MCR Labs - Uses & Effects of Cannabis
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PROPERTIES/EFFECTSCANNABINOID / TERPENESOURCESOURCE (STUDY)SENTENCE CONFIRMING THE EFFECT (Include Terpene/Cannabinoid)
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Alleviate nausea and vomitingTHChttp://www.bmj.com/content/323/7303/16?variant=fullDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing the number of vomiting and retching episodes, degree of nausea, duration of nausea, and volume of emesis (P < 0.001). There was a 72% incidence of nausea and vomiting on placebo.
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https://thejointblog.com/medical-marijuana-can-help-cure-nausea/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165951/The first cannabinoid agonist, nabilone (Cesamet), which is a synthetic analogue of Δ9-THC was specifically licensed for the suppression of nausea and vomiting produced by chemotherapy.
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CBDVhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902479The pattern of findings indicates that neither THCV nor CBDV produced a behavioural profile characteristic of CB1 receptor inverse agonists. As well, these compounds may have therapeutic potential in reducing nausea.
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CBDAhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12043/fullCompared with cannabidiol, CBDA displays significantly greater potency at inhibiting vomiting in shrews and nausea in rats, and at enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation, an action that accounts for its ability to attenuate conditioned gaping in rats.
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THCAhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12316/fullThese data suggest that THCA may be a more potent alternative to THC in the treatment of nausea and vomiting
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alleviate or even eliminate painCBDhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149291807002949THC/CBD was effective, with no evidence of tolerance, in these select patients with CNP and MS who completed ∼2 years of treatment (n = 28). Ninety-two percent of patients experienced an AE, the most common of which were dizziness and nausea.
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THChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2950205/A single inhalation of 25 mg of 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol herbal cannabis three times daily for five days reduced the intensity of pain, improved sleep and was well tolerated.
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capsaicinhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462993/Capsaicin administered topically, intradermally, or orally has proven to produce complex effects but remains a reliable and reproducible way to investigate peripheral and central mechanisms underlying certain hypersensitivities. In addition, we have discussed how it may also be a useful treatment of certain pain states, including neuropathies.
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anti-asthmaAlpha Pinene / Beta Pinenehttp://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1104848https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12122569The oxidation products (OPs) of ozone and the unsaturated hydrocarbons d-limonene, (+)-alpha-pinene, and isoprene have previously been shown to cause upper airway irritation in mice during 30-min acute exposures.

This may be important in the context of the etiology or exacerbation of lower airway symptoms in office workers, or of occupational asthma in workers involved in industrial cleaning operations.
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Geraniolhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117312The oxidation products (OPs) of ozone and the unsaturated hydrocarbons d-limonene, (+)-alpha-pinene, and isoprene have previously been shown to cause upper airway irritation in mice during 30-min acute exposures.

This may be important in the context of the etiology or exacerbation of lower airway symptoms in office workers, or of occupational asthma in workers involved in industrial cleaning operations.
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anti-inflammatoryTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024327These sets of data strongly suggest that THC could be a potential therapeutic treatment option for Alzheimer's disease through multiple functions and pathways.
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Antioxidant properties





CBDhttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/314/2/780.shortThis study provides the first demonstration of CBD as an in vivo neuroprotectant and shows the efficacy of lipophilic antioxidants in preventing binge ethanol-induced brain injury.
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CBGhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28348416Based on its antioxidant activities, CBG may hold great promise as an anti-oxidant agent and therefore used in clinical practice as a new approach in oxidative-stress related disorders.
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Alpha Bisabololhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928098711002946These findings show that (−)-α-bisabolol is able to decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory event associated with the lesions induced by ethanol.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995283/Traditionally, chamomile has been used for centuries as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, mild astringent and healing medicine (28).

The flowers of chamomile contain 1–2% volatile oils including alpha-bisabolol, alpha-bisabolol oxides A & B, and matricin (usually converted to chamazulene and other flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic properties (12, 19, 35, 36).
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terpineolhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691511001487α-Terpineol presented good antioxidant activity in ORAC test.
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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814609008498Linalool and α-terpineol were also tested as major components of the oil and showed no antioxidant but considerable antimicrobial activities.
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boosts appetiteTHChttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163725802002577The same effect is observed in animals and in humans with the psychotropic plant cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which is an approved appetite-enhancing drug.
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CBNhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543671This is the first time cannabinol has been shown to increase feeding. Therefore, cannabinol could, in the future, provide an alternative to the currently used and psychotropic ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-based medicines since cannabinol is currently considered to be non-psychotropic.
