Radio Evaluation: Link Budget and Line of Sight Calculations
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This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
To Evaluate
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Copyright: Niels Joubert, 2019
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Link Budget for Line of Sight Communication
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RadioUbiquiti RC5AC-LITEUbiquiti RC5AC-LITEUbiquiti RC5AC-LITEUbiquiti Bullet M2Ubiquiti Bullet M2XetaWave Xeta9 (ISM Variant)XetaWave Xeta9 (ISM Variant)Microhard Pico P2400FreeWave FGR2-PlusRFDesign RFD900x Satel Satelline EasyKenwood TH-D72AKenwood TH-D72ALoRa-type modemSIGFOX-type modem
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Informational onlyDatasheetlinklinklinklinklinklinklinklinklinklinklinklinklink
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Data InterfaceEthernetEthernetEthernetEthernetEthernetEthernetEthernetSerialEthernetSerialSerialSerialSerial
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Modulation Scheme, Coding, Data Rate8x 256QAM (3/4) [MCS 8]4x 16QAM (1/2) [MCS 3]1x BPSK (1/2) [MCS 0]4x 16QAM (1/2) [MCS 3]1x BPSK (1/2) [MCS 0]32QAMBPSK2GFSKFSK4FSKAFSKFSK
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Spatial Streams#222111111111
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Channel BandwidthKhz20000200002000020000200001200600400230N/A252525
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Max Theoretical ThroughputKbps312000108000130000540006500044000530345153641.920.960.96
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Cost$$250$250$250$150$150$1,400$1,400$1,000$100$400$400
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Radio Fade MarginTX PowerdBm27272728283030303030303737
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RX Sensitivity (<10% Packet Error Rate)
dBm-69-90-96-90-96-81-99-103-104-121-111-120-120
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Frequency (Center)Mhz547054705470245024509159152450915915440440144
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Wavelengthm0.0550.0550.0550.1220.1220.3280.3280.1220.3280.3280.6810.6812.082
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Radio Noise FloorMinimum SNR for <10% Packet Error RatedB29112112N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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Average Noise FloordBm-92-92-92-85-85-95-95-95-95-95-70.02-70.02
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AntennaTX Antenna GaindBi101010101010101010101033
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RX Antenna GaindBi101010101010101010101033
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Physical IntegrationTX Antenna Height Above Average Terrainm5555555555555
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RX Antenna Height Above Average Terrainm5555555555555
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Estimation
Options
Distance Sample 1m10101010101010101010101010
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Distance Sample 2m100100100100100100100100100100100100100
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Distance Sample 3m1000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000
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Distance Sample 4m10000100001000010000100001000010000100001000010000100001000010000
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Results: Estimated Fade Margin
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Key Performance IndicatorEstimated Fade Margin, 10 metersdB45.7466.7472.7475.0381.0376.8294.8290.0399.82116.82113.30115.30125.12
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Estimated Fade Margin, 100 metersdB25.7446.7452.7455.0361.0356.8274.8270.0379.8296.8293.3095.30105.12
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Estimated Fade Margin, 1000 metersdB5.7426.7432.7435.0341.03-83.54-65.5450.03-60.54-43.54-53.42-51.42-51.31
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Estimated Fade Margin, 10000 metersdB-139.09-118.09-112.09-116.78-110.78-123.54-105.54-101.78-100.54-83.54-93.42-91.42-91.31
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Legend
>48dB is mission critical. >99.999% available.
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>38dB is reliable. >99.99% available
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>28dB is intermittent. >99.9% available
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>18dB is unreliable. >99% available.
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>8dB is spurious. >90% available.
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<8 dB is unusable. <90% available.
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^^ Required to overcome Fast Fading in channel
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Results: Noise Floor Margin
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Key Performance IndicatorNoise Floor Margin, 10 metersdBm39.7457.7466.7459.0368.0300000000
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Noise Floor Margin, 100 metersdBm19.7437.7446.7439.0348.0300000000
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Noise Floor Margin, 1000 metersdBm-0.2617.7426.7419.0328.0300000000
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Noise Floor Margin, 10000 metersdBm-145.09-127.09-118.09-132.78-123.7800000000
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WAG: You need to clear at least 30dB over the
noise floor within your environment for
reliable communication [Gast, O'Reilly]
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Link Budget Verdict
All numbers are pessimistic to improve chances of success.
