Research questions - digital identity - 121
 Share
The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss

 
Comment only
 
 
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAAABACADAE
1
CategoryIDCategoryResearch QuestionGoal / DescriptionStudies (flexible)TypeOrganizationPersonStart DateFinish DatePartners
2
1AssessmentCan the state of local markets in a disaster affected area be derived from open data analysis, to inform humanitarian cash transfer programs?
Econometrics, Geo-information sciences
ThesisNetherlands Red Cross01-01-201931-07-2019
3
1AssessmentIntegration of multiple risk assessment and forecasting models to support rapid geographical targeting in early warning or disaster response.Computer sciences, EconometricsInternship
4
2Human Centered DesignHow to apply human & community centric design in the various context of 121?Industrial design, ArtsThesisNetherlands Red Cross
5
2Human Centered DesignHow to apply design for illiteracy in the various context of 121?Industrial design, ArtsThesisNetherlands Red Cross
6
3Human Centered Design How is trust built and emulated in a digital system, and how much human involvement is needed?Industrial design, ArtsThesisNetherlands Red Cross
7
3Human Centered Design How to develop a trust index based on self claimed credentialsThesis
8
3Human Centered Design How to build trust in an identity through a digital referal systemThesis
9
3Digital inclusionHow to operate in a setting of shutdown of digital networks, either forceful or due to disasters? Offline vs Online capabilities.Systems engineeringThesis
10
3Digital inclusionHow can people be included who are on low tech mobile technology (e.g. feature phones)
Informatics, Physics, Electrical Engineering
Thesis
11
3InclusionHow to test inclusion of people in a humanitarian program with zero-knowledge (anonymous)Computer sciences, MathematicsThesis
12
3Digital inclusionCan humanitarian cash for basic needs programs be faster and more inclusive when done digitally?- What are the current best practices for community engagement for inclusion for cash for basic needs programs? How much time does it take? How many false positives and false negatives does the current approach have?
- What are the preferred options of people for receiving cash for basic needs? How fast are these methods at delivering cash? Are they fit for purpose in a early warning, early action setting?
- Which of these best practices and preferences can be sufficiently realized in a digital system?
- What would a digital approach to inclusion and cash delivery mean for people affected by humanitarian disasters? Both the opportunities and risks.
- How much faster can a digital approach to inclusion and cash delivery be?
- How much more inclusive can a digital approach to inclusion be?
International studiesThesisNetherlands Red Cross - 510Dewi Pinna01-01-201931-8-2019
13
4Financial inclusionHow can humanitarian organizations comply with KYC requirements in open-loop cash transfers?ThesisNetherlands Red Cross - 51001-09-2018
14
5
Identification, registration and validation
Which design choices need to be made to develop a blockchain based system
that allows registration, identification and targeting in protective Cash
Transfer Programs to scale up?
System engineering ThesisNetherlands Red Cross - 51001-01-201815-08-2018
15
5
Identification, registration and validation
What are the potentials and challenges of a blockchain-based identity management system for beneficiaries of a cash transfer program in regard to usability and technology acceptance?Social sciencesThesisNetherlands Red Cross - 51001-01-201815-06-2018
16
5
Identification, registration and validation
How can an ontology be developed for credentials in a digital identity?Computer sciences, Social SciencesThesisType Human01-01-201901-07-2019Australian Red Cross
17
5
Identification, registration and validation
Can algorithms be used in both digital and offline social networks to validate (digital) identities and its credentials at scale?Computer sciencesThesis
18
5
Identification, registration and validation
Can the geolocation of people be validated, for both people digitally connected and those who are not (e.g. through peer validation, point of interest triangulation, etc.)?Geo-information sciencesThesis
19
7
Allocation - Algorithmic decision making
How to optimize a distribution algorithm, to match incoming donations to highest need beneficiaries, in an open and iterative way?As the humanitarian sector is changing and the amount of natural and man-made disasters increases, pressure is put on humanitarian organizations to search for more quick-, effective- and cost-efficient ways to deliver aid. Cash transfer programming is one of the methodologies to deliver aid at scale. With the increasing availability of digital networks, mobile technology and increasing acceptance of algorithmic decision making, there is a possibility to develop a digital humanitarian aid system, for fast distribution of cash to the most vulnerable people.

The Netherlands Red Cross – 510 team, has initiated the development of 121, a direct cash system, that optimizes the delivery of a donation from one person, to another person in humanitarian need. One of the components in this system is a fair distribution algorithm, that should ensure the delivery of cash to the most vulnerable first. This prioritization of people is needed, because in most cases the total volume of people in need is much higher than the available amounts of funding to distribute.

A first version of the distribution algorithm was developed with the Faculty Economics and Business, Amsterdam School of Economics, University of Amsterdam. The algorithm uses proxies to expenditures, to estimate household income. The estimated household income distribution is then used to decide who needs to receive what donations.