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controls inflammationCBDhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365903004152In conclusion, ethosomes enable CBD's skin permeation and its accumulation in a depot at levels that demonstrate the potential of transdermal CBD to be used as an anti-inflammatory treatment.
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enhance appetiteTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15857739http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163725802002577In obese humans, it causes weight reduction. Very little is known about the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the cannabinoids in feeding and appetite.
Not enhance, reduce.
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imporoves conditionCBDhttps://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=142&&search_pattern=movement,disorderWe report the effect of CBD on dystonia secondary to Sinemet in parkinsonism, a DISORDER thought to be a relative contraindication for cannabinoids (D.Moss et al, Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1981, 1984). The patient, a 42-year- old man with an 8-year history of parkinsonism, developed peak-dose dyskinesia about 4 years ago and action dystonia affecting all limbs more recently. Trihexyphenidyl and bromocriptine each produced only slight improvement.
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imporves sleep / decrease in pruritusTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12190187The duration of antipruritic effect is approximately 4-6 hrs in all three patients suggesting the need for more frequent dosing. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may be an effective alternative in patients with intractable cholestatic pruritus.
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improvement/treatment resistant spasticityTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27506815In the majority of pediatric palliative patients the treatment with dronabinol showed promising effects in treatment resistant spasticity.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK224382/Both marijuana and THC have been tested for their ability to relieve spasticity in small but rigorous clinical studies.
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improves appetite and sleep qualityTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20824270Dronabinol (Δ(9)tetrahydrocannabinol) is approved for HIV-related anorexia, yet, little is known about its effects in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. HIV-negative marijuana smokers require higher than recommended dronabinol doses to experience expected effects.
improvement os appetite, bostong of appetite, enhancing it are all the same. Would be good the have all of these different studies together, with THC, with the explanation of what they do, listed for one effect (appetite)
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improves movementsCBDhttps://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=142&&search_pattern=movement,disorderIn idiopathic dystonia, the terapeutic effect of marijuana smoking is reported to be comparable to diazepam (C.D. Marsden, in DISORDERs of MOVEMENT, 1981,81). The non-psychoactive cannabis derivative, cannabidiol (CBD), also improves dystonia (Consroe and Snider, in Cannbinoids as Therapeutic Agents, in press).
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improves well being and quality of life / neuroprotective effectsCBDhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25237116Our findings point to a possible effect of CBD in improving quality of life measures in PD patients with no psychiatric comorbidities; however, studies with larger samples and specific objectives are required before definitive conclusions can be drawn.
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THCVhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01278.x/fullGiven its antioxidant properties and its ability to activate CB2but to block CB1 receptors, Δ9-THCV has a promising pharmacological profile for delaying disease progression in PD and also for ameliorating parkinsonian symptoms.
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THChttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2990.2011.01248.x/fullΔ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of Parkinson's disease
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236282We have demonstrated up-regulation of the CB1 receptor in direct response to neuronal injury in a human PD cell culture model, and a direct neuronal protective effect of Δ⁹-THC that may be mediated through PPARγ activation.
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increased retinal hemodynamicsTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17188063Cannabinoids, already known for their ability to reduce IOP, may result in increased retinal hemodynamics. This may be beneficial in ocular circulatory disorders, including glaucoma.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1358964/Appropriate patients were treated with either orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol capsules or inhaled marijuana in addition to their existing therapeutic regimen.

There is an impression that this treatment can lower intraocular pressure, but the development of tolerance and significant systemic toxicity appears to limit the usefulness of this potential treatment.
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lessens anxiety / prevents behavioral alterationTHChttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jbcpp.2011.22.issue-1-2/jbcpp.2011.005/jbcpp.2011.005.xmlMotor activity and anxiety level were studied in naïve adult CF mice (cftr-deficient mice) and compared with wild-type mice and to CF mice treated chronically with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; endocannabinoid receptor agonist) during infancy (from days 7 to 28). Motor activity was tested in the tetrad, and level of anxiety in the plus maze, a month after cessation of treatment.
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lessens the painTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430692/Clinical trials seem to indicate that either extracts of the Cannabis sativa plant containing known amounts of the active compounds (mainly THC and CBD) or diverse synthetic derivatives of THC are promising treatments for painful conditions that do not respond to available treatments, such as neuropathic, inflammatory and oncologic pain.
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CBD
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limits intestinal inflammationTHChttp://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2013/05/21/cannabis-treatment-inflammatory-bowel-disease-crohns_n_3311278.html https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23648372Although the primary end point of the study (induction of remission) was not achieved, a short course (8 weeks) of THC-rich cannabis produced significant clinical, steroid-free benefits to 10 of 11 patients with active Crohn's disease, compared with placebo, without side effects.
