Blockchains Built from Scratch
Available Categories (see tabs below)
|61 projects found so far||27 projects found so far|
41 suggestions dismissed so far
Rules and Explanations
- We are looking for distributed ledger projects that were truly built from scratch (no forks, no simple patchwork of pre-existing technologies)
- Projects with running blockchains/dags/block lattices etc. go into the "Running" tab, those not yet running into "Announced"
- There must be proof for the "built from scratch" claim, ideally open source code commits that demonstrate a creation history, or multiple credible soures that confirm the fact
- Projects not built from scratch, but examined for that property go under "Dismissed"
- "Rightful successors" are acceptable, example: AntShares->NEO, Loopchain->Icon, or Crypti->Lisk (because Crypti officially merged their project into Lisk)
- The oldest running chain on a codebase goes on the list, e.g. Bytecoin is older than Monero and still running, so Bytecoin goes on the list. Other examples: BitShares goes on the list, not EOS, NXT, not Ardor.
- If the chain started with a forked client, but the client was later rebuilt from scratch, the project does NOT go on the list. Examples: Stratis, Ark V2, Rise. This is admittedly an edge case, but starting a new chain seems to be a substantially bigger challenge than building a client for a running chain.
- Unclear: does the protocol have to be new? E.g. if I reimplement Cryptonote in Scala, do I make the list? Right now, we include these projects.
- "Velocity" column: average number of commits per day (since first commit), to give a rough idea of development intensity
Keep in mind that I am not judging the overall quality of blockchain projects that I put on this list. I try to assess the simple property "built (coded) from scratch",
to get an idea of where the forked projects are coming from, who the new players are, and what changes people propose to distributed ledger technology in general.
This is a code history/forensics project, there are many promising forked projects out there.
- Please DM @cryptic_monk on Twitter, Discord or Telegram if you spot any errors or would like to add a project
- If you think that you spotted a project that I missed, please check the "Dismissed" tab first and verify whether you can find it there and argue with my reasoning
|Added Near Protocol|
Added Elrond to Announced
Added Chainspace to Announced
Updated BEAM, HT Stas Oskin
|Updated entry for Ark|
Added Phantasma Chain to Running/testnet
Revised Tron https://twitter.com/cryptic_monk/status/1095342985691058176
Revisited a number of announced projects (see "last visited" column)
Moved Blue Protocol to Dismissed
Moved CPChain to "Dismissed"
Upgraded Ergo to Running (Testnet)
Upgraded Insolar to Running (Testnet)
|Upgraded Nuls to mainnet|
Upgraded Quarkchain to testnet
Upgraded Rchain to testnet
Removed TERA, could not find info about the project any more
Upgraded Aeternity to mainnet
Upgraded Ontology to mainnet
Upgraded Zilliqa to mainnet
Upgraded IOST to mainnet
|Added QLC and Cova|
Master Commits by May 2018
Most data based on GitHub release, here's Satoshi's original drop: http://www.metzdowd.com/pipermail/cryptography/2009-January/014994.html
Monero is well known, but Bytecoin is the first CryptoNote implementation, so CryptoNote needs to be attributed here, if at all. (Monero is a Bytecoin fork)
NXT was launched in November 2013 (anonymously), it's generally accepted to be built from scratch in Java. Data given here based on Jean-Luc's BitBucket repo.
Could not determine exact mainnet launch date.
We are attributing Graphene to BitShares, since the creators are the same and doesn't have a working blockchain.
Many think that Waves is a fork of something (maybe NXT), but it looks like it's been built from scratch in Scala.
Lisk is orignially based on Crypti (2014), but Crypti merged into Lisk in 2016.
Initial version of PascalCoin was delivered in one big commit, but the language alone proves that this is a from-scratch project.
NEO Smart Economy
NEO started out as AntShares
DERO combines a Go port of the cryptonote protocol, a blockchain, and a DAG, all built from scratch.
XDAG seems to be the rightful successor of Cheatcoin, Cheatcoin is built from scratch.
First version delivered as a "lump" commit, but quite obviously written from scratch.
Icon is the successor of loopchain
We atribute Zack's original Aeternity code to Amoveo, Aeternity is being built on a new codebase now.
Delivered in a lump commit, but seems to be built from scratch.
Quantum Resistant Ledger
Updated: mainnet launched successfully.
Initially delivered via lump commits/obfuscated code, this chain is obviously written from scratch (and now open source)
Blockchain started as betanet and switched to mainnet on September 17th, 2018. Development now on GitLab: https://gitlab.com/tezos/tezos/
Updated: mainnet launched successfully.
Ontology is supposed to be "compatible" with AntShares/NEO, but it's been written from scratch in Go.
Adaptable blockchain targeting enterprise clients.
New kind of consensus, new kind of proof.
Aeternity and Amoveo have a complex combined history. Here, we attribute the "epoch" code to Aeternity and Zack's original version to Amoveo.