UnunsableReasonable!Reasonable!Reasonable!Reasonable!Needs a very high antenna (60ft) to unlock full performanceNeeds a very high antenna (60ft) to unlock full performanceNeeds a very high antenna (60ft) to unlock full performanceNeeds a very high antenna (60ft) to unlock full performanceNeeds a very high antenna (60ft) to unlock full performanceNeeds a very high antenna (60ft) to unlock full performanceNLOS propagation becomes viableNLOS propagation becomes viable
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Calculation of Estimated Fade Margin
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Fade Margin = Ptx - Ltx + Gtx + Grx - Lrx - Lpath
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Ptx = Transmitter Output
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Transmit PowerdBm27272728283030303030303737
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Ltx = Total System Loss at Transmitter
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Cable Lengthft1111111111111
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Cable Loss over 100 ft1e-3 db/ft5.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.7
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Net Cable LossesdB0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06
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Nr of Connectors#2222222222222
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Connector LossesdB0.470.470.470.310.310.190.190.310.190.190.130.130.08
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Miscellaneous LossesdB1111111111111
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Total Transmitter Losses1.521.521.521.371.371.251.251.371.251.251.191.191.13
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Gtx = Antenna Gain at Transmitter
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TX Antenna GaindBi101010101010101010101033
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Net EIRP = Ptx + Ltx + GtxdB35.4835.4835.4836.6336.6338.7538.7538.6338.7538.7538.8138.8138.87
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Grx = Antenna Gain at Receiver
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RX Antenna GaindBi101010101010101010101033
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Lrx = Total System Loss at Receiver
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Cable Lengthft1111111111111
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Cable Loss over 100 ft1e-3 db/ft5.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.75.7
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Net Cable LossesdB0.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.060.06
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Nr of Connectors#2222222222222
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Connector LossesdB0.470.470.470.310.310.190.190.310.190.190.130.130.08
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Miscellaneous LossesdB1111111111111
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Total Receiver Losses1.521.521.521.371.371.251.251.371.251.251.191.191.13
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Lpath = Path Loss, Distance Sample 1
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Distancem10101010101010101010101010
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Free Space Propagation ModeldB67.2167.2167.2160.2360.2351.6851.6860.2351.6851.6845.3245.3235.62
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2-Ray Ground Reflection Propagation ModeldB132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04132.04
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Critical Distancem5732.145732.145732.142567.412567.41958.85958.852567.41958.85958.85461.09461.09150.90
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Path Loss, Choosing Appropriate ModeldB67.2167.2167.2160.2360.2351.6851.6860.2351.6851.6845.3245.3235.62
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Received Signal LeveldBm-23.26-23.26-23.26-14.97-14.97-4.18-4.18-12.97-4.18-4.182.30-4.705.12
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Fade Margin, Distance Sample 1dB45.7466.7472.7475.0381.0376.8294.8290.0399.82116.82113.30115.30125.12
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Lpath = Path Loss, Distance Sample 2
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Distancem100100100100100100100100100100100100100
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Free Space Propagation ModeldB87.2187.2187.2180.2380.2371.6871.6880.2371.6871.6865.3265.3255.62
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2-Ray Ground Reflection Propagation ModeldB172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04172.04
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Critical Distancem5732.145732.145732.142567.412567.41958.85958.852567.41958.85958.85461.09461.09150.90
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Path Loss, Choosing Appropriate ModeldB87.2187.2187.2180.2380.2371.6871.6880.2371.6871.6865.3265.3255.62
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Received Signal LeveldBm-43.26-43.26-43.26-34.97-34.97-24.18-24.18-32.97-24.18-24.18-17.70-24.70-14.88
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Fade Margin, Distance Sample 2dB25.7446.7452.7455.0361.0356.8274.8270.0379.8296.8293.3095.30105.12
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Lpath = Path Loss, Distance Sample 3
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Distancem1000100010001000100010001000100010001000100010001000
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Free Space Propagation ModeldB107.21107.21107.21100.23100.2391.6891.68100.2391.6891.6885.3285.3275.62
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2-Ray Ground Reflection Propagation ModeldB212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04
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Critical Distancem5732.145732.145732.142567.412567.41958.85958.852567.41958.85958.85461.09461.09150.90
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Path Loss, Choosing Appropriate ModeldB107.21107.21107.21100.23100.23212.04212.04100.23212.04212.04212.04212.04212.04
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