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CountryRegulations/RulesWeight limitCategoriesROCLicenseCofA (1)VLOSBVLOSHeight limitLateral distanceOperational limitationsRight of wayOcurrence reportingWho is doing enforcement?Insurance Privacy and data protection (are reflected in the laws of the country?)Penalties for non-compliance with the existing rulesQEFlight SchoolsRemarksWhat does your rules /regulations consider as "Small RPAS"?Registration and labelling of certain small RPASLevel of information and documentation required for flying "Small RPAS"Any spacial restrictions for small RPAS?Provisions related to model aircraft used as RPAS
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AustraliaNo weight limit.< 2 kg
2 < 25 kg
25 < 150 kg
150 kg +
UOC, except for models and commercial < 2 kgRemote pilot licence with ratings and endorsements.
No medical
For aircraft over 150 kg can use experimental or limited A/W certificate processYesCase-by-case400 ft in general.

Above 400 ft with approval and relevant conditions
VLOS limited to distance RP can see, control and orient RPA.Standard Condition
(a) the RPA is operated within the visual line of sight of the person operating the RPA; and
(b) the RPA is operated at or below 400 ft AGL by day; and
(c) the RPA is not operated within 30 m of a person who is not directly associated with the operation of the RPA; and
(d) the RPA is not operated:
(i) in a prohibited area; or
(ii) in a restricted area that is classified as RA3; or
(iii) in a restricted area that is classified as RA2 or RA1 otherwise than in accordance with regulation 101.065; or
(iv) over a populous area; or
(v) within 3 nautical miles of the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome; and
(e) the RPA is not operated over an area where a fire, police or other public safety or emergency operation is being conducted without the approval of a person in charge of the operation; and
(f) the person operating the RPA operates only that RPA.