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maintaining bone remodeling at balanceTHChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19634029The active component of marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, activates the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, thus mimicking the action of endogenous cannabinoids.

Taken together, the reports on cannabinoid receptors in mice and humans pave the way for the development of 1) diagnostic measures to identify osteoporosis-susceptible polymorphisms in CNR2, and 2) cannabinoid drugs to combat osteoporosis.
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neuroprotectiveCaryophyllenehttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11064-014-1474-0Trans-caryophyllene (TC), a component of essential oil found in many flowering plants, has shown its neuroprotective effects in various neurological disorders.
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neuroprotective and antiinflammatoryCBDhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19228180Nevertheless, among Cannabis compounds, cannabidiol (CBD), which lacks any unwanted psychotropic effect, may represent a very promising agent with the highest prospect for therapeutic use.
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neutralizes seizures and self-directed rages.THChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28412919https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886592These responses appeared to be enhanced by the prototypic cannabinoid, Δ(9)-THC. MDMA and MPTP at the doses used did not modify SWR behavior in the BTBR mice whereas MPTP reduced SWR activity in the control CB57BL/6J mice. In the hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex, the levels of DA and 5-HT and their metabolites were differentially altered in the BTBR and C57BL/6J mice. Our data provides a basis for further studies in evaluating the role of the cannabinoid and monoaminergic systems in the etiology of ASDs.
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protect cells from oxidationCBDhttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/314/2/780.shortThis study provides the first demonstration of CBD as an in vivo neuroprotectant and shows the efficacy of lipophilic antioxidants in preventing binge ethanol-induced brain injury.
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CBGhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28348416Based on its antioxidant activities, CBG may hold great promise as an anti-oxidant agent and therefore used in clinical practice as a new approach in oxidative-stress related disorders.
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Alpha Bisabololhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928098711002946These findings show that (−)-α-bisabolol is able to decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory event associated with the lesions induced by ethanol.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995283/Traditionally, chamomile has been used for centuries as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, mild astringent and healing medicine (28).

The flowers of chamomile contain 1–2% volatile oils including alpha-bisabolol, alpha-bisabolol oxides A & B, and matricin (usually converted to chamazulene and other flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic properties (12, 19, 35, 36).
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terpineolhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691511001487α-Terpineol presented good antioxidant activity in ORAC test.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540069Thus, antioxidant potential of three monoterpenoids (carvone, perillyl alcohol, and α-terpineol) was measured using two methods: DPPH and ORAC. Also, the antiproliferative effect of these monoterpenoids against nine cancerous cell lines were performed and compared to limonene and doxorubicin. Results showed that all samples tested had very low antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay, but α-terpineol (2.72μmolTrolox equiv./μmol) could be compared to commercial antioxidants in the ORAC assay.
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protective response for a proper recovery of locomotor function2-arachidonoylglycerolhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3496738/Here we show that after a moderate-severe contusive SCI in rats there is a significant and very early increase in the spinal cord content of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide, AEA).
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anandamide
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reduce anxietyCBDhttps://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=306&&search_pattern=Social,Anxiety,DisorderThe increase in ANXIETY induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC.
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reduce brain inflammation/neuroprotectionTHCAhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711312001249THCA and CBD treatment at a concentration of 10 μM lead to significantly increased cell counts to 123% and 117%, respectively. Even though no significant preservation or recovery of neurite outgrowth to control values could be observed, our data show that cannabinoids THC and THCA protect dopaminergic neurons against MPP+ induced cell death.
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CBDhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Martinez-Orgado/publication/23148432_Neuroprotective_Effects_of_the_Nonpsychoactive_Cannabinoid_Cannabidiol_in_Hypoxic-Ischemic_Newborn_Piglets/links/00b7d538c6d0f32527000000.pdfIn conclusion, administration of CBD after HI reduced short-term brain damage and was associated with extracerebral benefits.
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Caryophyllenehttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11064-014-1474-0These data suggest that TC has a potential protective effect on chemical induced seizure and brain damage.
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reduce muscle spacityTHChttp://www.bmj.com/content/329/7460/253?linkType=FULL&journalCode=bmj&resid=329/7460/253(oral synthetic δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol dronabinol) Oral dronabinol reduced central pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.
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https://www.learngreenflower.com/articles/440/treating-multiple-sclerosis-with-cannabishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3394820/Although orally administered cannabinoids failed to improve pain in an uncontrolled study involving 20 patients with multiple sclerosis,17 two placebo-controlled studies10,18 did find a treatment effect. In a trial of a sublingual spray containing delta-9-THC alone or combined with cannabinol, Rog and colleagues reported a 41% reduction in pain, compared with a 22% reduction with placebo.
