the Congress was marred by disturbances. Extremist leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal were pushing for resolutions on Swaraj, Boycott and national education while the moderate leaders like Surendranath Banerjea and Gopal Krishna Gokhale were advocating a softer approach. With no meeting ground between the two sections, the Session disintegrated into confusion and eventually had to be suspended. Aurobindo Ghosh presiding over a session of the extremist leaders after the Surat Session split in 1907
1910-12-261910-12-29Allahabad Session, 1910Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who was then a 44-year-old barrister and firmly with the Congress, decried the colonial government’s decision to introduce separate electorates for Hindus and Muslims in municipalities and local bodies. He stated that this would disturb the amicable relations between the two communities. It is ironic that Jinnah became the main champion of a separate Muslim state two and a half decades later. CommonsM.A. Jinnah in his earlier days
1911-12-261911-12-28Calcutta Session, 1911The Congress at its Calcutta Session in 1911, congratulated Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian community in Transvaal on the repeal of the South African province’s anti-Asiatic legislation. CommonsMahatma Gandhi at a reception given to G.K. Gokhale during the latter's visit to South Africa
1913-10-281913-10-28Satyagraha in South Africa for minersOn October 28, 1913, Gandhiji led a march of 3000 Indian miners from New Castle to Volksrust to protest against the £3 tax which Indian indentured labourers were made to pay. The Satyagraha continued upto January 21, 1914. ServeGandhi ji in Africa
1914-12-281914-12-30World War IThe First World War had begun in Europe and the Congress promised all help in the prosecution of the War. The Congress demanded that the higher
ranks of the army should be thrown open to Indians and that military schools and colleges should be established in the country. CommonsIndian Bicycle troops at the Battle of Somme
1915-01-091915-01-09Gandhiji returns Gandhiji and Kasturba Gandhi set sail for England on July 18, 1914, where they arrived two days after the country had entered World War I. Even during his short stint in England, Gandhiji volunteered to set up an ambulance corps for the war. They returned to India on January 9, 1915, a homecoming that was to change the path of India's history. CommonsMahatma Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi in 1915
1915-12-271915-12-29Moderates and Extremists close ranksThe biggest achievement of the 1915 Bombay Session was that the constitution of the Congress was suitably altered so as to admit the delegates from the extremist section. Tilak responded by announcing the willingness of his supporters to re-enter the Congress. As a result the number of delegates rose to 2259 from 866 a year back. Bombay Session was presided over by Satyendra Prasanna Sinha
1916-12-261916-12-30Congress-League unityThe 1916 Lucknow Session represented the unification of the moderates and extremists within the Congress but also the closing of ranks between the Congress and the All India Muslim League. The League also held its session in the same city, Lucknow, that year. Charan Mazumdar presided over the Lucknow Session.
1917-12-261917-12-29First woman PresidentThe Congress got its first woman President at the Calcutta Session in 1917: Annie Besant. "To see India free, to see her hold up her head among the Nations, to see her sons and daughters respected everywhere, to see her worthy of her mighty Past, engaged in building a yet mightier future - is not this worth working for, worth living for and worth dying for?” she asked during her presidential address. Besant
1918-03-221918-03-22The Kheda SatyagrahaOn March 22, 1918, Sardar Patel, under the leadership of Gandhi, launched a Satyagraha against taxes on flood-hit farmers in Kaira. It continued up to June 6, when the government agreed to the demands of the protestors.
Gandhi during the Kheda satyagraha, 1918.
1918-08-291918-09-01Special Session, BombayThe Congress, at the Special Session in Bombay, termed the Montague-Chelmsford reforms as disappointing. It demanded a Declaration of Rights for the people of India and asserted that Indian legislatures should have the same measure of Fiscal Autonomy as the Self-governing Dominions of the Empire. Special Session was presided over by Syed Hasan Imam
1919-04-061919-04-06Protests Against the Rowlatt BillsOn April 6, 1919, Gandhiji launched his first all-India Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Bills, which indefinitely extended ‘emergency measures’ to control public unrest Patel, Irene Fernandez, Katherine MartinGandhiji leading protests against the Rowlatt Bills
1919-04-131919-04-13Jallianwala Bagh MassacreThe Jallianwala Bagh massacre was a key moment in Indian History as British Forces, led by Brigadier-General REH Dyer opened fire on a crowd of close to 20,000 people in Amritsar, killing over a thousand. memorial plaque at Jallianwala Bagh
1919-11-231919-11-23Gandhiji attends the Khilafat Conference in DelhiGandhiji and the Congresss joined the Khilafat movement launched by prominent Muslim leaders to protest against British designs against the Caliphate in Turkey. In the process, Gandhiji not only united the country across the religious divide, he also transformed the Congress into a mass movement. activists leading a procession.