Approval required outside these conditions
None. Must give way to all other aircraft.Incidents and accidents in line with general requirements.Not applicable as not considered to be a safety issue.?Approved UOC holders may conduct remote pilot training.These comments relate to the system about to be implemented by amendments to Part 101 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations, 1998.
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Austria150 kgyes, 5 and 25 kgApproval required for class 1 VLOSFor more risky categories gradual increase of pilot qualifications. Varies from operator responsibility, via operator declaration to ACG approval.No CofA, but operational approval. Depends on area of operation. Matrix provided with mass categories vs. areas of operationyesYes, provisions in the Aeronautical Act, detailed regulation pending.150 meter AGL[2]500 meterDepends on area of operation. AOO[3] has 4 categories: undeveloped area, unsettled area, settled area and densely populated/gathering of people area. Operation within 2500 meter from airport only with permission of the owner.-yesyes--Rules not applicable < 79 Joule. BVLOS has to adhere to manned aviation rules. Categorisation in 4 categories for area of operation, based on population density
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Belgium150 kg< 1 kg recreational
< 5kg class 2 activities
> 5 kg class 1 activities (low risk 1b - high risk 1a)
No, but prior autorisation for high risk class 1 operations and declaration from operator for low risk class 1 operations. Class 2 operations need no autorisation,Yes, Remote pilot licence including LAPL medical for all class 1 activities. For class 2 activities only practical examination with cetificate from examinor when you passed successfully, without LAPL medical.No certificate of airworthiness needed, but for class 1a (high risk) activities, RPAS must have certificate of conformity that demonstrates the RPAS is able to fly the mission safely because of its special charactristics.yesBLOS only possible with derogation to rules of the air. It is immedialtely a class 1a (high risk) activity, requiring a prior autorisation with extra restrictions, if necessary.300 ft AGL
Above 300ft AGL only possible with derogation to rules of the air. It is immedialtely a class 1a (high risk) activity, requiring a prior autorisation with extra restrictions, if necessary.
Related to distance between pilot and observerNot in controlled airspace, not is special airspace areas,
> 1,5 NM distance from airports,
> 0,5 NM from heliports
> 50m from buildings, persons, animals
RPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftyesyesNot implemented yet but the Regulation is open to use QE.No, responsibility of the operator, but flight instructor required.
Examination for theory and practise obligatory for class 1 activities. For class 2 activities, only practical examination
Publication planned April 2016
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CanadaNo weight limit.No categories.Yes, Special Flight Operations Certificate (SFOC). Assessed on a case-by-case basis.No pilot licence.No Cof A.Yes.SFOC allows for BVLOS; however, SFOC can only be issued if risks can be mitigated. No height limit.No maximum lateral distance from pilot. Normally, there are a minimum of 70 safety conditions in an SFOC. The subject areas address: specific conditions (e.g. airspace and altitude limitations), general operating conditions (e.g. use of visual observers), general flight conditions (e.g. lost link procedures), personnel conditions (e.g. pilot trained and qualified), RPAS system conditions (e.g. maintenance requirements) and incident and accident reporting. Must give way to all other aircraft.Yes.Yes- liability insurance.No. No regulated requirements for flight schools. Presently, RPAS operators require an SFOC that spells out the conditions for safe operation. Upcoming regulations will address RPA 25 Kg or less, operated VLOS. All others will continue to obtain an SFOC. Pilots will require a permit. RPA will be marked and registered. RPAS may have to meet a design standard. Operators will need to comply with new operating and flight rules.
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Czech Republic150 kg in general, but experimental, research and individually built RPA have unlimited MTOMYes:
0.91 kg;
7 kg;
and 20 kg
1st step: special authorisation (= 1 permit for the RPA which works as well as the remote pilot’s license);2nd step: RPAS aerial work operator permit (ROC)In the form of special authorization. Pilot passes practical (preflight preparation and piloting skills) and theoretical test (rules knowledge). No medical licence required so far.-yesOnly in segregated airspace and over clear ground. (forseen for research+development)300 m AGL (class G), 100 m AGL in CTRVLOS (understood to be not more than 500 m, but the value is not prescribed)In class G freely. In ATZ[4] and CTR only if coordinated. Not within predefined buffer zones (highways, railways, water reservoirs, natural reservations, prohibited, restricted, dangerous areas).
RPA >7 kg must keep > 100 m from 3rd persons and > 150 m from congested area.
All RPA should keep safe distances (understood to be 2 times the actual height).
Give way to all other aircraft (inc. RPA). No prescribed procedure (in VLOS)yesYes (Reg. EC 785/2004)--Registration mark required to be visible. Fireproof identification plate required on board. No dangerous payload, no dropping, no pulse jet or rocket engine.
FPV possible only in crew of 2 (1 pilot keeps VLOS).
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Croatia150 kg< 5 kg
5 < 25 kg
25 < 150 kg
Yes, for D operations (Matrix provided with mass categories vs. areas of operation)No. Pilot competency declaration. Operator defines level of pilot competence in OM.NoYesYes. Case-by-case approvalNo height limit.VLOS max. 500 mDay only/30 m distance form people and assets/150 m distance from group of people/flying in CTR is prohibited/ 3 km distance from airport and approach/departure zone except in case of airport defined RPAS zone/Dropping of objects is prohibited NOTE. exemptions allowed-Yes (EC 376/2014 applied)Yes (EC 785/2004 applied)NoNoOverall regulation change planned for 2016/2017
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FinlandYes25 kg or below
25-150kg
with a special permission
RPAS
Model A/C
NoNoNoYes,
EVLOS possible
Yes, when operating in segregated airspaceBelow 150 meterVLOSAbove crowds and congested areas specific weight and operational requirements.
In CTRs max height 50m AGL when operating without an agreement with ANSP. Closer than 5km from the nearest runway agreement with ANSP always required.
RPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftyesThe CAA. Concerning e.g. privacy and security the enforcement is done by the police.yes, as described in (EU) 785/2004YesNoNoNational regulation OPS M1-32 available in English.
Regulation is operator centric, risk- and performance based. No authorization or approval required. Based on self- declaration.
There is just one category from 0kg to 25 kg. This is just for RPAS operations and there are slightly different rules for model aircraft activities.Not anticipated in Finland. The RPA is not registered; only the operator. Label with name and contact information is mandatoryPrior notification of intended operations (one notification which is valid UFN)VLOS, max height 150 m, limitations in CTR, airspace restrictions/prohibited zonesRegulation OPS M1-32 covers both RPAS and model A/C activities
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FranceYes150 kgNoNo but a declaration is required and an approval is required for each series of flight for operational scenario S4 and any operation that does not match with one of predefined operational scenario (S1, S2 or S3)Operational scenarios S1, S2, S3 : RPAS theoritecal certificate + practical test under responsibility of the operator who provides declaration of level of competence

Operational Scenario S4:
RPAS theoritecal certificate + manned aviation licence with minimum experience

Any use of an RPAS above 25 kg requires a specific authorisation to be issued to the remote pilot
Yes for RPAS above 25 kg (PtF[5] is an alternative)Yes (Operational scenarios S1 and S3)Yes
(Operational scenarios S2 and S4)
150m (Operational scenarios S1 S2 with RPAS < 2kg, S3 and S4)
or
50m (Operational scenario S2 with RPAS > 2kg))
100 meter (S3), 200m (S1), 1 km (S2), or no lateral limitation depending on operational scenario.4 operational scenarios:
S1 : VLOS over unpopulated areas, maximum horizontal distance 200m, maximum height 150m
S3: VLOS over populated areas, maximum distance 100m, maximum mass 8kg, maximum height 150m, safety perimeter
S2: VLOS/BVLOS over unpopulated areas, maximum distance 1km, maximum hieght 50m or 150m if RPAS < 2 kg
S4: BVLOS over unpopulated areas, maximum mass 2 kg, maximum height 150m
RPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftyesLocal Authoritiesyes, but not covering liability for third parties on the groundIn case of violation of privacy and data protection it is reflected in our french laws.YesNoNot approvedRegulation composed of 2 orders dated 17/12/2015

Law published on the 24th of October. Decrees to implement are currently being drafted.

