CIPS Seminar Spring 2020
 Share
The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss

View only
 
 
ABCDEF
1
CIPS SEMINARS - Spring 2020
2
131 Campbell Hall
3
Wednesdays 1:10-2:00 PM
4
DateSpeakerAffiliationTitleAbstractHost
5
6
22-JanCourtney DressingUCBA Tale of Five Spacecraft: Studying Nearby Planets with Kepler, K2, TESS, JWST, and LUVOIRIn a series of vignettes, I will highlight recent and ongoing work led by members of my research group and the LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team. First, I'll discuss the mass measurement of a transiting planet with a relatively long orbital period (spacecraft: Kepler, lead: Andrew Mayo). Second, I'll present a method for constraining the orbital parameters of transiting planets with ambiguous orbital periods (spacecraft: K2, leads: Shishir & Shashank Dholakia, Andrew Mayo). Third, I'll review my ongoing work to use data from the NASA TESS mission to determine how the frequency of planets depends on stellar mass for the smallest stars and work by Steven Giacalone to estimate the reliability of TESS planet candidates. Fourth, I'll introduce a framework for prioritizing TESS planet candidates for subsequent studies of planetary atmospheres with JWST (lead: Charles Fortenbach). Finally, I'll summarize the exoplanet science case and capabilities of the Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor, a mission concept for a large space-based observatory capable of detecting biosignatures and constraining the frequency of inhabited planets. Marta Bryan
7
8
29-JanCheng LiUCBA tranquil Jovian weather layerJupiter's atmosphere seems relentless, with multiple zonal jets hurling at the speed of hundreds of meters per second, and with the incessant popping of storms, clouds and vortices. Generations of atmospheric scientists have been emphasizing the role of moist convection due to the condensation of water in forcing both the weather and the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. A number of papers used "random storms" to parameterize moist convection as forcing of the atmospheric circulation. Indeed, with proper stirring, any shallow, rapidly spinning sphere of fluid will organize into multiple zonal jets, spaced at the Rhine scale. However, the most recent observation of Jupiter's atmosphere using the microwave radiometer onboard the Juno spacecraft contradicts what one would infer from the "stirring picture", that chemically inert tracers shall mix through the atmosphere. Juno observed that ammonia gas is significantly depleted down to several tens of bars, well below its condensation level. The observation puts doubts about the primary energy transfer mechanism in Jupiter's atmosphere. Here I demonstrate that primordial heat inside Jupiter is transported by gravity waves rather than convection to the tropopause where energy can radiate out. As a result, Jupiter's weather layer is stably stratified, probably down to hundreds of bars. This affects the value of the isentrope chosen to model Jupiter's interior when using the temperature measured at 1 bar pressure level.Peter Gao
9
10
5-FebMalena RiceYaleJovian weather at depth: from dark to dawnJupiter represents a class of planets whose major composition is hydrogen and helium, with a few condensable species forming visible clouds high up. Jovian atmospheres typically feature multiple zonal jets at the speed of hundreds of meters per second, and incessant popping of small-scale storms and vortices. By employing an Earth-like general circulation model, multiple authors have declared success in modeling the Jovian atmosphere by producing zonal jets in the low latitudes and vortices in the high latitudes. However, the most recent observation of Jupiter's atmosphere at depth by the Juno spacecraft contradicts what one would infer from the standard picture, that chemically inert tracers shall mix through the troposphere. Juno observed that ammonia gas is significantly depleted down to several tens of bars, well below its condensation level. The observation casts doubts on whether we really understand the most basic principle of the general circulation of Jovian atmospheres. Answers to questions like “How does the internal heat transfer through the atmosphere?”, “What is the entropy of Jupiter’s interior” become more obscure than before. Here I demonstrate that primordial heat inside Jupiter should be transported by gravity waves rather than convection to the tropopause where energy can radiate out. As a result, Jupiter's weather layer is stably stratified as opposed to neutrally stratified, probably down to hundreds of bars. This affects the value of the isentrope chosen to model Jupiter's interior when using the temperature measured at 1 bar pressure level.Paul Kalas
