Bir- Biodiversity
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This list is and will continue to be a work in progress. To contribute to the list, corrections or more information, please add a comment or email us at shunyaearth@gmail.com.
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PLANTSLOCAL NAMEBOTANICAL NAMELIFE CYCLEDECIDUOUS / EVERGREENPROPAGATIONUSESCHARACTERISTICSPRICE / sapling Rs.family
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BROADLEAVED TREES
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RHODODENDRONBrasRhododendron arboreumLongDWood for tool handles, boxes and posts, sometimes for buildings, as fuel. The tender leaves are used as vegetable, and are also applied to the forehead to relieve headache.flowers, sourish sweet in taste, are eaten but when consumed in excess, they are said to cause intoxication. Petals for chutney, jam, syrup, juice. They are also used medicinally to cure diarrhoea and dysentery.
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WHITE OAKBaanQuercus leucotrichophoraLongD
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HIMALAYAN POPLARBanpipalPopulus ciliataLongDSeeds/CuttingsThe bark has medicinal properties and used in tearing rheumatism and fevers also to relieve the menstrual cramps. For planking, matches, water troughs, apple boxes, fencing and house construction in the tribal belt of Himachal. Exotic poplars were initially introduced in India to meet the needs of match industry. Later, poplar wood began to be used extensively in making plywood. It is also an excellent source of fibre for various grades of
paper.
Wood
Available at Palampur University
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HILL NEEM / MAHA NEEMDrekMelia dubiaLongDSeedsThe wood does well if not exposed to natural elements- used for packing cases, ceiling planks, building purposes, agricultural implements, pencils, match boxes, splints, kattamarans, musical instruments and tea boxes.Fast growing100
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WHITE WILLOWBeyunsSalix albaLongDSeeds/Stem cuttingsFodder, timber, fibre, craft, windbreak, hedges
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WEEPING WILLOWBeyunsSalix babylonicaLongDSeeds/Stem cuttingsFast growing, likes water
Available at Palampur University
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BEUL / BHIMALBeulGrevia optivaLongDFodder, edible fruit, timber, bark useful as fibreWood has unpleasent smell
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BhadrolMachilus odoratissimaLongDFodder
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ORCHID TREEKachnaarBauhinia variegataLongDFodderLegume
Available at Palampur University
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NEPAL ALDER
Kunish / Unis / Seur
Alnus nepalensisLongBark yields tanninLikes water
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NETTLE TREEKhirkCeltis australisLongDFodder, timber, ripe fruits are edible
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KODA TREEPunnaEhretia acuminataLongTimberFast growing
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RED CEDAR / INDIAN MAHOGANY
TuniToona ciliataLongDSeedTimber
Fast growing, Belongs to Meliaceae (neem) family
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SOAP NUTReethaSapindus mukorossiLongDSeedFruit used as soap, oil from seed, fodder, timberGood for stabilising eroded hill slopes.
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CRAPE MYRTLESaoniLagerstroemia indicaLongThe stem bark is febrifuge, stimulant and styptic. The bark, flowers and leaves are considered to be hydrogogue and a drastic purgative. A paste of the flowers is applied externally to cuts and wounds. The root is astringent, detoxicant and diuretic. A decoction of the flowers is used in the treatment of colds. Timber also useful.Pink flowers
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SUGARBERRYMeryanoUlmus laevigata
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CAMPHORKapurCinnamomum camphoraLongESeedMedicinal, camphor oil from leaves and bark, windbreaker, leaves and wood can be used for mulch, compost, no alleleopathy, timberFast growing, broad root system, drought tolerant, roots go deep and wide for water,
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INDIAN ROSEWOODTaaliDalbergia sissooLong
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MYROBALANHaradTerminalia chebulaLongSeedFruits laxative, stomachic, tonic and alterative. Bark diuretic and cardio tonic. Kernels yield fatty oil. Tree yields a gum.
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KAPOK / SILK COTTONSimbalCeiba pentandraLongDSeed/CuttingFor matchwood and light plywood containers. Also used for packing cases, shingles, well-curbs, brush handles, dug-outs, etc. Floss from the tree is the Silk Cotton or Indian Kapok, which is used for stuffing cushions, pillows, upholstery, packing, etc. Bark exudes a gum, known as mochras, which is of great medicinal value. Inner bark yields a good fibre suitable for cordage.
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CONIFER
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HIMALAYAN CEDARDeodarCedrus deodaraLongSeedsMost important and valuable timber of Himachal, used for construction of houses, temples, etc. it also has medicinal properties and its wood paste is applied on forehead as a substitute for chandan. Oil for perfumes and soaps. Earlier it was used nationwide for railway sleepers.
Available at the Bir forest dept.