Notification required for BVLOS operations and operations in populated area.
<25 kg + risk based approach using scenariosOn-going work on this topicLeaflet in all boxes of harmless drones, good practices on DGAC website, theoretical pilot license for specific activities, pilot license and 100 h pilot in command for BVLOSA decrit is dedicated to spatial restrictions. A map is available on https://www.geoportail.gouv.fr/donnees/restrictions-pour-drones-de-loisir Model aircraft are considered separately, as a recreational or competition activity.
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Germany25 kgYes, 5 kgNo, but a generic approval will be given below 5 kg. Above 5 kg or with high risk operations, a specific approval is necessary. Additional requirements on operation for specific approval. Only theoretical and practical requirements above 5kg.NoyesOnly in segregated airspace100 meterVLOSNot above (crowds of) people, accident and disaster areas, areas where police is active, prisons, military installations, industrial areas, power stations. Not in prohibited areas and areas with flight restrictions
> 1.5 km from airports.In RMZ the ANS Provider has to be informed.
RPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftNoYes--Privacy and data protection specifically mentioned as an operator responsibility. Some equirements are ony part of administrative rule of procedure and not fully legally binding. The Federal States are in charge of the approval and oversight.
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Ireland150 kgyes, 1.5, 7 and 20 kgApproval required. Aerial Work Permit for commercial operations > 20 kg. Requirements for OPS manualNo, but theoretical and practical requirementsNo, but maintenance with qualified personnelyesYes, if DAA120 meter for < 20 kg500 meter for < 20 kgVFR, not over congested area, not in controlled airspace, > 8 km from airport, > 150 meter from assembly of people, > 150 meter from person, vessel, vehicle and structure, > 2 km from aircraft in flight.
> 20 kg: specific approval required. Some additional limits for < 1.5 and 7 kg.
-yesyes--Airspace segregation is essential in Irish approach. In line with ICAO.
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IsraelNo limitUp to 15 kg
15-2000kg
Yes, with exemptions from regulationsRPL – no limit
VLOS RPL – 15 kg
Experimental C of A
Special C of A for unmanned systems
YesYes (military airspace)VLOS – up to 100 meters
BVLOS according to AIP
VLOS up to 500 metersAccording to domestic AIP
For urban areas(VLOS only) - special authorisation for the operator
Not over populated areas
-yesyesnoApproved AOC holders may conduct remote pilot training.ID plate on RPA and RPS
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ItalyAs per EASA Basic Regulation Annex Iyes, 0.3 Kg/ 2 Kg / 25 kgOperator is approved either: by mean of a separate NAA operator approval in case RPA > 25 kg & Specialized operation; by mean of NAA overall operations authorization in case RPA < 25Kg & critical operations. From 01.04.2016. Pilot Certificate for VLOS and < 25kg. [if < 0,3 kg, < 60km/h and rotors protection, no pilot certificate]. Otherwise Pilot License. Medical class LAPL for Pilot Certificate and medical class 3 for Pilot LicenseYes. > 25Kg - CofA (series production) or PtF; < 25 Kg & series production - certification of the design. yes, EVLOS possible yesVLOS: max 150 m VLOS: Max 500m non–critical: > 150 meter from congested area, 50 meter from persons and property, in uncontrolled airspace, outside ATZ and > 5 km from airport. Sublasses existRPAS VLOS have to give way to all manned aircraft in case of interfering trafficyes >25 kgyesNo entities performing activity on behalf of NAA. Entity with privilege, performing activites on behalf of the applicant, are possible.yesID plate on RPA and RPS. Certification of design possible No dangerous goods. Registration required > 25 kg. Requirements for privacy and data protection. Current version of the ENAC Regulation on unmanned aerial vehicle Issue 2 Rev 1 ():
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JapanNoYes, 25kg
(excluding those lighter than 200g)
No, but prior approval for high risk operations.--YesOnly by approval150m (without approval)VLOS (without approval)Any person who intends to operate a UA in the following airspaces is required to obtain permission from the Minister of Transport:
- Airspace around airports and above 150m ground level.
- Above densely populated areas.

Any person who intends to operate a UA is required to follow the operational limitations listed below, unless approved by the Minister of Transport.
- Operation of UAs in the daytime.
- Operation of UAs within VLOS.
- Maintenance of 30m operating distance between UAs and persons or properties on the ground/ water surface.
- Do not operate UAs over event sites where many people gather.
- Do not transport hazardous materials such as explosives by UA.
- Do not drop any objects from UAs.
-Yes, operators under permission or approval must report incidents and accidents.
(JCAB asks volantary reports of incidents or accidents to those who don't have permission or approval.)
No, but recommended.---
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LatviaYesNo weight limit.< 2 kg
2 < 25 kg
25 < 150 kg
150 kg +
UOC, except for models and commercial < 2 kgRemote pilot licence with ratings and endorsements.
No medical
For aircraft over 150 kg can use experimental or limited A/W certificate processYesCase-by-case400 ft in general.

