111 1Step 2Step 2Step 2Step 3aStep 3bStep 3cStep 3dStep 3e3e3eStep 3f
#CategoryNameAcronym (suggested)ContextSubContextDetailed Description (where the designer considers...)CommentsCategorize
(Qualitative - Text)
(Qualitative - Images / Video)
ParsePlotProcessPrioritizePublish / Produce (General)P/P (Digital)P/P (Physical / Test Artifacts)ParticipateKey People
31CAXComputer-Aided X
Computer-Aided X
32CAXCA(decision making)CADM
34CAXCA(design thinking)CDDT
35CAXCA(materials selection)CAMS
36CAXCA(quality assessment)CAQA
37CAXCA(mfg process selection)CAMPS
38CAXCAD - Computer Aided DesignCAD
39CAXCAM - Computer Aided ManufacturingCAM
1DfXDesign For XDfXProcessXThe generic Design for X, whereby we design with X process, philosophy, constraint in mindX is a constraint / enabler / inhibitorFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
2DfXDFM - ManufacturingDfMManufacturingManufacturing (General)The broad case of design for manufacture - whereby the designer intends to actually produce their design using common or conventional manufacturing processesFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
3DfXDFMA - Manufacturing and AssemblyDfMAManufacturingManufacturing and Assembly (General)Designer considers both the target manufacturing process(es) in the design phase as well as the assembly efficiency / effectiveness as it relates to the bottom line costPopularized by Boothroyd & DewhurstFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
4DfXDFMo - Design for Moldability (PIM)DfMoManufacturingMolding / MoldabilityThe nuances to plastic injection molding, metal injection molding, other molding processes.One of the most common plastics manufacturing processes available for scale-production of parts.

Designing a mold from a customer’s drawing required considerable skill and experience on the part of the moldmaker, who often suggested changes to a customer’s design to reduce costs or to make the proposed mold easier to manufacture.

Due to the numerous technical decisions required to visually analyze the geometry of a part from a customer’s drawing, obtaining an injection mold has historically been an expensive and lengthy process.
Most Important Guidelines:
a) 1 degree of draft for every inch of cavity depth
b) radii of curvature - eliminating
sharp corners on your part will improve
material flow as well as part integrity.
c) toolset available for mold making
f) Ramps and gussets are yet another design
element to strengthen and cosmetically
improve your part.
g) Core-Cavity
The core and cavity are often referenced as
the A and B sides or top and bottom halves of
a mold. This design technique requires the outside and inside walls to be drafted so they are parallel to one another.
h) Undercuts
i) Gating and Ejection - Tab gates are most commonly used as they
offer a mold technician the optimal processing
capabilities and have the ability to be increased
in size if the process requires it.
k) Rapid overmolding: Bonding, Materials, Principles: .
• The thickness of the overmold material
should be less than or equal to that of the
substrate below it.
• The melting temperature of the overmolding
material should be less than that of the
substrate (as in our LSR example).
• If chemical bonding isn’t practical, don’t
despair. Mechanical interlocks are a great way
to “hold it all together,” and should be used
wherever possible.
• Texturing of the substrate workpiece
may help with adhesion. Texturing of the
overmolded part may provide a better grip
and more attractive surface.
• The surface of the overmolded part should
be even with or slightly below any adjacent
substrate surfaces.
Most important Guidline Metrics:
d) wall thickness - a function of selected material
e) The ideal way to design ribs is by using a
rib-to-wall thickness ratio of 40 to 60 percent
the thickness of adjacent surfaces. The main
body of the part should be designed thick
enough so any adjacent rib extruded from it
is about half of the thickness.
TO AVOID THEM: Sink, Warp, Flash, Swirling, Knit Lines, Surface Imperfections, Drag, Vestiges, Jets / Orange Peels Etc.,