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reduce painTHChttps://www.learngreenflower.com/articles/453/study-suggests-that-cannabis-can-help-treat-restless-leg-syndromehttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149291807002949Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD), an endocannabinoid system modulator, has demonstrated efficacy for up to 4 weeks in randomized controlled trials in the treatment of CNP in patients with MS.
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CBD
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reduce stress, tension and anxietyCBDhttps://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v36/n6/full/npp20116a.htmlThe increase in anxiety induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC.
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Linaloolhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305711002954These results suggest that inhalation of linalool oxide may be a useful means of counteracting anxiety.
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reduce visceral sensitivityCBGhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1574910/http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006295213000543In conclusion, CBG attenuated murine colitis, reduced nitric oxide production in macrophages (effect being modulated by the CB2 receptor) and reduced ROS formation in intestinal epithelial cells. CBG could be considered for clinical experimentation in IBD patient
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Butanoic Acid / Butyric Acidhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4027835/In summary, butyrate supplementation seems to be a promising therapy for IBS. However, data on its effectiveness are still very limited.
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reduced acid reflux / protection from inflammationLimonenehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24328705We concluded that OEC and LIM, two common flavoring agents, promote gastric mucosal healing without any apparent toxic effect, resulting in better gastric epithelial organization in the treated rats.
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Isopulegolhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19479241The results suggested that isopulegol presents significant gastroprotective effects in both ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcer models, which appear to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous prostaglandins, K(ATP) channel opening, and antioxidant properties.
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reduced Intraocular pressureCBDhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Franjo_Grotenhermen/publication/8546102_Pharmacology_of_cannabinoids/links/0046352c807ad54415000000.pdfCannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, for which sedating [108], anti-epileptic [109], anti-dystonic [110], anti-emetic [111], and anti-inflammatory [112] effects have been observed. It reduced intraocular pressure [113], was neuroprotective [7], and antagonized the psychotropic and several other effects of THC [8].
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16988594A single 5 mg sublingual dose of Delta-9-THC reduced the IOP temporarily and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual administration of 20 mg CBD did not reduce IOP, whereas 40 mg CBD produced a transient increase IOP rise.
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reduces / kills cancer tumorsCBDAhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378427412012854The data presented in this report suggest for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers.
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CBLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770515/This review summarizes the key literature to date around the actions, antitumor activity, and mechanisms of action for this broad range of compounds.

The first cannabinoid to be intensively studied was trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) which was first isolated in the 1960s.3 While several other active compounds, notably Δ8-THC, cannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabicyclol, were able to be isolated, it was not until 1992 that an analogous endogenous ligand – anandamide (AEA) – was identified.
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CBDhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04298.x/fullOn the basis of these results, evidence is emerging to suggest that CBD is a potent inhibitor of both cancer growth and spread.
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THChttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6985702?dopt=AbstractWe conclude that THC is an effective antiemetic in many patients who receive chemotherapy for cancer and for whom other antiemetics are ineffective. (N Engl J Med 302:135--138, 1980).
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CBGhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02975301Cannabigerol (3) exhibited the highest growth-inhibitory activity against the cancer cell lines.
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Borneolhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0063502Taken together, these results reveal that NB strongly potentiates SeC-induced apoptosis in cancer cells by enhancement of cellular uptake and activation of ROS-mediated DNA damage. NB could be further developed as a chemosensitizer of SeC in treatment of human cancers.
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Terpineolhttp://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/30/6/1911.fullThe results suggest that alpha terpineol inhibits the growth of tumour cells through a mechanism that involves inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.
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Terpinolenehttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/aiht.2013.64.issue-3/10004-1254-64-2013-2365/10004-1254-64-2013-2365.xmlOur findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent
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Geraniolhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4809657/We summarize the current knowledge of the effects of geraniol on target molecules and pathways in cancer cells. Our review provides novel insight into the challenges and perspectives with regard to geraniol research and to its application in future clinical investigation.
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Caryophyllene oxidehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083753/Both BCP and BCPO (BCP(O)) possess significant anticancer activities, affecting growth and proliferation of numerous cancer cells.
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Butyrate (Methyl Thio)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070119/A growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer.
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α-Cadinenehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23307235In conclusion, the essential oil from the leaves of X. laevigata is chemically characterized by the presence of γ-muurolene, δ-cadinene, germacrene B, α-copaene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, and (E)-caryophyllene as major constituents and possesses significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer potential.