Above 400 ft with approval and relevant conditions
VLOS limited to distance RP can see, control and orient RPA.Standard Conditions:
(a) the RPA is operated within the visual line of sight of the person operating the RPA; and
(b) the RPA is operated at or below 400 ft AGL by day; and
(c) the RPA is not operated within 30 m of a person who is not directly associated with the operation of the RPA; and
(d) the RPA is not operated:
(i) in a prohibited area; or
(ii) in a restricted area that is classified as RA3; or
(iii) in a restricted area that is classified as RA2 or RA1 otherwise than in accordance with regulation 101.065; or
(iv) over a populous area; or
(v) within 3 nautical miles of the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome; and
(e) the RPA is not operated over an area where a fire, police or other public safety or emergency operation is being conducted without the approval of a person in charge of the operation; and
(f) the person operating the RPA operates only that RPA.

Approval required outside these conditions
None. Must give way to all other aircraft.Incidents and accidents in line with general requirements.The CAA, Local Authorities and militaryRPAS operators are required to have insurance covering liability for third parties on the ground (applicable from 2018)The general laws on privacy and data protection are also applicable to RPAS operations.Yes?Approved UOC holders may conduct remote pilot training.These comments relate to the system about to be implemented by amendments to Part 101 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations, 1998.Not consideredYes, Labelling For certain operations no information and documentation is requiredRestrictions to people on the ground and other aispace usersThere are specific requirements for model aircraft.
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Lithuania25 kgyes, 300 gApproval from CAA or authorised organisation required--yes-200 ft1000 meter> 50 meters from vehicles, people and buildings
> 1,8 km from airfield
1 to 3 NM from obstacles
--yes--Registration required. Bad English translation, probably better not to include in analysis
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LuxembourgNo existing regulation (work in progress)The CAARPAS operators are required to have insurance covering liability for third parties on the ground.The general laws on privacy and data protection are also applicable to RPAS operations.There are no specific penalties, however the general penalties for non-respect of aviation rules applyRPAS under 2 kgNoAuthorization of the land owner, coordiantes of the take-off and landing area, model of the aircraft, insurance, name of the operatorRPAS are not allowed in the CTR (Exemptions exist(, in a radius of 2 km around a helicopter landing pad or over congested areas. Max height allowed is 50 m above ground.
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MaltaNo. Standard template sent out with every enquiry plus application150 kg-operator authorisation, based on site risk and safety assessmentMedical declarationRPA and RPAS accreditedyes-400 ft150 meter, otherwise VLOS written approval> 150 meter from congested area, infrastructure, assembly of persons, > 50 meter from person, > 150 meter from vessel, vehicle, structure, > 7.5 km from aerodromeRPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftyesyesyes-Does not have National Regulations but standardized operational procedures still given by the Director General on a case to case permit to fly.

Concept regulation. Registration required
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Netherlands150 kgnoyesyesyesyesno120 meter500 meter (EVLOS allowed)> 150 meter from build up area, crowds of people, main roads
> 50 meter from railway, industrial area
limited access to CTR (outer ring, 150 ft)
RPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftyesyesyesyes, schools can do exams themselvesRegistration required. ID plate required.
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Poland150 kgyes, 25 kg-Certificate of qualification, incl medical for commercial pilotsPermit to Fly required > 25 kgyesin segregated airspace only--stay well clear and avoid collision.
> 5 km from airport and not in CTR
safe enough distance from people and property
-----Registration required above 25 kg
Multirotor is a separate category for the pilot
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QatarYes
NPA RSRP 005/01 of 1st Dec 2016
Unlimited3 categories of operations: A "open" below 25 kg and with four sub-categories, B "specific" either declared or authorised and C "certified"YES. ROC in the C Cat. OPS Manual in both B and C Cat. Voluntary LUC possibly issued by QE in Cat BNor competence nor age requirements for remote pilots in subcat A0.

No competence requirements but minimum age 14 yrs old in subcategory A1.

