AHIS300 American Indians & the US Course Timeline
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YearMonthDayEnd YearEnd MonthEnd DayHeadlineTextMediaMedia CreditMedia CaptionGroup
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History of American Indians and the United StatesA collaborative timeline of events for Fall 2017 History of American Indians & the United States, University at Albanyhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1b/University_at_Albany%2C_SUNY_Seal.svg
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2016NoDAPLhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/Dakota_Access_Pipeline_protesters_against_Donald_Trump_%2831619797533%29.jpg/2560px-Dakota_Access_Pipeline_protesters_against_Donald_Trump_%2831619797533%29.jpgLand
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1817914SeminolesThe Seminole tribe is native to Florida in the Everglades and wetlands. Their main tribe is the Panther clan which almost hunted Florida panthers to extinction. The Seminoles lands are being threatened by the draining of the swamps and lakes which they say is playing god. Seminoles also were involved in the Seminole War due to them housing escaped Black Slaves in 1817 which angered white slave holders. General Andrew Jackson sent a battalion into Seminole land for an attack, with around 500,000 soldiers on Jacksons side they were still defeated by the Seminoles. The second war in 1837 was also won by the Seminole tribe which made Andrew Jackson sign an Indian Removal Act that displaced many Natives in the area.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Osceola.jpgLand
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1887925Dawes Allotment Act (1887)The Dawes Allotment Act was a way in which the U.S government attempted to break up tribes. The Dawes Act was passed to break up reservations and give lands to Natives as private owners. This was another way to "Americanize" Native Americans.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Poster_2013-08-14_08-45.jpgLaw
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1763Proclamation of 1763Due to friction between the colonies and the Native Indians, the Crown was strained due to the demand for war efforts. To prevent this strain, the Proclamation of 1763 was enacted which prevented settelment past he Appalachian Mountains. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Map_of_territorial_growth_1775.svg/506px-Map_of_territorial_growth_1775.svg.pngLaw
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1779829Battle of NewtownMajor battle during the 1779 Sullivan Expedition (aka Sullivan-Clinton Campaign) occuring just outside of present-day Elmira. Military campaign organized by George Washington during the Revolutionary War against Loyalists and the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in Upstate New York, regarded as punishment for siding with Britain. 1,000 Iroquois lives lost, many relocated to Fort Niagara or Canada, and many died from the cold, disease or starvation due to the loss of food stores destroyed by the army. Considered a success in American history, by defeating a 'major threat' to the revolution and effectively breaking the Iroquois Confederacy. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/NewtownBattlefieldView.jpg/1280px-NewtownBattlefieldView.jpgWar
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1827Cherokee ConstitutionThe Cherokee Nation drafts an initial constitution to submit to the US government. Their constitution declared tribal sovereignty and independence from the US government and eas eventually declined the the government.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Cherokee_National_Capitol.jpg/1920px-Cherokee_National_Capitol.jpgRemoval
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1830Cherokee RemovalPresident Andrew Jackson signs a bill forcing either the assimilation of Cherokee Indians into US society or their removal from the States of Georgia and Alabama. This forces almost all Cherokees onto reservations west of the Mississippi.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Chief_John_Ross.jpgRemoval
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1835The Treaty of New EchotaThe Cherokee ceded their land to the US government in return for financial compensation for the lands. This led to their forced removal and what has become known as the Trail of Tears. ( Cherokee Nation, pg 141)Removal
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1846Treaty of 1846Cherokee groups and factions were brought together and given compensation and lands as the result of this new treaty. This was done by the US government to compensate and make up for the taking of the Cherokees eastern lands.(Cherokee Nation 159) Treaty
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1876Battle of a Little BighornThis popular event was instigated by the refusal of the Sioux people of a government offer to buy the Black Hills that was granted them in the Treaty of Fort Laramie. In response, the U.S. had the army demand that all Sioux and Northern Cheyenne people move to the reservations by January 31, 1876 and then attacked those who did not submit to their orders. The Battle of Little Bighorn (which Sitting Bull oarticilated in) was a battle that ended in an Indian victory. (page 348-349)https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Charles_Marion_Russell_-_The_Custer_Fight_%281903%29.jpg/2560px-Charles_Marion_Russell_-_The_Custer_Fight_%281903%29.jpgLand
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17571763Seven Years' WarConsidered as the first "World War", Opposed the Kingdom of France and its allies against the British and their allies. The war was fought in Europe, North America and in the West Indies.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Conference_Between_the_French_and_Indian_Leaders_Around_a_Ceremonial_Fire_by_Vernier.jpg
War
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1763Treaty of Paris End of the Seven Years' War and end of French colonies in American (except the Antilles and Saint Pierre et Miquelon.) British and Spanish are now masters of North America. Costliest war ever fought by the British. Creation of boundary between colonies and Natives' land. War
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17631765Pontiac's WarWar between confederation of Tribes (such as the Hurons, the Shawnees or the Delwares) from different area and the British. Many tribes were not satisfied by the policies imposed in the Great Lake region previously enacted after the Seven Years' War.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Pontiac_conspiracy.jpgWar