One of two Mimblewimble implementations launched in 2019
One of two Mimblewimble implementations launched in 2019
Edge case. ZIL relies heavily on a number of 3rd party libraries (quite uncommon in the blockchain space), but one could argue that the blockchain part has been built from scratch.
Mainnet launched (genesis block has a different date): https://medium.com/iost/the-most-complete-mainnet-launch-iost-olympus-has-arrived-3a769c47e84a
Cosmos is a complex project, took the main repo "cosmos-sdk" as a reference here.
Nano started out as RaiBlocks
Testnet only, Mainnet announced for Q1 2019.
Hyperledger Sawtooth does not fit our criteria strictly, because it's a blockchain framework, rather than the foundation of one clearly identifiable blockchain. Still, it's a massive development effort and merits a spot here. It's been developed by Intel's incubation group initially and opensourced in March 2016.
Testnet only. Born as Archain, but can be considered a "rightful successor"
Factom is an edge case that is difficult to classify. Factom anchors itself in the Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains, but operates its own data chains too. The anchoring part (and the start of the project) is based on the bitcoin "wire" level protocol library. Here, I am using the initial commit by Paul Snow (current CEO of Factom) as the start of the Factom project itself (the project was still called NotaryChain back then). This project could as well go into the "dismissed" tab, because it's not fitting the rules perfectly and doesn't have one public blockchain, but one could also argue that it merits the spot here.
Testnet only. Polkadot is a "heterogenous multi-chain technology", but it's definitely built from scratch and has one central "relay" chain.
Testnet only, scalable (multichain) cloud computing platform.
Testnet only. Delivered as a lump commit, but looks like it's been built from scratch.
Testnet only. New consensus algo: Delegate Asynchronous PoS
Testnet only. This one relies on other projects (Parity, most notably), but let's give it the benefit of the doubt for now, because it's very heavily customized.
Testnet only. Revisited March 18th, 2019: Ergo is now in Testnet 2 (https://testnet.ergoplatform.com/), mainnet coming soon (tm), expected roughly Q2 2019.
From scratch high-TPS blockchain currently in testnet
Currently in Testnet2: https://testnet2.quarkchain.io
In testnet. Mainnet announced for Q2 2019.
Mainnet announced for March 31st, 2019
Testnet explorer: http://status.covalent.ai:3030/d/VI5BaaPiz/cova-network-status?refresh=15s&orgId=1
Master Commits by May 2018
New high performance blockchain. Announced an alpha now, but not a lot of code to be seen yet, and a lot of project communication revolves around minor achievements like conference participations or design changes. https://medium.com/0chain, http://0chain.net/
https://www.blockcollider.org/. Block Collider uses its own chain in conjunction with marked tokens (similar to colored coins) on the chains it bridges: Lisk, Ethereum, Waves, Neo, BTC to create a decentralized multiasset chain. No real testnet or code to be seen yet.
Announced dApp platform: https://bloqly.com/ with a sidechain model.
Go (planned, poc is in Java)
Project now seems to be in public development, but with very long interruptions in code submissions. No testnet yet. Scaleable smart contracts platform, proof of concept available: https://github.com/chainspace/chainspace/commits/master
No publicly visible development yet. Proof of space/proof of time blockchain by Bram Cohen of BitTorrent fame. https://www.chia.net/
Coda now has an in-browser testnet, but not all parts are publicly accessible, so too early to upgrade to "Running". Constant-sized blockchain project. https://codaprotocol.com/
Project delayed public testnet and went into "working hard behind the scenes" mode, supposedly to work directly with clients instead of with the community. https://constellationlabs.io/
Only individual components released so far, requires further exploration when public testnet becomes available.
Applied for testnet. Proposes a new approach to scaling, called adaptive state sharding. https://elrond.com/files/Elrond_Whitepaper_EN.pdf, prototype available: https://github.com/ElrondNetwork/
Seems to be running on testnet, though I still have trouble understanding in how far this project is running a decentralized ledger. It primarily seems to be a set of machines running the EVM, upon superficial understanding.
I do not fully understand what HEAT does, requires further exploration.
Currently in preparation for closed alpha.
Kadena is focusing on improving smart contract development/technology, but also announced its own blockchain tech, ChainWeb. http://kadena.io/ Full project progress doesn't seem to be available publicly. Public testnet announced: https://medium.com/kadena-io/announcement-kadena-public-blockchain-testnet-live-dbfb8a6477c5
Experimental Python based anon coin. Seems to be in testnet, hard to find info about the project.
Current MAID coin is based on Omnilayer, it's unclear what the project will eventually release
Instant and feeless cryptocurrency, running occasional testnets.
"Mobile ad hoc blockchains": https://monet.network/about.html. Project related to Babble, which also finds use in Fantom. Difficult to classify as it's set up more like a service than like an independent blockchain so far.
Sharding approach to scaling, from a team with a background in database sharding. Alphanet approaching.
High-performance cloud computing DAG project. Some code, but no public testnet yet.