Familiarisation with manufacturer's instructions in A2.
Attestation by training organisation or QE in A3 and as well in specific B Cat.
License issued by CAA in C Cat.
Product requirements and declaration of conformity by manufacturer or vendor in Cat A.
Safety assessment under responsibility of operator in Cat B.
Possibility of voluntary CofA or use of certified equipment in B.
Mandatory CofA in C
YES, all categoriesYes in C Cat, based on the limitations in TCDS.
Yes in B Cat, subject to safety assessment.
No in subcateroies A2 and A3.
Yes with camera for first person view in subcategories A0 and A1
150 ft AGL in A0, A1 and A2. t00 ft in Ae and declared B Cat.
As limited in authorisation for other Cat B and by TCDS in C
Undefined, but "safe" in A0 and A1. 50 m in A2. 20m (rotorcraft) or 50 m (fixed wing) in A3.
Depending on safety assessment or standar scenarion in B.
As specified in TCDS inc.
Prohibited operations: dropping of objects, spraying of products or transport of dangerous good, autonomous UA, transport of Cargo, mail or passengers, commercial air transport of passengers and non-commercial air transport of passengers in Cat B and C.The CAA and the policeRPAS operators are required to acquire insurance covering liability for third parties on the ground excepp A0, A1 and large model aircraftYesNot specificed in the UAS ruleCategory A "open" limited to 25 kgYesProportionate and risk-based according to three categoriesProhibited operations: dropping of objects, spraying of products or transport of dangerous good, autonomous UA, transport of Cargo, mail or passengers, commercial air transport of passengers and non-commercial air transport of passengers in Cat B and C.Small model aircraft are part of Cat A, large models > 25 kg self-regulated by clubs
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Romania Yes150 kgYes
< 1 kg (without video camera on board)
0 ÷ 15 kg (with video camera)
≥ 15 ≤ 150 kg
No
(applicable after the 1 February 2016)
No
(applicable after the 1 February 2016)
Yes
-   drones with MTOW between 15 and 150 kg;
-   after the 1 February 2016 applicable from 0,250 to 150 kg for all drones which request ROC
YesYes, only in segregate space-   only in segregate space out sides of the city limits;
- after the 1 February 2016 130 m from the ground outside of city and 270 m in city
only in segregate space out sides of the city limits;
-   after the 1 February 2016 500 m for VLOS, no limits for BVOLS in segregate space
After 1 February 2016 depends on area of operation and ROC specificationAt present drone has priority (the flight is performed only in segregate space);
After 1 february 2016 manned aircraft have priority with accept segregate space from drones
YesYes
(mandatory for drone with MTOW over 20 kg)
No
AACR don not approved Qualify Entities (QE)
No
(applicable after 1 February 2016)
A new specific legislation is in public debate, and we expected to be approved till 1 February 2016
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SlovakiaYesYes, Done by the CAA, For instance, if not approved photography the National Security Agency and Ministry of Defence can intervene Yes, covering liability for third parties on the ground for commercial operations and for models with MTOM over 20kgIt is reflected in the law of the countryYes, for private person maximum 330 ε, for legal person maximum 33,180 ε Model or hobby RPAS/UAV not equipped with any system used for aerial photography or with similar sensors, toy aircraft or model with MTOM less than 20kg.Yes, it is foreseen.For small RPAS is not requiredDropping of any load is forbidden, for toy a/c distance max. 300m., max ALT 100ft, 2NM from ARP, the minimum horizontal distance equal to twice the height of the frlight from any personSpecial rules and procedures apply in controlled airspace, required separation from other a/c, compulsory insurance and in specific cases radio licence,..
24
Slovenia150 kg-must have flight permityes----daylight VFR, allowed in Class G airspace, > 300 meter above crowds, > 50 meters from powerlines, roads, railways etc.yes--Regulation combined with regulation for ultra lights.
Registration required
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Spain150 kgyes, 25 kgAuthorisation from CAA required for above 25 Kg.No license. Theoretical knowledge from license or specific course at ATO + practical course on the RPAS + LAPL or Class 2 med.yes, above 25 kgyesyes, < 2 kg120 meter for RPAS < 25 kg500 meter for RPAS < 25 kgDiverse set of limitations. Categories: < 2, < 25 and > 25 kg.
Operational conditions for > 25 are in CofA.
All in uncontrolled airspace, not over urban areas nor people concentrations.
> 8 km from airport
No specific requirementonly implicit in the requirement to comply with all relevant regulations.yes-NoyesID plate required. Registration required above 25 kg
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SwedenYes150 kgYes
Cat1A: 0 - 1,5 kg / max 150 J / VLOS
Cat 1B: 1,5 - 7 kg / max 1000 J/ VLOS
Cat2: 7 - 150 kg / VLOS Cat 3 BLOS
approval from CAAyes, > 7 kg
By definition not a licence, but we require a written test in air space knowledge and a practical skill test.
Part of the operational approval for VLOS ops. Requirement for BVLOS ops.yesYes, but only in segregated air space (closed for all other air traffic)120 meter for VLOSVLOS limitedno flight in controlled airspace, TIZ[6] or TIA[7] unless specific approval in general > 50 meter from people, animals and property.
VFR night requires theoretical knowledge corresponding to a PPL VFR night and normal colour vision.
RPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftyesThe CAAyes.
RPAS operators are required to acquired insurance covering liability for third parties on the ground
YesYes-Yes but not regulatedManual control should always be possible. Gradually heavier set of requirements for heavier categories.
Flights to be documented in log book.
The regulation is subdivided into different categories depending on size of the aircraft and if flying VLOS or BVLOS. The smallest category is UAS<1.5 kg and 150J. There is no specific definition of "small RPAS"YesFor RPAS<7 kg and 1000J VLOS - only a simple form is required. For UAS>7 kg VLOS - an operations' handbook is required and the pilot needs to be approved by exam.There has to be a safety distance to people, animals and property and flights are not allowed higher than 120 m AGL. Permission is required for flying in CTR.No
27
SwitzerlandYes150 kg for Annex 1, else no limityes,
“Open” & “Specific”
“Open” = max. 30 kg
100m outside of crowds
VLOS