1919-12-261919-12-30Amritsar SessionBy holding its 34th Session at Amritsar in 1919, the Congress expressed its deep solidarity with the people killed in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in the city earlier that year. Under the presidentship of Motilal Nehru, the Congress condemned the massacre in the strongest of terms. CommonsPandit Motilal Nehru
1920-08-011920-08-01Non-cooperationOn August 1, 1920, a non-cooperation movement was led by Gandhiji against the British for not addressing the widespread anger caused by the Jallianwala Bagh massacre as well as the Khilafat issue. Gandhiji exhorted the people to give up colonial titles and government posts and boycott foreign articles. Movement
1920-12-261920-12-31On war-footingAt its Nagpur Session, the Congress sought to intensify the Non-Cooperation Movement. It urged merchants to boycott any foreign trade relations and urgedgovernment servants to help the national cause. The importance of using non-violent means was reiterated. The party also made certain important organisational changes. The strength of the A I. C. C. increased to 350 and a Working Committee of 15 members was constituted. Vijayaraghvachariar presided over the Nagpur Session
1921-12-271921-12-28Ahmedabad Session, 1921Hakim Ajmal Khan was unanimously elected to preside over the Session in the absence of C.R. Das, who was in jail. Gandhiji was appointed as the sole executive authority of the Congress and invested with full powers of the AICC. Chairs and benches for delegates were eliminated and Khadi tents made their appearance for first time.
1922-12-261922-12-31Council entryAt the Gaya Session, Congress leaders debated on the merits and demerits of continuing its boycott of the government-created councils. While the “no-changers” led by C Rajagopalachari and loyal to Gandhiji advocated continuing the boycott, the Swarajists led by C.R. Das suggesting participating in the councils. CommonsC.R. Das
1923-12-281922-12-31Kakinada Session, 1924The Kakinada Session was presided over by Maulana Mohammad Ali, who was released in 1919 after spending five years in prison. “Our Swaraj must be Sarvaraj: the Raj of all...Swaraj must be won by the minimum sacrifice of the maximum number and not by the maximum sacrifice of the minimum number,” the Maulana said during his presidential address. postage stamp in honour of Maulana Mohammad Ali
1924-01-011924-01-01Congress Seva DalOn January 1, 1924 the Seva Dal was established as the Hindustan Seva Mandal with Jawaharlal Nehru as its first president. According to the resolution at Kakinada, the Dal was to work under the supervision of the Congress party's working committee. Umabai Kundapur was the founding president of the women's wing of the Dal. Nehru in Seva Dal uniform
1924-09-171924-10-08Fast for Hindu-Muslim unityAfter hearing news of communal violence in Kohat and also in Amethi, Sambhal and Gulbarga, Gandhiji went on a fast for Hindu-Muslim unity on September 17, 1924, His broke his fast only after 21 days. being
weighted during the 21 days' fast for Hindu-Muslim Unity,  Delhi, September 1924
1924-12-261924-12-27Gandhi-Nehru-Das pactTo end the infighting within the Congress, a pact was signed between Gandhiji on one hand and Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das on the other whereby the Congress accepted that the Swarajists were in the Councils on the Congress’s behalf. In return, the Swarajists agreed that only those who spun Khadi could be members of the Congress. Study ChannelPandit Motilal Nehru & CR Das
1925-12-261925-12-28Kanpur Session, 1925Sarojini Naidu became the second woman to preside over the Congress after Annie Besant. She said during her presidential address: “How shall I stir your hearts, how shall I light that flame that cannot die, so that your slavery, so that your disunion, so that all the things that make you hungry and naked and forlorn, oppressed and battered –will be burnt in that undying fire?” Gandhi with Sarojini Naidu
1927-12-261927-12-28Congress decides to boycott the Simon CommissionAt the 1927 Madras Session, the Congress resolved to boycott the Simon Commission "at each stage and in every form". In a separate resolution, the Creed of the Congress was defined: "the goal of the Indian people is complete National Independence". Ansari (centre)
