Occupations and wages, 1970-2008
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Mean wage income by occupation and nativity, 1970MOE of mean = standard error of mean * 2
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Universe: Civilian workforce
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Compare means: INCWAGE by CIT2 and OCC90
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Source: IPUMS_20100216
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NOTE: All wages are nominal, not adjusted for inflation.
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Mean annual wageStandard Error of MeanMargin of error of meanMargin of error (%) of meanNumber of persons
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OccupationNativeForeign-bornTotalNativeForeign-bornTotalNativeForeign-bornTotalNativeForeign-bornTotalNativeForeign-bornTotalForPer
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Financial managers$10,438.93$11,233.82$10,499.66$31.53$148.50$31.27$63.06$297.00$62.540.6%2.6%0.6%41,1003,40044,5007.6%
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Managers and specialists in marketing, advertising, and publ$11,974.39$9,940.82$11,814.96$33.26$89.61$31.52$66.52$179.22$63.040.6%1.8%0.5%57,6004,90062,5007.8%
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Managers in education and related fields$13,249.74$9,481.82$13,043.53$54.33$205.26$52.91$108.66$410.52$105.820.8%4.3%0.8%19,0001,10020,1005.5%
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Managers of medicine and health occupations$10,632.31$14,220.00$11,110.67$91.82$457.50$101.23$183.64$915.00$202.461.7%6.4%1.8%6,5001,0007,50013.3%
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Postmasters and mail superintendents$9,800.00$9,800.00$40.96$40.96$81.92$0.00$81.920.8%#DIV/0!0.8%2,0002,0000.0%
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Managers of food-serving and lodging establishments$4,862.77$4,947.12$4,875.90$37.75$116.48$36.67$75.50$232.96$73.341.6%4.7%1.5%28,2005,20033,40015.6%
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Managers of properties and real estate$3,606.61$4,035.94$3,673.30$43.96$87.05$39.53$87.92$174.10$79.062.4%4.3%2.2%17,4003,20020,60015.5%
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Funeral directors$10,431.25$10,431.25$187.50$187.50$375.00$0.00$375.003.6%#DIV/0!3.6%2,4002,4000.0%
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Managers and administrators, n.e.c.$10,207.91$8,534.06$10,082.42$13.62$47.60$13.10$27.24$95.20$26.200.3%1.1%0.3%510,80041,400552,2007.5%
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Accountants and auditors$8,210.12$8,127.27$8,202.37$20.98$48.65$19.55$41.96$97.30$39.100.5%1.2%0.5%74,6007,70082,3009.4%
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Purchasing agents and buyers, of farm products$4,475.00$10,737.50$6,264.29$157.61$382.29$174.07$315.22$764.58$348.147.0%7.1%5.6%1,0004001,40028.6%
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Buyers, wholesale and retail trade$8,522.16$8,302.50$8,498.66$56.62$246.77$57.04$113.24$493.54$114.081.3%5.9%1.3%16,7002,00018,70010.7%
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Purchasing managers, agents and buyers, n.e.c.$10,071.66$8,491.18$9,939.95$35.61$88.31$33.60$71.22$176.62$67.200.7%2.1%0.7%18,7001,70020,4008.3%
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Construction inspectors$10,446.00$12,183.33$10,632.14$51.58$165.02$50.36$103.16$330.04$100.721.0%2.7%0.9%2,5003002,80010.7%
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Inspectors and compliance officers, outside construction$10,890.74$8,125.00$10,760.59$43.28$131.38$42.19$86.56$262.76$84.380.8%3.2%0.8%8,1004008,5004.7%
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Architects$10,343.33$18,085.71$11,004.27$106.97$516.56$109.93$213.94$1,033.12$219.862.1%5.7%2.0%7,5007008,2008.5%
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Aerospace engineer$14,797.75$14,458.33$14,769.72$31.74$162.55$32.07$63.48$325.10$64.140.4%2.2%0.4%20,0001,80021,8008.3%
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Metallurgical and materials engineers, variously phrased$14,042.86$1,250.00$13,190.00$193.58$0.00$198.58$387.16$0.00$397.162.8%0.0%3.0%1,4001001,5006.7%