Currently in alphanet.
Announced a new dBFT consensus and a very fast blockchain, no details, code or proof yet. https://redbellyblockchain.io/
Announced DAG based dlt by DagLabs. daglabs.com
Announced a new consensus mechanism, probably a new blockchain, but not enough to be seen yet.
EVM compatible high performance blockchain. Appears to be in mainnet (https://scan.thundercore.com/), but cannot find core code online (https://github.com/thundercore). Suspicious amount of Ethereum software in this repo. https://www.thundercore.com/
Announced high-throughput DAG project. Couldn't find code in public GitHub yet. https://github.com/Tolar-HashNET. Public testnet announced for Q2 2019.
This project has a completely unique architecture, it's unlike any other distributed ledger project, needs further analysis. http://media.urbit.org/whitepaper.pdf
Based on Bitcoin
Bitmark claims to be from scratch, but imports a lot of code from other projects. https://github.com/project-bitmark/bitmark/commit/989c848f89f1708fe8c596eb986076808f7d9016
Revisited March 18th, 2019: Blue Protocol is a suite of tools on top of Ethereum, not a new from-scratch chain
BOS is a Stellar fork.
This is not a blockchain, but a scaling solution for multiple blockchains.
CHBT is based on Bitcoin/PPCoin/Novacoin
Based on Go-Ethereum: https://github.com/CPChain/chain/commits/master?after=fb003af2b3dba13bb27c99d7bad10a83e88ff63d+12140
Decred is a bitcoin fork with many additions and changes
XEL is a Bitcoin fork
Eos is based on BitShares (in turn based on Graphene) and cannot be considered its successor since BitShares is still an active project
Fantom is based on babble (https://github.com/mosaicnetworks/babble)
Foam is a dApp on Ethereum
Based on Bcoin/Bitcoin, very unique project that tries to replace the DNS root zone file and the root servers with a public commons.
This project is clearly written from scratch in NodeJS, but it is currently not functional, unfortunately. Code see https://github.com/cryptocurs/hidecoin/commits/master?after=7edea5dd742b8b3cea279b89cb75262530913243+180
Based on Bitcoin
Komodo is a zCash fork
Based on Novacoin
Maxcoin is a bitcore/bitcoin fork
Metaverse is originally based on libbitcoin, see https://github.com/mvs-org/metaverse/commit/a5efc33008678dfa12eba10d958eb588b7387216
Heavily based on Ethereum: https://github.com/MinterTeam/minter-go-node/commit/bad4e69b1dbb49fa3c80bf94ccfe0c0effc9b3b2
Multichain is (partially) based on Bitcoin
Neblio is based on Novacoin (which is in turn based on Bitcoin), see: https://github.com/NeblioTeam/neblio/commit/9fe7478f9adb27bbde140c514c97748fbb739d25
NXS is a fork of PPCoin (which is a fork of Bitcoin), see: https://github.com/Nexusoft/Nexus/commit/682227eeff811b72c284b4326b981e94c0beb00a
This is an interesting project with a unique proposal (trustless storage and access management for private data), but can it be considered a distributed ledger project in our sense? Furthermore, the core DL technology is based on the Kademlia library.
|Oyster||Pearls?||Based on IOTA|
PIVX is a Dash fork
Quora is a blockchain built from scratch. The project is, unfortunately, partially defunct (block explorer + parts of website not working, delisted from Polo, trading volume on only remaining exchange a few $/day)
Raven is a Bitcoin fork
Similar situation as with Stratis: Rise have rewritten their node from scratch, but the original node is of Crypti/Lisk decent.
Shift is based on Lisk/Crypti
Based on Ethereum
Interesting project, but it's a patchwork of existing code. The DAG, for example, is based on hyperlog.
Spectre is a BlackCoin fork (which goes back to BTC via Novacoin and PPCoin)
The Stratis blockchain is based on a fork of the Bitcoin code, the Stratis full node was built from scratch as a Bitoin full node, then ported to the Stratis blockchain
Revised. Quite a bit of code borrowed from EthereumJ (without proper attribution first, but that was changed later), e.g. almost all the crypto routines, or the datasource routines. This really is an edge case, as most of the borrowed code doesn't seem to have made it into the testnet/mainnet version, and as the small amount that's still borrowed now appears to be properly attributed.
Trustnote is initially based on Byteball, see: https://github.com/trustnote/trustnote-common/commit/b46a07df2537d95d168a9d102b711a7cace9fbc3
Twist is a Stratis fork
Dismissed as per explicit "we're not built from scratch" statement by the CEO: https://medium.com/@vechainofficial/an-open-letter-from-sunny-lu-ceo-on-vechainthor-platform-b52d47cd0efd, looking at the code, I still think that this is an edge case.
Wanchain is an Ethereum fork, see: https://github.com/wanchain/go-wanchain/commit/f69b70fb7bbf9c22e3df75e75affd16168bbae21
Based on Bitcoin