1928-02-061928-02-06Bardoli SatyagrahaOn February 6, 1928, Sardar Patel under Gandhi’s leadership launched a Satyagraha in Bardoli against high taxes on farmers who were already reeling under floods and famine. It continued up till August 6, 1928, when an agreement was arrived at with the government. and Sardar Patel during the Bardoli Satyagarh
1928-12-291929-01-01Dominion StatusDuring the Calcutta session,Gandhiji moved a resolution accepting the Motilal Nehru report's recommendation of Dominion Status within two years. However, Jawaharlal Nehru moved an amendment reiterating the Congress’s commitment to independence. To arrive at a middle ground, the Congress gave the British a warning that a civil disobedience movement would start if India was not granted dominion status by December 31, 1929. Moti Lal Nehru, President of the Calcutta Session
1929-12-311929-12-31Purna Swaraj is the GoalWith Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru at the helm, the Congress went a step declared Purna Swaraj (complete independence) as its ultimate goal. “We long for peace and the hand of fellowship will always be stretched but to all who may care to grasp it. But behind the hand will be a body which will not bend to injustice and a mind that will not surrender on any vital point,” Pandit Nehru said during his presidential address. ServeLahore Session of the Congress
1930-03-121930-04-06Dandi MarchOn March 12, 1930, Gandhiji started his Dandi March (Salt Satyagraha) from his residence at Sabarmati protesting against the 1882 Salt Act, which gave the British a monopoly on the collection, storage and trade of salt, and which levied a salt tax. On Apr 6, 1930, Gandhiji broke Salt laws at Dandi. of the Salt March
1930-11-121930-11-121st Round Table ConferenceThe conference, chaired by the British PM, Ramsay MacDonald, discussed constitutional issues pertaining to India. The Congress did not attend the Conference as its leaders were in jail for civil disobedience. Rountable conference
1931-03-051931-03-05Gandhi Irwin Pact Gandhiji entered into a pact with the then Viceroy, Lord Irwin, thereby agreeing to discontinue the civil disobedience movement and participate in the Round Table Conferences, on Irwin's acceptance to withdraw the Salt tax and ordinances and cases against the Congress and other nationalists. Irwin
1931-03-291931-03-31Karachi Session, 1931The Congress expressed its admiration of the bravery and sacrifice of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru who were executed on March 23, 1931, while also voicing its disapproval of political violence. They declared the execution of the three young men to be an act of wanton vengeance. Hindu
1931-09-071931-09-072nd Round Table Conf.The deliberations of the conference that started on September 7, 1931, failed to bring about a consensus between Gandhiji and other Indian participants on separate electorates and other safeguards for Muslims and other minorities. PandemoniumGandhiji and Sarojini Naidu before the 2nd Round Table Conference
1932-01-011932-01-01Civil Disobedience RevivedLord Willingdon became the Viceroy in Nov 1931. He violated the Gandhi-Irwin Pact by repressing Congress and other nationalists. Hence, Congress revived the civil disobedience movement on January 1, 1932. Online
1932-04-241932-04-24Congress braves crackdownDespite Police vigilance, over 500 delegates attended the Congress session in Delhi in April 1932. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, the President elect was arrested en-route. Four resolutions were passed reiterating complete Independence as the goal of the Congress, endorsing the revival of Civil Disobedience, expressing complete faith in Gandhiji's leadership and reaffirming deep faith in non-violence. Madan Mohan Malaviya
1932-08-161932-08-16Communal AwardOn August 16, 1932, the British Government announced that members to the provincial legislatures would be elected from separate electorates/constituencies, which would primarily be demarcated on a communal basis. Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donalad