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Petroleum, mining, and geological engineers$10,662.50$10,662.50$167.18$167.18$334.36$0.00$334.363.1%#DIV/0!3.1%8008000.0%
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Chemical engineers$16,948.68$11,716.67$16,235.23$125.60$195.07$114.91$251.20$390.14$229.821.5%3.3%1.4%3,8006004,40013.6%
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Civil engineers$13,990.22$10,346.77$13,557.47$42.30$109.64$40.15$84.60$219.28$80.300.6%2.1%0.6%23,0003,10026,10011.9%
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Electrical engineer$14,087.85$13,987.25$14,077.83$24.72$97.73$24.30$49.44$195.46$48.600.4%1.4%0.3%46,1005,10051,20010.0%
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Industrial engineers$12,363.88$10,652.94$12,235.18$40.29$130.98$38.66$80.58$261.96$77.320.7%2.5%0.6%20,9001,70022,6007.5%
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Mechanical engineers$14,064.75$12,952.78$13,906.52$37.11$101.86$35.06$74.22$203.72$70.120.5%1.6%0.5%21,7003,60025,30014.2%
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Not-elsewhere-classified engineers$13,166.46$13,381.82$13,192.49$36.21$103.15$34.19$72.42$206.30$68.380.6%1.5%0.5%24,0003,30027,30012.1%
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Computer systems analysts and computer scientists$12,142.14$9,975.00$11,990.06$41.49$105.18$39.51$82.98$210.36$79.020.7%2.1%0.7%15,9001,20017,1007.0%
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Operations and systems researchers and analysts$12,586.21$9,850.00$12,451.64$41.89$67.55$40.33$83.78$135.10$80.660.7%1.4%0.6%11,60060012,2004.9%
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Actuaries$20,583.33$20,583.33$877.89$877.89$1,755.78$0.00$1,755.788.5%#DIV/0!8.5%3003000.0%
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Statisticians$8,220.00$4,150.00$7,541.67$132.00$136.12$117.86$264.00$272.24$235.723.2%6.6%3.1%1,5003001,80016.7%
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Mathematicians and mathematical scientists$10,940.00$12,650.00$11,095.45$169.65$0.00$154.93$339.30$0.00$309.863.1%0.0%2.8%1,0001001,1009.1%
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Physicists and astronomers$15,545.24$16,864.29$15,733.67$103.51$261.76$96.50$207.02$523.52$193.001.3%3.1%1.2%4,2007004,90014.3%
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Chemists$11,326.70$6,550.00$10,631.07$59.17$135.10$56.73$118.34$270.20$113.461.0%4.1%1.1%8,8001,50010,30014.6%
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Atmospheric and space scientists$7,950.00$7,950.00$510.39$510.39$1,020.78$0.00$1,020.7812.8%#DIV/0!12.8%2002000.0%
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Geologists$11,525.00$2,850.00$10,857.69$210.84$0.00$204.91$421.68$0.00$409.823.7%0.0%3.8%1,2001001,3007.7%
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Agricultural and food scientists$6,700.00$7,300.00$6,766.67$117.50$258.74$108.40$235.00$517.48$216.803.5%7.1%3.2%1,6002001,80011.1%
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Biological scientists$8,831.58$7,850.00$8,759.76$84.34$34.05$78.31$168.68$68.10$156.621.9%0.9%1.8%3,8003004,1007.3%
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Foresters and conservation scientists$8,170.91$8,170.91$55.36$55.36$110.72$0.00$110.721.4%#DIV/0!1.4%5,5005,5000.0%
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Physicians$9,291.37$6,228.43$8,825.07$81.70$120.43$71.89$163.40$240.86$143.781.8%3.9%1.6%28,4005,10033,50015.2%
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Dentists$6,480.85$2,578.57$6,210.40$138.78$238.90$130.59$277.56$477.80$261.184.3%18.5%4.2%9,40070010,1006.9%
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Veterinarians$11,028.26$0.00$10,146.00$233.49$0.00$222.99$466.98$0.00$445.984.2%#DIV/0!4.4%2,3002002,5008.0%
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Optometrists$4,811.11$0.00$4,557.89$138.52$0.00$133.52$277.04$0.00$267.045.8%#DIV/0!5.9%1,8001001,9005.3%
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Podiatrists$0.00$5,450.00$908.33$0.00$0.00$82.99$0.00$0.00$165.98#DIV/0!0.0%18.3%50010060016.7%
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Other health and therapy$4,223.53$0.00$3,988.89$148.30$0.00$141.91$296.60$0.00$283.827.0%#DIV/0!7.1%1,7001001,8005.6%