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Limonenehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470060/Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol have been shown to prevent mammary, liver, lung, and'other cancers.
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reduces anxietyCBDhttps://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v36/n6/full/npp20116a.htmlThe anxiolytic effects of CBD had been extensively demonstrated in animal studies and in healthy volunteers submitted to anxiety induced by several procedures, including the simulation of public speaking (Crippa et al, 2010, 2011).
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796370CBD inhibited obsessive-compulsive behaviour in a time-dependent manner matching its pharmacokinetic profile.
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reduces anxiety behaviorsTHCVhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cpt.115/fullThe natural phytocannabinoids in cannabis include the psychotropic Δ9-THC, Δ8-THC, along with the nonpsychotropic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, (-)-cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin, cannabinol, all of which have been tested in humans (Figure 2a, Table 1). Among these, Δ9-THC (dronabinol, marinol) is useful as an analgesic, an antiemetic agent, and is approved for treating anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS.
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reduces inflammation and painCBDhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365903004152In conclusion, ethosomes enable CBD's skin permeation and its accumulation in a depot at levels that demonstrate the potential of transdermal CBD to be used as an anti-inflammatory treatment.
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CBCAhttp://pdf.easechem.com/pdf/32/08869bca-3cf4-4b35-a897-3d6731d90462.pdfCannabichromene (1) and cannabichromenic acid (2) were isolated from Cannabis sativa L (Figure 1).1 The resin of this plant has shown a variety of interesting pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and anti-microbial effects.2
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mycrenehttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299915000412These data show that myrcene has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in human chondrocytes and, thus, its ability to halt or, at least, slow down cartilage destruction and osteoarthritis progression warrants further investigation.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503660/Cannabis terpenoids also display numerous attributes that may be germane to pain treatment (McPartland and Russo 2001). Myrcene is analgesic, and such activity, in contrast to cannabinoids, is blocked by naloxone (Rao et al 1990), suggesting an opioid-like mechanism. It also blocks inflammation via PGE-2 (Lorenzetti et al 1991).
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linaloolhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022480412009699The results suggest that linalool inhibits inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Alpha Bisabololhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21771629Our results indicate that (-)-α-bisabolol exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 (ERK and p38) signaling.
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Delta 3 Carenehttp://europepmc.org/abstract/med/2772005the essential oil of the Cázulas Mountains population was most active against acute inflammation owing to its high delta 3-carene content, whereas the Quéntar Reservoir essential oil of B. gibraltaricum was most effective against granuloma induced inflammation
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385055The most prominent members in the oils include: δ-3-carene, α-pinene and linalool-acetate (P. mugo); α-pinene, β-phellandrene and β-pinene (P. peuce); limonene, α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene (P. heldreichii). EOs showed significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines (IC50 0.007 to >0.1%), with a reduction in cell viability with up to 90% at a concentration of 0.1%, and anti-inflammatory activity (IC500.0008-0.02%) with a reduction of IL-6 secretion with up to 60% at a concentration of 0.01%.
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borneolhttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502017000300604The study results showed that borneol has anti-inflammatory and healing action in induced oral mucositis in cheek mucosa of Wistar rats.
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Alpha Pinene / Beta Pinenehttp://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0192415X15500457These results indicate that α-pinene has an anti-inflammatory effect and that it is a potential candidate as a new drug to treat various inflammatory diseases.
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terpineolhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10412905.1997.9699459The effect was correlated to the presence of methyl chavicol, linalool, α-terpineol and linalyl acetate. The results show that these constituents produce less anti-inflammatory action when administered separately than the oil in toto, and are also less effective than the oxygenated fractions obtained by Flash chromatography of the oil.
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Caryophyllenehttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299907005419All these findings indicate that α-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083753/Similarly to BCP, BCPO due to its high biological activity was extensively studied in recent years. EssOilDB‐based data indicate basil (Ocimum spp.), salvia (Salvia glutinosa) and Syzygium cordatum as the main natural sources of BCPO. Either as a pure substance or a component of plant essential oils, BCPO was found to exhibit anti‐inflammatory 7, antioxidant, antiviral 8, anticarcinogenic 9, and analgesic properties 10.
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reduces itch, dryness and anti-fungalCBChttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1981.tb02606.x/fullAntiinflammatory activity was evaluated by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and the erythrocyte membrane stabilization method. In both tests, CBC was superior to phenylbutazone. Antibacterial activity of CBC and its isomers and homologs was evaluated using gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria. Antifungal activity was evaluated using yeastlike and filamentous fungi and a dermatophyte. Antibacterial activity was strong, and the antifungal activity was mild to moderate.
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EFFECTS