1932-09-201932-09-20Fast against Separate ElectorateOn September 20, 1932, Gandhiji went on a fast protesting against a separate electorate for Harijans. In his words, such “separation would kill all prospects of reform”; “when a man relies on a support, to that extent he weakens himself”. Indian ExpressGandhiji
1932-09-241932-09-24Poona PactGandhiji ended his fast against against separate electorates for Harijans. This was after a pact was reached between him and Dr BR Ambedekar that allowed a certain number of reserved seats for Harijans. BR Ambedkar in a photo post Independence
1932-11-171932-11-17The Third Round Table Conference The Third Round Table Conference began on November 17, 1932 and continued up to December 24, 1932. The Congress boycotted it. Round Table Conference
1934-10-241934-10-28Khadi becomes compulosryA number of changes in the Congress constitution were affected at the Bombay Session in 1934. Wearing of Khadi was made a necessary criterion for elective membership. A cap of 2000 was put for the number of Congress delegates. A. I. C. C. was reduced to half its strength. The delegates were to be elected at the rate of 1 per every 500 primary members, thereby making them representatives of the people. 1917 pictiure Dr Rajendra Prasad (bottom left) who presided over the Congress Session in Bombay
1935-08-021935-08-02Government of India Act, 1935 On August 2, 1935, The Government of India Act, 1935 was passed. It laid down the constitutional framework for the governance of British India at the federal and provincial levels. Round Table Conference
1936-04-121936-04-14Lucknow Session, 1936Lashing out at the British during his presidential address at the Lucknow Session, Pandit Nehru said “Meanwhile, the decay of British Imperialism in India becomes ever more apparent. It cannot by its very nature solve our economic problems and rid us of our terrible poverty, which it has largely itself created. It subsists on a normal fare of the fiercest repression and a denial of civil and even personal liberty”. CommonsPandit Jawaharlal Nehru
1936-12-271936-12-28First 'rural' SessionHeld at Faizpur near Jalgaon, this was the first Congress Session in a rural area. Pandit Nehru said during his presidential address, “A vaster and more pressing problem is that of the peasantry, for India is essentially a land of the peasants. In recognition of this fact, and to bring the Congress nearer to the peasant masses, we are meeting here today at the village of Faizpur and not, as of old, in some great city”. CommonsPandit Nehru, Rajendra Prasad and Bhulabhai Desai
1937-04-011937-04-01Congress wins Provincial ElectionsIn 1937, first elections were held for the provincial legislatures. About 10 to 12 % of the population had the right to vote. The Congress won an absolute majority in 5 out of 11 provinces and formed governments in 7 provinces. Vijay Laxmi Pandit became the first woman Minister in India after the 1937 elections
1938-02-191938-02-21Haripura SessionThe fifty-first session of the Congress at Haripura was presided over by Subhash Chandra Bose. Towards the end of the session, there was a contest for who would be the president-elect for the next session between Netaji and Pattabhi Sittaramayya. Bose won with a thumping margin even though Sittaramayya was seen as Gandhiji’s nominee. with Mahatma Gandhi
1939-03-101939-03-13Netaji resignsThe Congress met at Tripuri under special circumstances as president Subhas Chandra Bose was very ill and Gandhiji was fasting in Rajkot. As Bose was too ill to preside over some sittings, Maulana Azad conducted proceedings on his behalf. However, differences cropped up between Bose and a section of the Working Committee and the former resigned from his presidentship. Arrives at the Tripuri session
1939-09-031939-09-03Proclamation of EmergencyGovernor-General Lord Linlithgow made a Proclamation of Emergency in India due to commencement of the Second World War, thereby assuming control over provincial governments. Linlithgow
1939-10-221939-10-22World War IICongress ministers resigned protesting Governor-General's unilateral declaration of India's participation in World War II, coupled with his non-acceptance of the Congress’ pre-conditions for co-operation which included an Indian national government at the centre and a commitment to India’s complete independence after the war.