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PINEChilPinus roxburghilTimber for houses, fuel wood and furniture. Needles are collected as mulch for cattle shed and for packing fruits. Resin is tapped from this tree.3 needled
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BLUE PINEKailPinus wallichianaTimber for construction of houses and fuel wood. Needles are collected as mulch for cattle shed and for packing fruits5 needled
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SILVER OAKGrevillea robustaSeedFuel, fodder, timber
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LEGUME
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BLACK LOCUSTTiddiRobinia pseudoacaciaPerrinealSeedsBiomass, firewood, soil conditioning and stabalisation, can be copiced, edible flowersFast growing, legume100butterfly's
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CUTCH TREEKhairAcacia catechu
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RIVER TAMARINDSubaboolLeucaena leucocephalaESeeds/CuttingsFodder, fuel, Mulch, soil conditioning
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SILK TREEOhiAlbizia chinensisD/EFodder for goats, shade for shrubsLegume
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LEBEKKShirishAlbizia lebbeck
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WILD FRUITS
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WILD CHERRYPajjaPrunus paddamFodder, timber
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WILD PEARKainthPyrus pashiaUsed for fencing and for making agricultural implements. Fruits are dried and relished. Most importantly horticulturists are using it, as a suitable rootstock for pear.
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WILD PEACHBehmiPrunus mira
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WILD APRICOTChulliPrunus sp.
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WILD FIGDhuraFicus palmataD
Naturally in the forest
Rootstock for fig, edible fruit
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CLUSTER FIGTriambalFicus roxburghii
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BAYBERRYKaphalMyrica esculentaPerinnealD
Naturally in the forest
Edible fruit, medicinal bark-
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FRUIT TREES
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JAVA PLUMJamunSyzygium cumini
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APPLESebDGrafting
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PEARNashpatiPyrus communisDGrafting
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PLUMAloobukharaDGrafting
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PEACHAaduDGrafting
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MANDARINKinnuGrafting
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K-LIMEKaagzi nimbuCitrus aurantifoliaGrafting
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CITRONGalgal
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POMEGRANATEDaruDGrafting
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FIGAnjeerFicus CaricaDLobed palmate leaves
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WALNUTAkhrotD
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APRICOTKhumaniDGrafting
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LOUQATSeeds
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PECAN NUT
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GUAVAAmroodSeeds
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BANANAKelaMusa6-12 monthsDivisionEdible fruit and stem, compostCan feed on wastewater, organic waste100
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PAPAYAPapitaSeeds
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APPLE ROSEGulab jamunDivision
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PRICKLY ASHTirmiraZanthoxylum armatumSeed / CuttingFruits, seeds, and bark used as aromatic tonic in dyspepsia and fever. Fruits and seeds are beneficial in dental troubles, thus used to prepare dental paste and powder. Tender twigs are used to brush teeth and used as a remedy for toothache. The essential oil from fruits (known as Wartara oil) has deodorant and antiseptic properties.
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MULBERRY WHITETootMorus alba75-100 yearsDSeed/CuttingEdible leaf/fruit, fodder for cow, goat, sheep, chicken, rabbit, firewood, compostFast growing, deciduous100
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MULBERRY REDTootMorus rubra
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MULBERRY BLACKTootMorus nigra
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TREE TOMATODaal tamatarSolanum betaceumMediumDSeedEdible fruitDeciduous100
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BELBel patraAegle marmelos
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INDIAN GOOSEBERRYAmlaEmblica Officinalisfast growing, legume
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SHRUBS
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CAPE GOOSBERRYRasbhariPhysalis peruvianaMediumSeedEdible fruitSelf-seeding100
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BLACKBERRYKali berryRubusMedium
Seed/Layering/Cutting
Edible fruitNeeds wall/ trellis for support100
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KALEKaram saag
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica
MediumSeed/CuttingEdible leavesShort plant100
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COLLARDSHaak saag
Brassica oleracea var. acephala
MediumSeedEdible leavesShort plant100
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WILD AMARANTHChaulai
Summer/Monsoon
-Self seedingEdible leaves and seeds
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WILD BUCKWHEATPhaphrooFagopyrum dibotrys
Summer/Monsoon
-Sapling/Self seedingEdible leaves, tender shoots
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BUCKWHEATBharesF. esculentum
Summer/Monsoon
SeedEdible leaves, tender shoots
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HIMALAYAN RASPBERRYAakheyRubus ellipticusMedium
Seed/Layering/Cutting
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BLACK ELDERBERRYSambucus NigraMediumSeed/Cutting
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CASTOR PLANTArandiRicinus communis
Summer/Monsoon
SeedFast-growing, oil from beans, medicinalSeed is poisonous.
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DHATURA
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GRASS
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LEMONGRASSNimbu ghaasCymbopogon citratusMediumDivisionEdible leaves and stalkNeeds moist soil20
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TALL FESCUEFescueFestucaMediumDivisionFodder for cow, mulchFast growing, edge planting50
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RYE GRASSLolium
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FIDDLEHEAD FERNLungduDiplazium esciilentumMediumYoung fronds can be cooked as vegetable
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SUGARCANE
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WILD BAMBOORangaadBambuseaePerinneal
Naturally in the forest
Craft, trellis, light fencingClumping, fast growing-
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HERBS
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GARLIC CHIVESJungali lehsunAllium tuberosumPerinnealDivisionEdible leavesUnderstory plant50
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ONION CHIVESJungali pyazAllium schoenoprasumPerinnealDivisionEdible leavesUnderstory plantNA for 2018
100
MINTPudinaMenthaPerinnealRunnerEdible leaves and stalkLoves water20
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