May 2014 TOK Title Idea Share
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Below the question to the right, next to your name, write a thesis statement that explains the conclusion you are most likely to derive for each should you choose to write a response to that title.Add your AOK and title of your extended essay below.Ethical judgements limit the methods available in the production of knowledge in both the arts and the natural sciences. Discuss. “When the only tool you have is a hammer, all problems begin to resemble nails” (Abraham Maslow). How might this apply to ways of knowing, as tools, in the pursuit of knowledge?“Knowledge is nothing more than the systematic organisation of facts.” Discuss this statement in relation to two areas of knowledge. “That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow.” Consider knowledge issues raised by this statement in two areas of knowledge. “The historian’s task is to understand the past; the human scientist, by contrast, is looking to change the future.” To what extent is this true in these areas of knowledge?“A skeptic is one who is willing to question any knowledge claim, asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic and adequacy of evidence” (adapted from Paul Kurtz, 1994). Evaluate this approach in two areas of knowledge.
ExampleHuman Science (Psych) - How does sleep quantity and quality affect memory and learning for adolescents?Ethical judgements guide the practices through which knowledge can be developed in these two areas yet do not necessarily limit the production of knowledge in that ethically acceptable means of discovery are still available.
Bethell, MiaEnglish - To what extent has social networking affected the wat teenages write over the past twenty years?Ethical judgments regulate to what extent: for example animal testing how ethical they are. In knowledge, it is based on factual but on the other hand, other areas of knowledge can be biased.
Claar, JackMusic- To what extent is the music of the Ainu people unique?Ethical judgements, while they regulate methods of the production of knowledge, do not necesarily hinder the production of knowledge itself.It is easy to become overly focused on certain ways of knowing as biases affect your perspective on attaining knowledge. Knowledge, because it encompasses so many different ideas and areas of knowledge, is more than just a systematic organization of facts.Taking a skeptical and questioning approach to the attainment of knowledge allows for certainty when bias and subjectivity would otherwise be an obstacle.
Herzberg, HelenaArts (German and a little of History/Politics) - In what ways did Wolfgang Boehmer represent the Situation of Afghan Refugees in his book "Hesmats Flucht?"Ethical judgements do not inhibit the production of knowledge, but rather the use of it. This can be concluded when examining the tools used to obtain knowledge in the arts and the natural sciences.In terms of the arts and the natural sciences the pursuit of knowledge can resemble the perfection of skills and theories. Therefore the hammer, that being an individual, will gradually hammer the nails to their fullest extent, which can be translated to the polishing of established skills and theoriesKnowledge can not only be seen as the systematic organization of facts, but also as skills in certain areas of knowledge. Mathematics is an objective area of knowledge that follows universal laws and is therefore an organisation of facts.The arts however require a set of skills to communicate stories and emotions, which can be improved upon.Through the means of research and experience knowledge can be refined. This can be witnessed within the humans sciences and ethics. Memory models, for example, were redesigned several times due to the emergence of technology and case studies. In addition, individuals tend to improve upon their moral as they make experiences and learn from the consequences. Both history and the natural sciences examine the past to prepare for the future. Therefore neither area of knowledge is focused on only one; the past or the future.
Johnston, NicholasEnglish- How and Why did the protagonists, Billy Pilgrim of Slaughterhouse Five and Jean Baptiste Grenouille of Perfume depict Christ.Ethical judgements are prevalent in both Arts and the natural sciences albeit to different extents, In art, ethical judgements play a different role in that the judgements are far more up to interpretation.When given a hammer you attempt to make do with the tool you are given and work through problems utilizing the prescribed formulas and working that have been established as being the norm. Math for example, is formalist in that it is specifically created to solve problems as opposed to being platonist and uncovering knowledge as one would in natural sciences.Knowledge in AOK's varies in their exteents to which they are systematic organisation of facts, Math for exmaple could be construde as being exactly that, while art can be aregued as lacking heavily in the actual inclusion of fact at all. It can not be said that knowledge is set, and that what is known today will be forever correct in the future, this can be seen throughout History and in Mathematics time and time again as knowledge grows collectively to assimilate knowledge to create new knowledge. It is not a historians place to understand History, it is their job to simply record it, by contrast, it is a human scentists job to create new technology and theories that will shape the way we live and understand our lives in the future.In Mathematics, skeptecism is a vital part of the development of knowledge since the challenging of ideas leads to the exploration and discovery of newer ideas, by contrast in art skeptecism does not help those wishing to push the boundaries of what is percieved as being art.
Klein, JulienGeograpy - To what extent are the residents of Tamagawa River prepared for the event of a major flooding and how effective are the flood prevention systems? (Natrual science) Julien is fatThere are certain ethical judgements or borders which cannot be crossed and these can limit human research in certain fields of natrual science.
Lindell, MattiasArt (English Literature)- How are the themes of hopelessness and despair developed in Oryx and Crake, and The RoadEthical judgments can severly hinder natural sciences since human put imaginary limits on what we can experiment on. Such as the Nazi Experiments how much knowledge was obtained via human subjects, although now that is severly frowned upon. For Arts, I for reals have now idea, how one can even obtain knowledge from Arts. Or censophips in books and films (bully).I can see how this can be prevalanet in the AOK of history, since one day a nation might state something to be true, and then next day an opposing nation might state the exact opposite as truth. This can also be seen in Science where theories can be disporven overnight.I agree.