WikipediaTroops of the Indische Legion guarding the Atlantic Wall in France in March 1944
1940-03-191940-03-20Ramgarh SessionThe Ramgarh Session was taken up entirely with the crisis brought about by the war and passed only one lengthy resolution on the issue. The Congress protested against the declaration of India as a belligerent country without any reference to the people and stated that the British government was carrying on the war fundamentally for imperialist ends. The party also declared that nothing short of complete independence is acceptable.
1940-10-151940-10-15Individual Civil Disobedience On October 15, 1940, Gandiji launched the individual civil disobedience movement (as distinguished from the mass civil disobedience movement) with Vinoba Bhave as the first individual satyagrahi and Nehru, the second. ji and Vinoba Bhave
1942-03-221942-03-22Failure of the Cripps MissionFrom March 22, 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps, carried out negotiations with the Congress seeking support from Indians for Britain in World War II. The Congress sought immediate and complete transfer of power. The negotiations, which came to an end on April 11, 1942, failed as the British did not agree to the demand. Gandhi had an interview lasting over two hours with Sir Stafford Cripps.Sir Stafford Cripps sees Gandhiji to his car.
1942-08-091942-08-09Quit India ResolutionThe Quit India movement marked the begining of the last phase of Brtish rule in India. Starting from the August Kranti Maidan, the movement spread like wild-fire through the country, culminating with India's Independence in 1947. FoundationGandhi ji at August Kranti Maidan
1942-09-011942-09-01Indian National Army (INA)On September 1, 1942, the Indian National Army was formed in South-East Asia to secure Indian independence with Japanese assistance. Led initially by Mohan Singh for a very brief period, Subhas Chandra Bose became the Commander-in-Chief in June 1943. PostPostage stamp on INA
1943-10-211943-10-21Provisional Govt of Free IndiaOn October 21, 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose founded the Provisional Government of free India. It was recognised by nine world powers including Germany, Italy, Japan and Myanmar. It declared war against Britain and the U.S.A. Archines- SingaporeCabinet members of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind, 1943
1945-06-251945-07-14Shimla ConferenceStarting June 25, 1945, Lord Wavell negotiated with Indian leaders for Indian support to fight to the II World War. In return, he proposed to set up an interim government comprising Indians after the war, which would also draft a new constitution. The negotiations, which went on till July 14, 1945, failed to bring consensus between the Congress and Muslim League. report of the outcome of the Simla conference
1945-08-181945-08-18Netaji Subhas Bose's Reported DeathOn August 18, 1945, a Japanese news agency reported that Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose died in a plane crash in Taiwan. Subhas Chandra Bose with Mahatma Gandhi - 1938
1946-04-011946-04-01Second Provincial GovernmentNew governments were formed at the provinces based on the election held in March, 1946. The Congress won absolute majority in Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, Bihar, Orissa and Central Provinces. In Punjab, a Coalition government comprising the Congress, Akalis and the Unionist Party was formed. The Muslim League secured a majority in Bengal and Sindh. of the interim government outside the Council Room in the Viceroy's House, New Delhi, shortly before their swearing-in ceremony. From left to right: Sarat Chandra Bose, Jagjivan Ram, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Asaf Ali, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Syed Ali Zaheer
1946-03-241946-06-29British Cabinet MissionThe British Cabinet Mission's May 16 plan recommended election of a constituent assembly and creation of a loose three-tier confederation of united India, with separate grouping of majority Hindu and Muslim provinces and with equal representation of such Hindu and Muslim groups at the Union level. Unable to create a consensus between the League and the Congress, the Cabinet Mission left India on June 29, 1946. ji with Stafford Cripps
1946-07-071946-07-07Congress Accepts Cabinet MissionOn July 7, the Congress agreed to the May 16 plan. On July 10, 1946, Nehru stated that the Congress would enter the Constituent Assembly “completely unfettered by agreements and free to meet all situations as they arise” On July 29, 1946, the Muslim League, which had earlier approved the Mission’s proposals, withdrew its support to the Plan and demanded the creation of Pakistan. Ghaffar Khan, Pandit Nehru and Sardar Patel at the Independence Conference at Shimla, 1946
1946-08-161946-08-16Direct Action DayThe Muslim League called for observance of Direct Action Day on August 16, 1946 for creation of a separate Pakistan. This triggered communal violence in Calcutta resulting in the death or injury of around 20,000 persons. MagazineVultures sitting on the roofs of a building while corpses lie below, abandoned in alleyway after bloody rioting
1946-09-021946-09-02Caretaker Govt constituedAfter being invited by Lord Wavell on August 12, 1946, a caretaker government was formed on September 2 with Nehru as Vice-President of the Viceroy's Executive Council. The Muslim League was not part of the caretaker government as it withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan. officials outside the Council Room in the Vicerory's House, New Delhi, shortly before their swearing-in ceremony.