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Registered nurses$6,242.50$6,128.21$6,228.03$12.39$50.03$12.54$24.78$100.06$25.080.4%1.6%0.4%80,70011,70092,40012.7%
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Pharmacists$9,855.62$11,111.11$9,970.92$86.02$205.04$80.44$172.04$410.08$160.881.7%3.7%1.6%8,9009009,8009.2%
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Dietitians and nutritionists$5,697.14$5,925.00$5,739.53$69.85$153.70$63.65$139.70$307.40$127.302.5%5.2%2.2%3,5008004,30018.6%
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Therapists, n.e.c.$5,925.86$6,635.71$5,978.72$48.44$99.88$45.48$96.88$199.76$90.961.6%3.0%1.5%8,7007009,4007.4%
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Earth, environmental, and marine science instructors$8,312.50$10,050.00$8,505.56$224.74$0.00$200.58$449.48$0.00$401.165.4%0.0%4.7%80010090011.1%
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Biological science instructors$10,115.00$11,383.33$10,280.43$156.83$218.10$139.58$313.66$436.20$279.163.1%3.8%2.7%2,0003002,30013.0%
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Chemistry instructors$12,176.67$6,650.00$11,255.56$184.06$225.02$165.18$368.12$450.04$330.363.0%6.8%2.9%1,5003001,80016.7%
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Physics instructors$13,046.88$10,650.00$12,905.88$209.16$0.00$197.33$418.32$0.00$394.663.2%0.0%3.1%1,6001001,7005.9%
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Psychology instructors$16,650.00$10,150.00$15,350.00$175.83$482.04$189.22$351.66$964.08$378.442.1%9.5%2.5%8002001,00020.0%
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Economics instructors$12,721.43$6,850.00$11,416.67$148.11$269.37$153.18$296.22$538.74$306.362.3%7.9%2.7%70020090022.2%
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History instructors$8,922.22$12,250.00$9,255.00$123.49$630.90$129.66$246.98$1,261.80$259.322.8%10.3%2.8%1,8002002,00010.0%
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Sociology instructors$6,790.00$8,550.00$7,083.33$303.72$0.00$254.47$607.44$0.00$508.948.9%0.0%7.2%50010060016.7%
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Engineering instructors$11,912.50$11,287.50$11,787.50$153.37$469.55$154.55$306.74$939.10$309.102.6%8.3%2.6%1,6004002,00020.0%
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Math instructors$11,370.00$11,275.00$11,350.00$176.93$160.18$143.68$353.86$320.36$287.363.1%2.8%2.5%1,5004001,90021.1%
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Education instructors$11,566.67$7,050.00$10,921.43$189.58$0.00$173.12$379.16$0.00$346.243.3%0.0%3.2%60010070014.3%
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Law instructors$16,750.00$30,050.00$20,075.00$459.19$0.00$449.04$918.38$0.00$898.085.5%0.0%4.5%30010040025.0%
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Theology instructors$4,830.00$4,830.00$122.81$122.81$245.62$0.00$245.625.1%#DIV/0!5.1%5005000.0%
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Home economics instructors$3,490.00$3,490.00$121.00$121.00$242.00$0.00$242.006.9%#DIV/0!6.9%5005000.0%
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Subject instructors (HS/college)$9,813.45$11,814.55$10,110.11$41.42$123.85$39.94$82.84$247.70$79.880.8%2.1%0.8%31,6005,50037,10014.8%
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Kindergarten and earlier school teachers$4,356.93$2,167.86$4,186.67$29.14$39.91$27.40$58.28$79.82$54.801.3%3.7%1.3%16,6001,40018,0007.8%
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Primary school teachers$7,451.07$6,369.61$7,410.63$10.94$57.07$10.76$21.88$114.14$21.520.3%1.8%0.3%131,3005,100136,4003.7%
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Secondary school teachers$8,833.70$7,496.15$8,775.61$15.38$67.06$15.03$30.76$134.12$30.060.3%1.8%0.3%85,9003,90089,8004.3%
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Teachers , n.e.c.$4,139.49$1,396.30$3,878.70$35.67$52.47$33.01$71.34$104.94$66.021.7%7.5%1.7%25,7002,70028,4009.5%
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Vocational and educational counselors$9,578.79$12,390.00$9,713.94$55.93$133.57$53.95$111.86$267.14$107.901.2%2.2%1.1%9,90050010,4004.8%
