Some of the first computers
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DeviceProtagonists
Year conceived
First operationalProcessor signalsTuring- completeProgrammableStored-programArithmeticValue representationBaseBit TransmissionProgram controlTransistorisedVirtual memoryInstruction setDesign onlyGUI basedCountryNotes
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Antikythera mechanism?-100-100MechnicalNNN-Analogue-SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNGreece
"Didn't work very well"
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South-pointing chariotMa Jun230230MechnicalNNN-Analogue-SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNChina
The most dubious entry on my list: translated wheel motion into one orientation
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Schickard's calculating clockWilhelm Schickard16211623MechnicalNNNFixed-pointDigital10SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNGermany
First arithmetic calculator?
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PascalineBlaise Pascal16421645MechnicalNNNFixed-pointDigital10SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNFrance
Came in several bases for accounting currency
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Stepped ReckonerGottfried Leibniz16721694MechnicalNNNFixed-pointDigital10SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNGermany
Flawed carry mechanism
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Feinmechanikers RechenmaschinePhillip Matthaeus Hahn17701774MechanicalNNNFixed-pointDigital10SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNGermany
First calculator to do all four arithmetic ops
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Thomas ArithmomètreCharles Xavier Thomas18201851MechanicalNNNFixed-pointDigital10SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNFrance
first digital mechanical calculator strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment
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Difference engine
JH Müller, Charles Babbage, Per Georg Scheutz
17861855MechanicalNNNFixed-pointDigital10SerialPunch cardsNNHard-wiredNNUK
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Z1Konrad Zuse193601/01/1938MechanicalNYNFloating-pointDigital2SerialPunched tapeNNHard-wiredNNGermany
film not paper
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Z2Konrad Zuse193801/01/39
Electromechanical
NYNFixed-pointDigital2SerialPunched tapeNNHard-wiredNNGermany
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Aggregat 4 MischgerätHelmut Hoelzer193501/01/1940
Electromechanical
NYNFixed-pointAnalogue-SerialNNHard-wiredNNGermany
world's first on-board computer.
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Bombe
Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman
193918/03/40
Electromechanical
NNNFixed-pointDigital26?SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNUK
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Bell Labs Model 1 (Complex Number Computer)
George Stibitz01/06/3901/06/40
Electromechanical
NNNFixed-pointDigitalComplexSerialTTYNNHard-wiredNNUS
first remote use of a computer
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50 Jahre Analog ComputerHelmut Hoelzer19401941ElectronicYYNFixed-pointAnalogue-SerialNNHard-wiredNNGermany
first fully-electronic analogue computer
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Z3Konrad Zuse193907/12/41
Electromechanical
YYNFloating-pointDigital2SerialPunched tapeNNHard-wiredNNGermany
first machine to execute a program successfully. universal if provided with indirect addressing
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Atanasoff-Berry ComputerJohn Atanasoff193701/05/42ElectronicNNNFixed-pointDigital2SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNUSfirst linear
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Colossus Mk1Tommy Flowers01/03/4308/12/43ElectronicYYNFixed-pointDigital2SerialFixed jobNNHard-wiredNNUK
first large electronic valve programmable logic calculator. Colossus was kept secret until the 1970s
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Harvard Mark I (IBM
Automatic Sequence Control Calculator)
Howard Aiken193930/04/1944
Electromechanical
NYNFixed-pointDigital10SerialNNHard-wiredNNUS
a convincing demonstration of the possibility of large-scale error-free complex calculations in a programmed sequence
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Z4Konrad Zuse01/03/1945
Electromechanical
YYNFloating-pointDigital2SerialPunched tapeNNHard-wiredNNGermany
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ENIACWallace Eckert01/07/4301/11/45ElectronicYYNFixed-pointDigital10Plug wiresNNHard-wiredNNUS
first electronic, general purpose, large scale, digital computer
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IBM SSECA. Wayne Brooke01/06/4501/12/47
Electromechanical
YYYDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUS
First operational stored-program computer?