1946-11-061947-03-02Peace Mission in BengalOn November 6, 1946 Gandhiji embarked upon his peace mission in Bengal to stop communal violence. By the time he completed the mission on March 2, 1947, he had covered 49 villages across the province that had been badly hit by communal strife. listens to a survivor in Noakhali
1946-12-091946-12-09Constituent Assembly The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July-August 1946. The first sitting of the assembly, chaired by Dr. Sachidananda Sinha, was held on December 9, 1946. However, members belonging to the Muslim League boycotted the meeting, as they were adamant on the creation of Pakistan. Assembly
1947-03-231947-04-02Asian Relations ConferenceOn March 23, 1947, Nehru hosted the Asian Relations Conference, chaired by Sarojini Naidu, to “bring together the leading men and women of Asia on a common platform to study the problems of common concern to the people of the continent, to focus attention on social, economic and cultural problems of the different countries of Asia, and to foster mutual contact and understanding.” Information BureauMahatma Gandhi with Pt. Nehru and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan at the Asian Relations Conference in New Delhi, April, 1948
1947-06-031947-06-03Decision on Partitioning IndiaOn June 3, 1946, Lord Mountbatten announced his plan to partition India to resolve the deadlock created by the refusal of the Muslim League to join the Constituent Assembly framed to form the constitution of India. with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
1947-07-051947-07-05Inviting Princely StatesOn July 5, 1947, Sardar Patel invited Princely States to join the forthcoming Indian Union, by way of transferring their powers over Defence, Foreign Affairs and Communications in return for privy purses to the princes (as the scheme of the independence outlined by Lord Mountbatten left the Princely States free from having to join either India or Pakistan). Patel with the Maharaja of Mysore
1947-07-181947-07-18Indian Independence Act, 1947On July 18, 1947, the Indian Independence Act, 1947 was passed by the British for partition and transfer of powers on the lines of the announcement made by Lord Mountbatten in June 1947. and Pakistan, 1947
1947-08-141947-08-14Princely States join IndiaAll but three of the 565 Princely States signed Instruments of Accession and Standstill agreements with the forthcoming Indian Union by August 14, 1948. The three states which hadn't signed the Instruments of Accession by then were Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. RoySardar Patel and the Maharaja of Patiala confer during a meeting of the Phulkian Union, an umbrella body of princely states, in Patiala, shortly after Independence.
1947-08-151947-08-15India IndependentIndia attains freedom from British rule and opens a new chapter is its long history. Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru makes his famous 'Tryst with Destiny' speech at the midnight hour.