Tooling Costs
Cost per part
Lead time
Material costs
Part quantites
Minimum Order Quantity (MOQ)
4) Boothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
5DfXDFS - SustainabilityDfSSustainabilitySustainability (General)Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
6DfXDFH - Design for HumanityDfHSustainabilityHumanityFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
7DfXDFHM - Design for Hybrid ManufacturingDfHMManufacturingHybrid ManufacturingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
8DfXDFAM - Design for Additive ManufacturingDfAMAdditive ManufacturingAdditive Manufacturing (General)Design for Additive Manufacturing Integrative Approach from MIT: "Job to be Done", DfAM Cards, Rapid Innovation Cycleco-developed by Chris & the ADAPT / MITxPro team at MITIndustries
Decision Drivers
Design Objectives
AM Applications
AM Processes
Conventional Processes

Enablers / Inhibitors
Capacity / Capability
Dimensions / Precision / Accuracy

Process Physics
Length scale: Micro, Meso, Macro
Lattice Structures
Support Structures? Types?
Part Orientation
Process Characteristics
Hole Sizes / Slot Sizes

Rate Limiting Steps?
Sensitivity Analysis
Part Accuracy
Motion Accuracy
Shrinkage of Material

Build Rate v. Layer Height
Build Rate v. Yield Strength
Build Rate v. Machine Cost
Build Volume v. Machine Cost

+ many more
Decision Drivers
Design Objectives
AM Applications
AM Processes
Conventional Processes

Enablers / Inhibitors
Capacity / Capability
Dimensions / Precision / Accuracy

Process Physics
Length scale: Micro, Meso, Macro
Lattice Structures
Support Structures? Types?
Part Orientation
Process Characteristics
Hole Sizes / Slot Sizes

Rate Limiting Steps?
Sensitivity Analysis
Many interactive graphs available here (for a cost): matters to me / us? My / our industry? My / our clients?

Time > Cost > Quality / Performance

Post aggregation / categorization, the following dimensions / vectors were extracted:

Performance: geometry optimization, internal channels / cavities, tailored surface properties, design / part consolidation, SWP or Size, Weight, Power

Cost-effective @ low quantities
Cost of AM parts are relatively invariant as production quantities increase
As quantities increase, AM becomes less attractive as a prod method than CM
Leverage design freedom of AM to realize better-performing and / or geometrically optimized parts
For me and my customers...

We have to convince people to take bets on AM for both traditional uses and increasingly more advanced applications for AM. Often this involves convincing them on the value of:

1) Prototyping as a form of market experimentation via the Rapid Innovation Cycle. A truly iterative process where learning is the key objective; uncovering new product + market insights as well as generating customer validation data through prototype sales (exhanging some form of currency; money, personal information, time, etc.)

2) Leveraging the broad and powerful new applications of AM. Thus the DfAM Cards approach helps our clients get structure around the problem at hand; helps them visualize the pathway(s) to success in AM.
The Rapid Innovation Cycle

The MIT DfAM - Integrative Approach:
Job to be Done
DfAM Cards
Rapid Innovation Cycle
Process Validation

3x parts illustrate the key AM process capabilities and limitations; Powder-Bed Fusion: Polymers (HP Multijet Fusion), Powder-Bed Fusion: Metals: SLM. Stereolithography.

MITxPro: Process Design Rules

Design Guidelines for all 8 fundamental AM processes

Assignments to challenge one's understanding

Forums which foster communications to strengthen understanding, crowdsource help and build new collaborations.

Video content to make understanding more accessible and fun
3DMIT Kit:

3x parts illustrate the key AM process capabilities and limitations; Powder-Bed Fusion: Polymers (HP Multijet Fusion), Powder-Bed Fusion: Metals: SLM. Stereolithography.