“Specific” = everything else
yes, for the “Specific” categoryRequired “Pilot Skills” is part of the Total Hazard and Risk Assessment (GALLO)Part of the operational approval (ROC)yesYes, GALLO requiredNo limit. Depending GALLOVLOS=direct unaided visual contact to control the RPAS in all 3 dimensions

BLOS=GALLO depending
> 100 meter away from crowds & BLOS requires FOCA authorisation (GALLO process)

> 5 km from airfields & < 150 AGL in CTR requires authorisation from ANSP or airport manager
For avoidance of collisions:
SERA
3201
3205
applicable
Yes, compulsory part of the operational authorisation (ROC)Local AuthoritiesYes, covering liability for third parties on the ground YesYes --VLOS above or closer than 100m to crowds and BLOS can be approved

Operator approval based on total hazard and risk assessment (GALLO).

All RPAS for GALLO approved operations have an identification plate (e.g. SUI-5678).
Not more than 30 kg MTOMIn place for all UA in the Specific categoryNothing in the open category, SORA in case of the specific categoryVLOS, 5 km RWY threshold, max 150 m AGL in CTR'sThere is no difference between model aircraft and RPAS and do not see an emerging risk per se
28
TurkeyYesNo weight limit.Technical Category;
500g<İHA0<4 kg
4 <İHA1<25 kg
25 <İHA2<150
150 kg<İHA3

Operational Category
Hobby/Recreational
Specific/Commercial
Certified
For hobby and recreational activities:
<25kg: no certificate


For commercial activities
<25kg: certificate by NQE authorized by Turkish DGCA
For all purposes:
İHA-2 and İHA3:
Licenced by Turkish DGCA
Not required for hobby and recreational (<25kg)

Permit to fly for İHA2,

CofA for İHA3.
YesYes by approval.
Risk assesment is required.
400 ft for <25kg
Above 400 ft with approval including risk assessment.
Line of sight (500 mt)

BVLOS = Risk assessment
Standard Conditions:
(a) the RPA is operated within the visual line of sight of the person operating the RPA; and
(b) the RPA is operated at or below 400 ft AGL by day; and
> 50 meter from person, object, vehicle not under control of operator
(c) the RPA is not operated:
(i) in a prohibited area; or
(ii) in a restricted area; or
(iii) over a populous area; or
(iv) an aerodrome within specific limits; and
(d) the person operating the RPA operates only that RPA
Approval required outside these conditions.
- Risk assessment and approval is required for all categories in prohibited areas (populated areas, aerodromes, military zone etc.)
RPAS have to give right of way to all manned aircraftIncidents and situations must be reported in 48 hours to Turkish DGCA)Local AuthoritiesYes for all commercial activities and/or >25kg.

RPAS operators are required to acquire insurance covering liability for third parties on the ground.
The general laws on privacy and data protection are also applicable to RPAS operations.YesNot yetNot yetOnline Registration is required for operator/pilots and İHA0/İHA1 categoriesLess than 25 kg MTOWYesOnline registration is required. Also plate number has to be written or attached to the surface of the small RPASSpacial restrictions are common for small and big RPAS. Aerodromes, city centers etc.Model aircrafts are assessed as drones in the regulation. So no difference.
29
UAE25 kgFor recreational activities
< 250 grm
2 > UAS >5 kg
5 < UAS > 25 kg

For commercial activities:
all < 25kg
For recreational activities:
certificate by manufacturer & UAE Authority standardization and Metrology

For commercial activities:
Yes, UAS Operator Cetrtificat (UOC)
For commercial activities:
Certificate of qualification
NoYESFor Recreational:
No

For commercial activities:
Yes, in segregated airspace and after risk assesment
For recreational activities
< 250 grm = 100ft AGL
2 > UAS >5 kg = 200ft AGL
5 < UAS > 25 kg = in clubs only

For commercial activities:
400 ft AGL
For recreational activities
< 250 grm = 30m
2 > UAS >5 kg = 60m
5 < UAS > 25 kg in clubs only