The current solution has a couple of challenges:
- It uses proxies to expenditures that might not be available in every country. A dataset would be needed per country where the proxy indicators and the outcome variable (income/expenditures) are both represented.
- It doesn’t take into account estimated impact, indicators on vulnerability other than income, or other social indicators such as a referral system or outcomes from engagement with communities.
- It is not clear whether the assumption that ‘asking for income directly is not viable, because it’s cheatable’ outweighs in practice the costs to estimating income via proxies (collecting survey data, building the statistical model, collecting the proxy-data from beneficiaries; vs. simply collecting income-data from beneficiaries and even possibly validating it). Especially if the proxies themselves might still be cheatable.
- It is not a dynamic algorithm. It requires both the donations (total funding availability) and the registrations of people (total funding need) to be available. Instead, in practice people will be in humanitarian need at different times. And donations will come in for period of weeks when fundraising campaigns run. We don’t want to wait for all registrations and all donations to finish before starting to help people with direct cash. The algorithm should cope with the dynamic nature of humanitarian aid.

We see to avenues to progress research:
1. A research study looking into the current practices of targeting, inclusion and distribution in humanitarian aid. With the aim of deriving the best practices, and mapping out which of these can be digitized and further optimized.
2. A research study looking into the dynamic nature of humanitarian donations and cash distributions. With the aim of creating a most optimal distribution of cash with incoming donations and registrations. In this study the proxy indicator approach should be reviewed for potential to scale to multiple countries. If needed an alternative should be proposed.
Maths, econometrics, Physics, AIThesis + InternshipNetherlands Red CrossOrtec
20
8Financial flowPer country research of how the money will actually reach people. What is the financial flow?EconomicsInternship
21
8Financial flowHow can 121 operate in countries where sanctions have been applied?To determine if 121 can operate in countries where humanitarian aid is needed most. Include the degree in which sanctions also affect suppliers and personnel engaged in financial transactions covered by sanctions? About 40 countries are affected by sanctions.International lawThesis
22
9Data responsibilityHow can data protection be adhered to when using low tech such as feature phones (normal GSM)?
Computer sciences, Egineering and policy analysis
Thesis
23
9Data responsibilityHow can a digital identity be firewalled on a mobile phone, to reduce the risk of data breach, or misuse by government / mobile network operators?Mathematics, Computer sciencesInternship
24
9Data responsibilityHow to separate validation and data handling to improve data responsibility? How do other sectors such as the banking sector do this?Technology managementThesis
25
9Data responsibilityHow can digital identities and its data be stored safely for those who cannot store their own identity?Computer sciencesThesis
26
9Data responsibilityAre the components of 121 compliant with EU GDPR?Mainly focussing on:
a. Automated algorithmic decision making vs algorithmic decision support to a human decision maker (mainly for the distribution algorithm).
b. If a blockchain based digital identity hash will be seen as personal identifiable information
c. The legal basis under which to collect data: consent vs veto vs ?
International lawThesisUniversity of Groningen
27
9Data responsibilityWhat are possible risks of using a digital identity for people, especially those in humanitarian need?An ethical review of 121, to reveal possible risks when people use a digital identity
International law, Policy and management
ThesisNetherlands Red Cross - 510University of Groningen / NOHA
28
10ProcessHow does the 121 process compare to current cash transfer programming process? What parts of the current process are most impacted by 121?Goal
To understand how the direct cash system – 121 impacts the current processes of humanitarian cash transfer programming.
Scope
The primary scope of this process analysis is cash for basic needs, in early warning, early action for natural disasters. An extension include cash for basic needs in conflict setting is desirable
Research framework: a process management approach
• Stakeholder mapping
• Governance model
• Implementation process
• Execution process
• Tools and services
Method
1. Desk study: analyze existing cash transfer programming documentation, learning documents and methodologies, with the goal of extracting a process visualization and description of the current cash transfer programming processes.
2. Design Approach: To design the process of 121: who should be involved, how to keep these organizations involved and how to transform a conceptual technical and institutional design into an embedded solution.
a. This research could start with an extensive stakeholder analysis and literature study into humanitarian governance models but also best practices in other environments (think SDGs etc).
b. Followed up by the creation of process design approach and argumentation of why a certain practice or type of process design should be used.
c. It could conclude with very practical invitational letters to organizations that should be involved, a roadmap and a set of process rules to keep parties around the table
3. (Expert) Validation: this could be in the form of expert interviews, a workshop for Cash Delegates or expert review of the final process design
4. Case study or Cash Training: the researcher participates in the design, implementation and evaluation of a Cash Program. This can be either in a real situation or fictitious in a training situation
Complex systems engineering, public administration
InternshipNetherlands Red Cross - 510Red Cross Cash Peer Working Group?
29
11GovernanceHow can governments, humanitarian organizations and the private sector collaborate to set up a (global) self-sovereign digital identity: acceptance, governance and standardization?Technology, Policy and ManagementThesis
30
11GovernanceHow to coordinate / collaborate with insurance, remittance and social safety net systems?Economics, Policy, ManagementxNetherlands Red Cross01-02-201931-08-2019
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
Loading...
Main menu