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Baby (University of Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine)
F.C. Williams and Tom Kilburn194621/06/48ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUK
first time a program stored in an electronic computing machine successfully ran and produced the expected answer. no earlier computer, not Zuse's Z3 in Germany, nor Colossus at Bletchley Park in Britain, nor ENIAC in the. United States, was in that way "like" a modern computer. First RAM
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Manchester Mark I (Intermediate)F.C. Williams and Tom Kilburn01/08/4801/04/49ElectronicYYYDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUK
first full-sized. Also known as Manchester Automatic Digital Machine
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EDSACM. V. Wilkes01/04/4601/05/49ElectronicYYYDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUK
second stored-program computer
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EDVACEckert and von Neumann01/06/4501/08/49ElectronicYYYFloating-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUS
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CSIRAC
Trevor Pearcey and Maston Beard
194701/11/49ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNAustralia
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Statistical machine of the Yamashita type
Hideo Yamashita, Ono Katsuji19401948
Electromechanical
NNNDigital2SerialNNHard-wiredNNJapan
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MESM (Малая Электронно-Счетная Машина)
Sergei Alekseyevich Lebedev01/01/1950ElectronicYYDigital2SerialNNHard-wiredNNUkraine
first universally programmable electronic computer in continental Europe
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SEC (Simple Electronic Computer)
Andrew Donald Booth and Norman Kitz
194601/01/1950ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUK
Incredible effort, 4 people
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ACE-PMAlan Turing01/01/4510/05/1950ElectronicYYNFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUK
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Whirlwind I
Jay Forrester and Robert Everett
194820/04/1951ElectronicYYYDigital2Parallel
Stored program
NNHard-wiredNNUS
The first electronic computer that was not a serial computer
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IAS computervon Neumann & Julian Bigelow194510/06/52ElectronicYYYDigital2ParallelPunched tapeNNHard-wiredNNUS
Claim: "world’s first parallel modern computer". (parallel at the bit level). Asynchronous CPU
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Manchester Transistor ComputerL. Grimsdale and D. C. Webb195201/11/53ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
YNHard-wiredNNUK
world's first transistorised computer
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Prototype transistorized IBM 604Ralph Palmer?01/10/54ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
YNHard-wiredNNUK
the first fully transistorized computer
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Harwell CADETE. H. Cooke-Yarborough01/02/55ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
YNHard-wiredNNUK
the first fully transistorized computer in Europe
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ETL Mark III
Takahashi Shigeru, Nishino Hiroji
1956ElectronicYYYDigital2
Stored program
YNHard-wiredNNJapan
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Parametron Computer 1Hidetosi Takahasi, Eiichi Goto195701/01/1958ElectronicYYNFixed-pointDigital2NNHard-wiredNNJapanmajority logic
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Tokyo Automatic ComputerHideo Yamashita19501959ElectronicYYYDigital2NNHard-wiredNNJapan
Sometimes billed as the first electronic digital computer but there's no sense this is true
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Setun
Sergei Sobolev and Nikolai Brusentsov
195701/01/1959ElectronicYYY?Digital3Serial?NNHard-wiredNNRussia
Russian ternary computer
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Fairchild Solid-State Micrologic Elements
Jay Last26/5/1960ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
YNCISCNNUS
first planar integrated circuit
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Texas Instruments molecular computer
Jack Kilby and Harvey Cragon01/10/61ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Serial
Stored program
YNCISCNNUS
first basic integrated circuit computer. Invented 12/9/1958
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Atlas ComputerTom Kilburn195807/12/62ElectronicYYYFloating-pointDigital2Parallel
Stored program
YYHard-wiredNNUK
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IBM System/360Gene Amdahl, Fred Brooks07/04/64ElectronicYYYFloating-pointDigital2Parallel
Stored program
YYCISCNNUS
first use of an abstract instruction set architecture
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CDC 6600Seymour Cray196301/01/1965ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Parallel
Stored program
YYRISCNNUS
first RISC computer (anarchronistic name, but true)
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Xerox Alto
Charles Thacker, Alan Kay, Butler Lampson
197101/03/73ElectronicYYYFixed-pointDigital2Parallel
Stored program
YYCISCNYUS
first GUI-based computer
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Analytical EngineCharles Babbage1834-MechanicalYYYFixed-pointDigital10SerialPunch cardsNNHard-wiredYNUK
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