For commercial activities:
120m
For Recreational:
The user and drone shall be registered before operating;
All drones weight 2kgs or less shall only be allowed to fly in the approved flying zone;
No video or image capturing devices shall be used when flying the drone;
Drone shall fly only during day time and in good weather conditions;
Drone shall be used for fun and not for commercial purposes;
The user shall be responsible to ensure the drone used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and it is inspected before start flying;
No user shall fly drone within 150m from public, private properties or crowd;
No user shall fly the drone within 5 km from Airports, Heliports, and airfields or in controled airspace
Direct radio control link shall be maintained between the user and the drone;
Frequency Band Restrictions shall be maintained;
Drone user is responsible for avoiding collisions with people, objects and other manned and unmanned aircraft and must not harass or endanger people or threaten to damage property;
The minimum age to fly drones weight more than 250grm is 16 years;
YESMandatory for commercial activitiesNoNoID plate required. Registration required for all
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UK150 kgyes, 20 kgOperator permit > 20 kg and for aerial work 20 kg or less.>20kg or BVLOS - Case by case basis
20kg or less (VLOS) - pilot competency assessment required if requesting a Permission, which can be obtained via an RPL, NQE[8] assessment, or through AMC[9]
>20kg, BVLOS or ops in congested areas, OSC[10] required. CofA can be requested by applicant if wishedyesyes, with DAA, segregated airspace or if OSC demonstrates that there is no ‘aviation threat’ >7kg - 400 ft
7kg or less, must be able to be seen adequately for VLOS
500 meter or VLOS limited (if less than 500m) (EVLOS allowed)Unless specific permission is granted, not over congested areas. > 150 meter from congested area, > 50 meter from person, object, vehicle not under control of operator-yesyes, compliance with EC785/2004 requiredyes - note these are national QEs as opposed to any EASA accreditation-speed limit 70 kts in congested areas
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USAYes.
14 CFR part 107 (“Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems” rule) applies to civil small UAS that weigh less than 55 pounds. Part 107 does not to apply to the operation of certain model aircraft. Model aircraft operators must comply with all the criteria specified in the Special Rule for Model Aircraft, 14 CFR part 101, Subpart E, including the stipulation they be operated only for hobby or recreational purposes. Hobby and recreational users may opt to fly under part 107; in doing so, however, they must meet all the requirements of the rule, including airman certification requirements.
55 lbs. (25 kg)UAS aircraft up to 55 lbs can be flown by following the requirements in 14 CFR part 107 or, if deviating from operational requirements of the rule, by obtaining an appropriate waiver.

UAS aircraft under 55 lbs flown strictly for fun (hobby or recreational purposes) are flown in accordance with the Special Rule for Model Aircraft, 14 CFR part 101.

To fly a UAS that weighs 55 lbs or more, operators will need to use the existing Section 333 exemption process or obtain an appropriate airworthiness certificate (type certification with standard airworthiness certification, restricted type certification with special airworthiness in the restricted category, or appropriate experimental airworthiness certificate.)
None under part 107.A person operating a small UAS under part 107 must either hold a remote pilot airman certificate with a small UAS rating or be under the direct supervision of a person who does hold a remote pilot certificate (remote pilot in command).

The become a remote pilot, the applicant must:
1) Be at least 16 years old
2) Be able to read, write, speak, and understand English
3) Be in a physical and mental condition to safely operate a small UAS
4) Pass the initial aeronautical knowledge exam at an FAA-approved knowledge testing center
5) Undergo a TSA (security) screening

However, part 61 pilot certificate holders may elect to take an online training course instead of the aeronautical knowledge test.
FAA airworthiness certification is not required. However, the remote pilot in command must conduct a preflight check of the small UAS to ensure that it is in a condition for safe operation.YesOnly by applying for and obtaining a certificate of waiver, which allows for a small UAS operations to deviate from certain operating rules if the FAA finds that the proposed operation can be performed safely. This includes VLOS Operation under 107.31.Maximum altitude of 400 feet above ground level (AGL) or, within 400 feet of a structure, 400 feet above that structureNo.

Note: Minimum distance from clouds being no less than 500 feet below a cloud and no less than 2000 feet horizontally from the cloud.
May not operate directly over a person who is not directly participating in the operation of the UAS unless that person is under a covered structure or inside a stationary vehicle.

Daylight only operations. Civil twilight allowed with approved anticollision lighting. Night operations may be approved with a waiver.

Operations in Class B, C, D, and E airspace require prior ATC authorization. Operations in Class G airspace do not require prior ATC authorization.

No operations from a moving aircraft. Operations from a moving vehicle are permitted if over a sparsely populated area.
Must yield right of way to all other aircraft.A remote pilot in command must report to the FAA any operation that results in at least serious injury, loss of consciousness, or property damage of at least $500, within 10 days of the occurrence.

Certain sUAS accidents must also be reported to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB).
The Civil Aviation Authority.
The FAA is responsible for enforcing violations of Federal Aviation Regulations and for conducting routine surveillance of UAS operations. By law, the FAA cannot delegate its enforcement responsibilities, but the FAA does collaborate with local authorities who respond to or receive reports made by the public of unsafe or illegal UAS activity. The FAA will act on information from local authorities, such as reports of UAS flying in a reckless manner that endangers other aircraft or people on the ground or a crash that causes injury to people or damage to property. Local law enforcement will then work with the FAA on the investigation, which could result in civil fines or criminal action.
No.

Currently not required for either recreational or commercial small UAS operations.

