Physics Scope and Sequence
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8/8/17HS Physics
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HS-PS2-1 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions)Concepts
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Analyze data to support the claim that Newton's second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
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Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.
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Clarification StatementEmpirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and to make claims about specific causes and effects.
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Physical Science: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force. Emphasis is on one-dimensional motion and macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.
Physics: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force. Emphasis is on kinematics, one-dimensional motion, two-dimensional motion, and macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.
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Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects.
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Ways to check for understanding
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Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models to support the claim that Newton's second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core IdeaAnalyze data using one-dimensional motion at non relativistic speeds to support the claim that Newton's second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
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Analyzing and interpreting data:
Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

• Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
FORCES AND MOTION
Newton's second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects. (HS.PS2.A.a)
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Crosscutting Concepts
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CAUSE AND EFFECT
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
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HS-PS2-2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions)Concepts
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Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object.
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If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system.
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Clarification Statement
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Physical Science: Emphasis is on calculating momentum and the qualitative meaning of conservation of momentum.
Physics: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle as well as systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.
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When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core IdeaWays to check for understanding
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Using mathematics and computational thinking:
Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions, including, computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

• Use mathematical, computational, and/or algorithmic representations of phenomena or design solutions to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations.
FORCES AND MOTION
Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object. In any system, total momentum is always conserved. (HS.PS2A.b)

If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system. (HS.PS2A.c)
Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
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Use mathematical representations of the quantitative conservation of momentum and the qualitative meaning of this principle in systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.
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Describe the boundaries and initial conditions of a system of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.
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Crosscutting Concepts
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SYSTEMS AND MODELS
When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.
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HS-PS2-3 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions)Concepts
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Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system.
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Clarification StatementCriteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and the criteria and constraints should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can determine whether a given design meets them.
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Physical Science: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of a device at protecting an object from damage such as, but not limited to,impact resistant packaging and modifying the design to improve it. Emphasis is on qualitative evaluations.
Physics: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it by applying the impulse-momentum theorem. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or an airbag. Emphasis is on qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.
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Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed.
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When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints— including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics—and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core Idea
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Constructing explanations and designing solutions:
Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering) in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

• Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade off considerations.
FORCES AND MOTION
If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system. (HS.PS2A.c)

DEFINING AND DELIMITING ENGINEERING PROBLEMS
Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. (HS.ETS1A.a)

OPTIMIZING THE DESIGN SOLUTION
Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (HS.ETS1C.a)
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New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology.
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Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect.
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Ways to check for understanding
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Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.
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Apply scientific ideas to solve a design problem for a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.
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Use qualitative evaluations and /or algebraic manipulations to design and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.
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