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17761783American RevolutionRising of the Thirteen Colonies of America against the British. Ended on the victory of the Americans with the help of the French with the Peace Treaty of Paris in 1783 which recognized the creation of the United States of America. War
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16831771Penn's Treaty with the Indians At the height of treaaties being used to rightfully acquire land from the Native Americans William Penn obtained land in Pennsylvania and kept it as a peaceful and open land for both European settlers and Indians until Scoth-Irish settlers quickly turned it into a place of racism toward the Natives insuing in bloodshed. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Treaty_of_Penn_with_Indians_by_Benjamin_West.jpgTreaty
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16801750Indian migration to the PlainsBetween the years 1680-1750 North AMerica was experiencing a vast amount of European settlers that enaged in wars and treaties with the Natives that took thier land and slowly pushed Indian tribes to the Great Plains where the land was open and mostly free of European settlers. The movement to the Plains caused Native Americans to adopt a different way of life and become very influenced by European ways, such as the incorporation of the horse and guns to thier culture.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Bodmer_--_Blackfoot_Indian%2C_1840-1843.jpg/1920px-Bodmer_--_Blackfoot_Indian%2C_1840-1843.jpgLand
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1754Albany Congress of 1754step in unifying the british colonies ,colonial officails spoke to irqouis men who spoke on wampum belts and women strung belts for use in council.The book described the meeting as a cultural encounterhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/Albany_Congress.jpeg/250px-Albany_Congress.jpegTreaty
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1737Walking purchaseDelawares lost their land in the north part of delawre and the lehigh valleys when William Penn made a deal that allowed him and a his heirs to be granted all the land "as far as a man can go in a day and a half , later this became a place with very high racial tnesion which led to violence and ruined any chance of Natives living thier in harmony.Land
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16751676King Philip's WarOccurs as a result of tensions between Wampanoag Indians and Plymouth colonists in the Massachusetts/Connecticut area. Plymouth colonists were attempting to extend their jurisdiction to Native crimes committed on what they percieved as their territory. The war breaks out as a series of violent conflicts that last through the winter of 1675. Although both sides suffer terrible losses, the colonists end up prevailing and continued to push tribes away from them.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Night_Attack_of_Indians.jpgWar
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1621322Official Native American NegotiationA Native American delegation walked through now New England to negotiate with foreigners who had taken over a recently deserted Indian settlement. The head of the the Wampanog confederation was Massaoit, an uneasy leader. Samoset, a sachem of an allied group to the north, and Tisquantum, a distrusted captive. Massaoit intended to abandon and reverse long-standing policy of only allowing Europeans to stay for a limited amount of time. The meeting was a critical moment in American history, as the Europeans barely survived the winter and the meeting gave the Europeans access to the services of Tisquantum. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Interview_of_Samoset_with_the_Pilgrims.jpgWar
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1620Plymouth ColonyEstablished by the Pilgrims as the first permanent English settlement in New England. Located north of Cape Cod, Massachusetts.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Thanksgiving-Brownscombe.jpgLand
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1608Quebec CityFounded by Samuel de Champlain and gave the French a foothold in the fur trade with Native Americans. The tale of him, along with Algonquins and Hurons, confronting a group of Iriquois Indians, is an example of Native's first witnessing the power of European firearms.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Champlain_Habitation_de_Quebec.jpgLand
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1565St. Augustine ColonyFirst perminant Spanish colony in the modern day United States. Functioned as major Spanish mission in which local tribes were attempted to be converted to Christianity. Colony represents Spanish claims moving northword into Florida from Mexico and Central America. http://www.pbchistoryonline.org/middle-school-lessons/010-Mendenez/st_augustine-early.jpghttp://www.pbchistoryonline.orgAn early look at the colony upon initial Spanish arrivalLand
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15391543Hernando de SotoCommands an army that sweeps across the southern area of the United States, killing many Native people and commandeering supplies. After his campaign, the south is described as a "shatter zone" because of the way it broke up the organization of Native tribes.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/DeSoto_Map_HRoe_2008.jpgLand
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1493Christopher ColumbusMakes his second journey to Hispaniola with the purpose of colonization. First instance of trade and exchange between Europeans and Natives, who learned from each other's knowledge and technology, which became known as "the Columbian exchange."https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/Portrait_of_a_Man%2C_Said_to_be_Christopher_Columbus.jpg/1280px-Portrait_of_a_Man%2C_Said_to_be_Christopher_Columbus.jpgLand
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1492Christopher ColumbusMakes first journey to Hispaniola (Modern day Haiti and Dominican Republic). Columbus uses the term "noble savage" to describe the Indians and says they will be good servants and easy to Christianize.https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Landing_of_Columbus_%282%29.jpg/2560px-Landing_of_Columbus_%282%29.jpgLand
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