Martin, PollyArts (English Literature) - How does Nabokov explore the relationship between the writer and reader in the novels Pale Fire and Lolita?Ethical judgements have limited the methods of the production of knowledge within arts, given the outcry against art that tries to deal with taboo subjects; for example, books have been banned given whether or not the government at the time agrees with the book's take on a certain subject. As well as this, installation art of the suffering of live animals has often been shut down. Natural sciences have also been limited given the outcry against the use of stem cells or euthanasia. However, whilst ethical judgements limiting art only limits the production of knowledge of humanity, ethical judgements limiting natural sciences can often tangibly harm human beings with the lack of progress.Within history, knowledge changes with the discovery of new evidence or a new understanding of old evidence, such as in the revisionist and post-revisionist theories regarding the Cold War. However, within mathematics, once a formula has been proven, it is often considered sacresanct - again, although new evidence may disprove a theorem, that disprovement is from then set in stone. Hence, knowledge that is accepted in the present may be disregarded tomorrow, but the likelihood of such disregard is more likely within areas of knowledge related to humanity than areas of knowledge related to universal understanding.Skepticism ensures the quality of investigation into a knowledge issue. With the definition provided above, skepticism is integral to the formation of natural sciences, given that a major part of natural sciences and the validity of any claim is how well it stands according to logic, reason, and whether the results can be reproduced. However, the value of skepticism in the arts is far more debatable; while skepticism may aid in a definition of art, it may exclude innovation within that area of knowledge.
Ozeki, KeisukeEthics and Human Science (Geography) - How sustainable is the waste management in YIS, and what can be done to achieve maximum potential for environmental sustainability?Although ethical judgements do not completely limit the production of knowledge as a whole, some methods to create knowledge can be hindered in the areas of both the ars and the natural sciences. Knowledge that is accepted today may be disregarded tomorrow, especially with history and human sciences (economics). History - Countries at war like Imperialistic Japan or Nazi Germany Economics - Keynes and Hayes or economic boomHistorians try to understand the past so that they can apply it to current and future generations. Human Scientists like economists need to look at the past examples to predict and alter what may happen in the future.Skeptics are necessary in all areas of knowledge, but they are especially important in history and human sciences.
Sato, MatthewWhat are the musical elements that are similar and different of Journey's Open arms and Toto's Rosanna Ethical judgement
Shimomura MarikaSherlock Holmes (English, Arts) - How does the character Sherlock Holmes depicted in the TV series 'Sherlock' and the movie 'Sherlock Holmes' compare to the original series?Ethical judgements, although they have stopped many experiments to fail in the past, have slowed down the production of knowledge. Natural sciences: Limitations in human and animal experiments, esp. medicine. Art: Copy right.In the past, it was only normal to want to make all problems into nails since all that was given was a hammer in most cases. However, with mordern education giving a wide range of tools to its people, they are able to tackle problems from more than one direction. Arts are now more regarded as a subject to learn, not just a hobby, and mathematics now lends its hand to many different areas, leading to new subjects to learn.Most knowledge is a systematic organisation of facts, however in areas such as ethics and arts, not all knowledge is as easy to organize.Knowledge is constantly evolving, with the environment changing in both social and techonological means. Therefore knowledge that is accepted today may be discarded tomorrow. With more methods to gain knowledge and with more people who accept these new advances, knowledge that was accepted in the past as true, will often times be overturned. Examples of areas of knowledges which follow this are natural sciences and the arts.Even if not all historians focus on the past in their studies, their 'task' (or job) is to understand the past. They are free to use their knowledge to whatever they would like. Human scientists are not looking to change the future, but trying to explain what we do, did and may do in the future.Although not all skeptics are welcomed into all areas of knowledge, they have strengthened and progressed the knowledge within all areas.
Takahashi, HirokiEthical judgements do not always limit the production of knowledge but can sometimes inhibit it.
Josefsson, Moa Economics - To what extent will the introduction of competition to the retail market of alcohol in Gothenburg be economically beneficial?Natural sciences - ethics in killing or hurting subjects in order to collect data. Arts - Plagiarism, racism, copy rights Psychology - memory theories. The MRI, fMRI and PET allowed researchers to form new and more precise theories Economics - The Philips curve Knowledge is constantly contradicted with new theories and studies. As we evolve as humans, knowledge evolves with us. This means that what is seen as the truth today, is sometimes discarded tomorrow.
Zeitoun, NicholasAOK Natural Sciences+History Knowledge Issues: Galileo and Darwin For wars where does the blame lie?Ethical judgements, through the purpose and medium through which knowledge of arts or natural sciennces is obtained, either hinder or coincide with the production of knowledge, however to a certain extent they do not limit the production.
The analogy of a hammer to knowledge, is a representation of how knowledge issues are dealt with, but how the tool is not always the right tool for the job, therefore the issues conforms to be dealt with the at hand knowledge.
Knowledge is more than the organization of facts. In terms of the HUman sciences and ethics, knowledge extends beyond simple categorization.Despite a constant influence of knowledge past, over time what is accepted as knowledge today can easily or eventually come to be discarded over time.In their respective fields, both areas of knowledge have goals which encompass understanding both the future and the past not just singularly one. A skeptic is one who doesn't think he can do this for his TOK essay
Wise, Erin Film- To what extent was Tim Burton influenced by German expressionism in his films?Ethical Judgments are boundries as to what methods can be available to those trying to gain knowledge in these two areas of knowing. However, they do not completley limit the production of knowledge in the arts and natural sciences due to the other ethical ways of gaining knowledge Natural Sciences: Limitaions in cloning and animal testing Art: limitations due to censorshipKnowledge that is accepted today may be discarded tomorrow, in order to develop our knowledge and understanding further. Within History and Natural Sciences this can be seen through the changeing of sides on who or what caused an event in history to occur. As well as in Natural Sciences the changing or adding to a method or experiement in order to imrove the understanding and outcome of the knowledge being tested. Historians look back on the past in order to help us gain a better understanding of how to work with situations on the future based upon past events. Human scientists look on how to improve the future by looking back upon past mistakes or errors and how these errors can be changed and improved.