WH 40k 8e Damage Calculations
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This sheet contains calculations for the average wounds per turn for a variety of units and weapons, firing against a variety of test-dummies. The stats for the attacker are on the left, while the average wounds are on the right, with the test-dummy chart further to the right in each case. Below the primary chart, you will find a second chart, which displays average points per wound per turn for each matchup. In the case of units with multiple weapons, they will have a listing for each separate weapon at the top chart, and listings on the bottom chart for firing different combinations of weapons. If a unit can only have one weapon equipped at a time, (or extra weapons cost nothing), the cost in the table is the cost of unit + weapon of interest. If a unit has weapon combinations, the costs listed for each weapon is for only the weapon itself, though the cost of the unit is factored into the cost-efficiency in the lower table. In the cost-calculations table, if the full wargear for a given unit isn't specified, assume that any options not specified are left at their default state.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, but instead is using choice bits from each faction I work on. Provided on this page is the full formula I use, such that you can do your own calculations for anything I haven't covered already. Do note that more efficient does not always mean better, as the points-efficiency chart does not take into account factors such as range, durability of the unit or mobility. Context will always be important, units do not exist in a vacuum. These charts are simply intended to give you ballparks for what you can expect when you use a particular unit to attack at a particular target, and approximately how expensive that firepower is relative to alternatives. Happy math-hammering!

-Chart Anon
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Formula
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To-hit(7-BS)/6
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To-Wound
if(S=T, 1/2, if(S>T, if(T*2-1<S, 5/6, 4/6), if(S<T, if(S*2-1<T, 1/6, 2/6))
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Save
(if((Sv+AP)<Invuln, Sv+AP, Invuln)-1)/6
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Damage
if(die=0, if(W>D,D,W),if(W+1>D,D/2+.5,((D(D+1))/2-((D-W)(D-W+1))/2)/D))
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Volume of FireShots*Models
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Final
[To-Hit]*[To-wound]*[Save]*[Damage]*[Volume of Fire]
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Cost-Calculation Conditional Formatting: Using Minimum/Middle/Max numbers of 25/55/200
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Attacker Stat Explanations
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BS/WS
You need to roll X+ for a hit
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S
Strength of the attack
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Current Project:IG ExtrasAP
Armor penetration, subtracted from the armor save of the target
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Chart-Anon Status:Back!
Shots per Model
The number of attacks each model gets when they attack with this weapon
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Die/Fixed
Indicates to the formula whether the D value represents a flat damage or the size of a damage-die
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D
Damage (Die or fixed value, depending on preceding)
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Unit Size
Number of models in the unit, generally minimum unit size with this weapon, or the minimum to get a buff based on number
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Cost
Cost of weapon in question, or cost of the entire unit if the unit only has one weapon that needs to be accounted for in cost
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^(Can be inconsistent, don't use this as reference)
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Special NotesSingle WoundReroll
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Melta
Uses average of 4.47 for 2d6b1, only accurate v W6+
1/60.170.3055555556
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Reroll 1's to-hit
Change BS probability from (7-BS)/6 to instead be (7*(7-BS))/36
2/60.330.5555555556
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To-wound 6=+1 MW
1/6 average wounds per turn added per shot +1/6*(BS Factor)*(Volume of Fire)
3/60.500.75
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Flamer
Skips to-hit phase
4/60.670.8888888889
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Smite
(.1111+.1389+.1667+.1389+.1111+.0833)*2+3.5*(.0556+.0278)=1.79 MW/round on average (0.8334 for GK)
5/60.830.9722222222
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Reroll To-Wound
To-wound factor changes to 1-(1-[Normal to-wound factor])^2
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Reroll To-Hit
To-hit factor changes to 1-(1-[Normal to-hit factor])^2
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To-Hit 6=Bonus Attack
Attacks increased by (Base attacks)/6
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Tesla (Necron)
Hits increased by 2*1/6*[Volume of Fire]
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To-Wound 6=Different D or AP
Split the formula such that it is [To-hit]*[Volume of fire]*(1/6*[Modified Save]*[Modified Damage]+([Regular to-wound]-1/6)*[Regular save]*[Regular damage])
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Markerlight
Values listed to the right are simply the average number of hits, not wounds dealt. This does not take into account the potential to individually fire MLs, which could slightly increase this.
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Messasges:
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To one Anonymous Wolverine: CSM FW is an option for next project, but I feel a bit weird about starting real work on FW when there are factions like Tyranids still not done. I'll consider it. If I did CSM FW, what specific subset would you be interested in?
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To one Anonymous Koala: Hellforged FW CSM is officially the top of my FW to-do list! (I may tackle a couple of the remaining Index factions first)
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To one Anonymous Dolphin: Ah, I did make a mistake on Asurmen's shooting! I had one shot, where it should have been two. Should be fixed now, thanks!
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To one Anoymous Chipmunk: I have definitely been known to make mistakes, and frequently make corrections based on such errors being pointed out in the chat. However, I'm not clear on how the Pulse Carbine vs TEQ line is incorrect; To-hit 4+ is 1/2, to-wound 3+ is 2/3, armor save is 1/6, volume of fire is 20, that equals 0.56.
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GW IndicesImperium 1Imperium 2ChaosXenos 1Xenos 2FAQ 1.1 Status
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Space MarinesImperial GuardCSMNecronsOrksDoneImperium 1
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UltramarinesIG ExtrasDaemonsCWEldarT'auWIPImperium 2
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Assorted SM extrasImperial KnightsHarlequinsGSCXenos 1
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BAnglesMinistorumYnnariXenos 2
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Dangles
Astra Telepathica/SoS
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Space WolvesAssassinorum
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DeathwatchInquisitionQueue
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Grey KnightsCustodesIG Extras
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FortificationsTyranids
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Vanilla SM (when digital codex releases)
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Remaining SM stuff
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FW IndicesSpace MarinesImperial GuardChaosXenosFW Hellforged
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Battle ArmorMilitarumDaemon-BoundNecrons
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Heavy ArmorDeath KorpsHellforgedTyranids
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Strike CraftR&HLords of RuinDrukhari
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Battlefield SupportImperial Knights
Children of the Warp
T'au
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GK/Inq/SoBTitansChaos KnightsAsuryani
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CharactersChaos Titans
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