The Constituent Assembly begins functioning as the Parliament. India's first independent government sets upon its task of nation-building with Nehru as the Prime Minister and Sardar Patel as the Deputy Prime Minister. DivisionPrime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru making his "Tryst with Destiny' Speech in the Central Hall of Parliament on the midnight hourStart
1947-08-291947-08-29Drafting Committee of Constituent AssemblyOn August 29, 1947, the Constituent Assembly constituted the Drafting Committee to formulate the provisions of a Constitution for India, with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as its chairman. day (9 December 1946) of the Constituent Assembly. From right: B. G. Kher and Sardar Vallabhai Patel; K. M. Munshi is seated behind Sardar Patel
1947-10-261947-10-26J&K Accedes to the Indian UnionOn October 26, 1947, Maharajah Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, executed the Instrument of Accession to accede to the Dominion of India. Hari Singh
1947-11-091947-11-09Junagadh Becomes Part of IndiaAfter the ruler, dewan and the executive council of Junagadh unanimously gave their approvail and consent to the Instrument of Accession, the Indian Union took over the administration of the state. A small Indian military was despatched to Junagadh, which was given a resounding welcome by the local people. Patel in a meeting
1947-12-151947-12-1615 States Join OrrisaOn December 15, 1947, as result of the efforts of the States Ministry headed by Sardar Patel and assisted by V.P. Menon, 15 B and C class states agreed to sign an agreement with the Government of India whereby the administration of the states are to be taken over by the Government of Orissa with effect from January 1, 1948. On the next day, 10 A class states also agreed to the same. Patel and V.P. Menon
1947-12-161947-12-1611 Chattisgarh states Join C.P. and BerarOn December 16, 1947, 11 Chattisgarh states agreed to join the Central Provinces (C.P.) and Berar with effect from January 1, 1948. map of Central Provinces with the Princely States of Chhattisgarh marked in yellow
1948-01-131948-01-19Gandhiji’s last fastUpset at the reports of communal violence and disharmony that he had been hearing since his arrival in Delhi a month after independence, Gandhiji began fasting for religious unity on January 13, 1948. He ended his fast on January 19, when a Peace Committee of 180 members from Hindu, Muslim, Sikh and other religious communities with Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its convenor, signed a pledge assuring him that such incidents would not happen again. Gandhi
1948-01-301948-01-30Martyrdom of Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi was assasinated by a religious fanatic Nathuram Godse on January 30, 1948 when he was on the way to a prayer meeting. Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru stated: "The Light has gone out from our lives" as the nation plunged into mourning. Mahatma begins his last journey
1948-02-011948-02-01Saurashtra Formed On February 1, 1948, Saurashtra, or the United State of Kathiwad, was formed by the integration of as many as 449 separate units. However, on account of Gandhi ji's death, its formal inauguration was postponed and held on February 15. film on the unification of Saurashtra
1948-02-201948-02-20Deccan states merge with Bombay On February 20, the rulers of 15 Deccan states agreed to integrate their administration with that of the Province of Bombay and to confer full and exclusive powers and jurisdiction in relation to their states to the Government of India. Patel discussing the Hyderabad problem
1948-03-151948-03-15Matsya Union FormedOn March 15, 1948, the Matsya Union came into being with the integration of the states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli. Matsya Union roughly corresponded to the Jaipur state
1948-07-071948-07-07Damodar Valley Corp createdThe Damodar Valley Corporation was created on 7 July 1948 as the first multipurpose river valley project of independent India. The project has been transmitting power since 1953 and has contributed greatly to the development of Eastern India. film on Damodar Valley Corp
1948-07-151948-07-15East Punjab States Union formed On July 15, 1948, Sardar Patel, Minister for States, inaugurated the Union of Patiala and East Punjab States, consisting of the States of Patiala, Kapurthala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Malerkotla, Kalsia and Nalagarh. Patel after inaugurating Patiala and East Punjab
1948-09-171948-09-17Hyderabad becomes part of India On September 17, 1948, the Nizam surrendered after the Indian military successfully marched into Hyderabad, the last Princely State to accede to the Indian Union.
1948-12-181948-12-18Jaipur SessionHolding the first Congress Session after independence at Jaipur was of immense symbolic value. It represented the integration of erstwhile princely states like Jaipur into the Indian Union. The Jaipur Session saw the merger of all the political outfits in various principalities of the erstwhile principality following the Congress' agenda, with the Congress party. Sitaramayya, president of the Jaipur Session
1949-01-201949-01-20Conference Against Dutch Aggression in Indonesia On January 20, 1949, Prime Minister, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru inaugurated in New Delhi a Conference of 19 nations (18 Asian countries and Australia) Against Dutch Aggression in Indonesia. His inaugural address read, "If this challenge is not met effectively, then indeed, the consequences will affect not merely Indonesia, but Asia and the entire world." Nehru and Sukarno in New Delhi, 1950
1949-03-301949-03-30Greater Rajasthan Union Inaugurated On March 30, 1949, Sardar Patel, the Deputy Prime Minister of India, inaugurated the Greated Rajasthan Union, which brought together 15 Rajput states. Patel after inaugurating Rajasthan
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