RPAS operators are not required to acquire insurance covering liability for third parties on the ground.
Yes.
State law and other legal protections may provide recourse to a person whose individual privacy, data privacy, private property rights, or intellectual property rights may be impacted by civil or public use of a UAS. The FAA's rulemaking authority neither mandates nor permits the FAA to issue or enforce regulations specifically aimed at protecting privacy interests.

The FAA, however, remains engaged with other U.S. Government entities in charge of privacy issues. The FAA has provided support to the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) in developing a set of voluntary best practices. As a result, all drone users receive the NTIA’s recommended privacy guidelines during the unmanned aircraft registration process and in the near future through the FAA’s B4UFLY smartphone application. The FAA is also providing these privacy guidelines to state and local government and is incorporating them in the remote pilot certification process.
Yes.
14 CFR part 13, Subpart C, specifies the civil and criminal penalties and other actions that the FAA may impose in response to a regulatory violation. Additionally, 14 CFR part 107.5 lists potential penalties that could be imposed in response to a falsification, reproduction, or alternation of any record or report required under part 107, including certificate actions and civil penalties.
The FAA has also instituted a Compliance Philosophy that allows for the FAA to work with an operator or manufacturer in a proactive manner to solve safety problems and promote an open exchange of information between the industry and the government. The primary goals are to achieve rapid compliance, to eliminate a safety risk or deviation, and to ensure positive and permanent changes in regulations and best practices.

The FAA must comply with strict legal requirements to protect the confidentiality of any personal data provided in the web-based UAS registration system. Under certain circumstances, law enforcement officers might be able to access the data.
The public may search for aircraft information in the legacy, (N-Number) aircraft registration system by the aircraft registration number, aircraft owner name, and aircraft owner state/county or territory/county, as described in the applicable Privacy Act System of Records Notice for aircraft registration information. The web-based UAS registration database, however, is not searchable at this time.
NoNo requirements for flight school.

Remote pilot certification requires passing a knowledge test and meeting other eligibility criteria.

However, part 61 pilot certificate holders who have completed a flight review within the past 24 months may elect to take an online training course focusing on UAS-specific areas of knowledge instead of the aeronautical knowledge test.All other members of the public must take and pass the initial aeronautical knowledge test to obtain a remote pilot certificate.

The FAA maintains a list of FAA-approved Knowledge Testing Centers available on the FAA main website. An interested applicant may also contact the Knowledge Test Service Providers directly to schedule the test.
Most of the restrictions in part 107 (the small UAS rule) are waivable if the applicant demonstrates that the operation can safely be conducted under the terms of a certificate of waiver.

Aircraft that weighs more than 0.55 .lbs must be registered, as provided for in 14 CFR part 47 or part 48 prior to operating under part 107.

14 CFR part 107 defines “small unmanned aircraft” as an unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 pounds on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft. The rule further defines a “small unmanned aircraft system” (small UAS) as a small unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the national airspace system.Yes.
Federal law currently requires that all aircraft greater than 0.55 pounds (including UAS and radio/remote controlled aircraft) that are flown outdoors must be registered with the FAA and marked with a registration number. UAS weighing less than 55 pounds may register online at https://registermyuas.faa.gov. The legacy (N-number) registration process is required when any one of these conditions apply: a) the unmanned aircraft is 55 pounds or greater, b) to qualify a small unmanned aircraft for operation outside the United States, c) if the title to an aircraft is held in in a trust, d) and if the U.S. owner uses a voting trust to meet U.S. Citizenship requirements.
UAS may be marked using a permanent marker, label, or engraving as long as the number remains affixed to the aircraft during flight operations and is readily accessible and legible upon close visual inspection.
When flying a UAS greater than 0.55 pounds, the unmanned aircraft operator is required to have the FAA registration certificate in his/her possession. Federal law requires UAS operators to show the certificate of registration (paper form or electronic copy) to any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer if asked.
When flying a UAS under 14 CFR part 107, the unmanned aircraft operator is also required to make available, upon request, the remote pilot certificate with small UAS rating or any other document, record, or report required to be kept under the regulations.
Additionally, a UAS operator must have in their possession any exemption, authorization, or waiver required for the operation.
14 CFR part 107 restricts small UAS operations to an altitude of 400 feet above ground level (AGL), unless the unmanned aircraft is flying within a 400 foot radius of a structure (in which case it may not be flown higher than 400 feet above the top of that structure). Part 107 also limits small UAS operations to Class G airspace, unless prior authorization is obtained from ATC to fly in controlled airspace (Class B, C, D, and surface area Class E). 14 CFR part 107 does not apply to model aircraft flown strictly for fun (hobby or recreational purposes) as long as these unmanned aircraft are flown in accordance with the Special Rule for Model Aircraft, 14 CFR part 101.This rule prohibits operating a UAS in manner that endangers the safety of the National Airspace System. Additionally, model aircraft are required to comply with certain flight restrictions, including special security instructions and temporary flight restrictions, which are imposed in the interest of national security.
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National Regulations