11
12
12-FebJoshua Krissansen-TottonUCSCThe search for life elsewhere: Leveraging Earth system science approaches to anticipate exoplanet biosignatures and habitabilityUpcoming space- and ground-based telescopes will be capable of detecting biosignature gases in exoplanet atmospheres. However, distinguishing genuine signs of life from abiotic processes that may mimic inhabited planets will be challenging. Fortunately, Earth and the Solar System planets are invaluable natural laboratories for understanding biosignatures and planetary habitability more broadly. The early Earth provides examples of novel biosignatures, such as atmospheric disequilibrium between carbon-bearing species, which are potentially detectable with upcoming telescopes like JWST. Moreover, quantitative models of the geochemical evolution of planetary atmospheres and interiors that are validated using solar system planets will enable predictions about exoplanet habitability. For example, carbon cycle models developed to explain Earth’s climate evolution can be applied to formulate testable hypotheses for the habitable zone. Taken as a whole, these quantitative approaches to biosignature assessment will lay the groundwork for systematic searches for life elsewhere with next generation telescopes.Peter Gao
13
14
19-FebAlex BrykBerkeleyCuriosity’s encounter with the Greenheugh pediment: What record will the landforms at the base of Mt.Sharp reveal about Mars climate history?Curiosity’s continued traverse across Glen Torridon and up Mt. Sharp will bring it in contact with landforms whose exposed stratigraphy likely records major environmental changes in the history of Gale Crater. Rocks exposed as the Greenheugh pediment comprise a nearly 3 square km erosionally-resistant planar sloping surface, the base of which truncates the strata of lower Mount Sharp. Curiosity’s close inspection of the exposed pediment walls may resolve whether the erosional truncation of the Mt. Sharp strata and subsequent deposit of the capping unit were driven by fluvial processes (as is commonly the case on Earth) or by wind (or both), providing key information of the processes and possible climate this landform and deposit record.Sean Wahl
15
16
26-FebXinting YuUCSCIntegrating Materials Science Techniques into the Study of Planetary HazesPhotochemically produced hazes are prevalent in the atmospheres of planetary bodies in the solar system and could also be ubiquitous in exoplanetary atmospheres. Haze has been shown to affect the thermal structure and dynamics of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres. It could also be a source of the surface material on planetary bodies and will therefore be involved in various surface processes. However, many physical and chemical processes involving the haze are unknown due to the lack of knowledge of the haze as a material. Because of its chemical complexity, many of the intrinsic properties of the haze are highly material dependent and currently have large uncertainties in models. We have been using material characterization techniques such as atomic force microscopy, contact angle analysis, and nanoindentation, to experimentally determine the material properties of planetary and exoplanetary haze analog materials. We measured material properties such as surface energy, mechanical properties, and electrostatic properties to understand not only the structures and behaviors of haze materials, but this information could also shed light on their formation, evolution, interaction with clouds and surface liquids, and their impact on the current and upcoming observations.Peter Gao
17
18
4-MarSteph SallumUCSCTBDTBDMarta Bryan
19
20
11-MarAnna ButterworthUBC - SSLTBDTBD
Burkhard Militzer
21
22
18-Maropen(week of LPSC but we will have a seminar)
23
24
25-MarSpring break
25
26
1-AprRuth Murray-ClayUCSCTBDTBDMarta Bryan
27
28
8-AprBrittany MilesUCSCTBDTBDMarta Bryan
29
30
15-AprDaniel KollMITTBDTBD
Eugene Chiang and Peter Gao
31
32
22-AprJack LissauerAmesTBDTBDSean Wahl
33
34
29-AprPeter GaoUCBTBDTBD
35
36
6-MayRRR Week
37
38
13-MayReading Week
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
Loading...