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Librarians$6,527.98$3,333.33$6,211.16$43.10$83.77$40.64$86.20$167.54$81.281.3%5.0%1.3%10,9001,20012,1009.9%
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Archivists and curators$3,822.22$3,822.22$110.69$110.69$221.38$0.00$221.385.8%#DIV/0!5.8%9009000.0%
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Economists, market researchers, and survey researchers$11,881.25$8,930.00$11,689.61$87.22$336.18$84.83$174.44$672.36$169.661.5%7.5%1.5%7,2005007,7006.5%
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Psychologists$10,606.10$11,416.67$10,661.36$119.89$338.87$114.12$239.78$677.74$228.242.3%5.9%2.1%4,1003004,4006.8%
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Sociologists$11,250.00$11,250.00$185.46$185.46$370.92$0.00$370.923.3%#DIV/0!3.3%5005000.0%
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Social scientists, n.e.c.$7,657.69$5,550.00$7,507.14$196.33$0.00$182.87$392.66$0.00$365.745.1%0.0%4.9%1,3001001,4007.1%
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Urban and regional planners$10,250.00$10,250.00$149.13$149.13$298.26$0.00$298.262.9%#DIV/0!2.9%1,4001,4000.0%
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Social workers$7,952.12$6,678.00$7,868.07$21.75$80.76$21.07$43.50$161.52$42.140.5%2.4%0.5%35,4002,50037,9006.6%
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Recreation workers$3,394.71$1,550.00$3,377.14$36.49$0.00$36.19$72.98$0.00$72.382.1%0.0%2.1%10,40010010,5001.0%
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Clergy and religious workers$5,553.57$4,107.81$5,304.84$35.45$71.14$32.05$70.90$142.28$64.101.3%3.5%1.2%15,4003,20018,60017.2%
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Lawyers$10,107.07$16,043.75$10,270.27$68.25$495.38$67.99$136.50$990.76$135.981.4%6.2%1.3%28,30080029,1002.7%
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Judges$27,968.18$19,300.00$26,634.62$251.49$762.05$257.86$502.98$1,524.10$515.721.8%7.9%1.9%1,1002001,30015.4%
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Writers and authors$8,015.38$8,015.38$212.11$212.11$424.22$0.00$424.225.3%#DIV/0!5.3%3,9003,9000.0%
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Designers$7,416.27$8,496.30$7,539.83$44.99$126.08$42.43$89.98$252.16$84.861.2%3.0%1.1%20,9002,70023,60011.4%
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Musician or composer$6,336.01$7,262.50$6,407.74$78.55$401.86$78.88$157.10$803.72$157.762.5%11.1%2.5%14,3001,20015,5007.7%
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Actors, directors, producers$8,283.65$6,590.91$7,988.10$151.05$208.53$130.13$302.10$417.06$260.263.6%6.3%3.3%5,2001,1006,30017.5%
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Art makers: painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and print-ma$5,864.06$10,003.33$6,298.25$58.13$302.54$61.86$116.26$605.08$123.722.0%6.0%2.0%12,8001,50014,30010.5%
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Photographers$7,048.85$9,890.00$7,466.67$72.39$208.08$69.62$144.78$416.16$139.242.1%4.2%1.9%8,7001,50010,20014.7%
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Dancers$4,454.17$2,566.67$4,076.67$132.23$115.09$109.98$264.46$230.18$219.965.9%9.0%5.4%1,2003001,50020.0%
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Art/entertainment performers and related$8,986.64$7,516.67$8,914.34$74.36$235.74$71.70$148.72$471.48$143.401.7%6.3%1.6%11,60060012,2004.9%
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Editors and reporters$9,605.41$9,931.82$9,626.79$68.10$276.16$66.16$136.20$552.32$132.321.4%5.6%1.4%15,7001,10016,8006.5%
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Announcers$11,847.92$50,000.00$13,374.00$177.05$0.00$226.40$354.10$0.00$452.803.0%0.0%3.4%2,4001002,5004.0%
98
Athletes, sports instructors, and officials$3,989.51$3,150.00$3,979.27$73.67$0.00$72.78$147.34$0.00$145.563.7%0.0%3.7%8,1001008,2001.2%
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Clinical laboratory technologies and technicians$6,850.83$7,483.33$6,894.96$40.00$137.53$38.45$80.00$275.06$76.901.2%3.7%1.1%12,00090012,9007.0%
100
Dental hygenists$6,838.64$14,050.00$7,439.58$122.93$70.89$119.95$245.86$141.78$239.903.6%1.0%3.2%2,2002002,4008.3%
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