Univ of Texas Austin

Make Magazine
+ many many more
9DfXDFAM - Design for Advanced ManufacturingDfAdvMManufacturingAdvanced ManufacturingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
10DfXDFD - Design for DisassemblyDfDAssemblyDisassemblyFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
11DfXDfUX - Design for User ExperienceDfUXStakeholderUser ExperienceFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
12DfXDFC - Design for CustomerDfCStakeholderCustomer / ClientFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
13DfXDFSM - Design for Specific MachineDfSMManufacturing ObjectiveSpecific MachineFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
14DfXDFSMFG - Design for specific manufacturerDfSMFGManufacturing ObjectiveSpecific Manufacturer / ContractorFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
15DfXDFMod - Design for ModularityDfModDesign ObjectiveModularity
16DfXDFE - Design for EnvironmentDfESustainabilityEnvironmentalFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
17DfXDFS - Design for Social ImpactDfSISustainabilitySocial ImpactFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
18DfXDFSc - Design for ScaleDfScPerformanceScaleFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
19DfXDFElec - Design to avoid EMI problemsDfElecElectricalElectromagnetic InterferenceFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
20DfXDFR - Design for RenderingDfRDesign ObjectiveRenderingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
40DfXDfP - Design for PortabilityDfPDesign ObjectivePortabilityFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
41DfXDfPr - Design for PrototypingDfPrManufacturingPrototypingPrototyping can be used in many ways...but they're nearly always used to answer questions. They represent physical "questions" and "experiments" to in/validate our hypotheses about how things will work in the prototype's presence.Design for prototyping is highly valuable when you're experimenting with a lot of concepts and are unsure if you'll be going to market with the concepts being tested.Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsSpeed of production
Accuracy of Prototype features
Precision of Prototype features
Cost of prototype
Cost v. Fidelity
Cost v. Speed
Fidelity v. Speed
Size of prototype, micro, meso, macro?
Size v. cost
Rate Limits?
29EfXExport for XEfX
30EfXExport for STL for Local 3D PrintingEfLM
21MfXManufacturing for XMfX
22MfXMFD - mfg for DesignMfD
23MfXMFSp - mfg for speedMfSp
24MfXMFC - mfg for costMfC
25MfXMFP - mfg for precisionMfP
26MfXMFA - mfg for accuracyMfA
27MfXMFSc - mfg for scaleMfSc
28MfXMFM - mfg for modularityMfMod
42DfXDfProd - Design for ProductionDfProdManufacturingProduction ManufacturingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
43DfXDfT - Design for Tool / ToolingDfTManufacturing ObjectiveTools / Tooling (Specific)Tooling is an art and a science. It requires the involvement of folks who have deep contextual expertise in both the application AND in the manufacturing methodologies being targeted for tool production. Knowing how a tool will be used from a UI / UX perspective in addition to how it will be made are critical issues to be sorted out.Tools are used throughout the hardware industry. Both by SMBs and by large manufacturers. Sometimes this is the ONLY way to manufacture or assemble a particular part or product.Tooling Quality
Surface Quality / Finish
Materials Selection; (metals, polymers (AM: DSM SOMOS composite resins)
Fabrication Process
Contexts: manufacturing, assembly, painting, post processing
Operator Satisfaction
Black Swans - uncovering, leveraging
Key Benefitting Industries: Manufacturing, Automotive, Aerospace, Industrial, etc.
Types of tools: Cutters, Jigs, Fixtures, Gauges, Molds (positive / negative parts)
Complexity: low, medium, high
Key Stakeholders: mfg / assy process, tooling, production, jig, fixture experts
Interfacing components: nuts, washers, threaded fasteners, etc.
Lead-time on Feedback: hours, days, weeks, months
Stakeholder Feedback: qualitative (user comments on tool, survey results, rumors, reviews, etc.)
Rate Limits: what are they?
Process physics: Follow the material: what's the process?
Tooling Cost
Tooling Size
Leadtime for production
Leadtime for feedback
Cost of downtime
Cost reductions
Cost per Part
Stakeholder Feedback: Quantitative (amount paid for tool, time invested using tool, wear of tool, etc.)
Rate Limits: quantify them? Process Times
Kirk Skaggs (Boeing), Brian Lamkin (Boeing),
Dickson Dabell,
44DfXDfCons - Design for ConstructionDfConsConstructionConstruction (General)Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
45DfXDfCont - Design for ContractorDfContStakeholderContractorFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
46DfXDfGD - Design for Generative DesignDfGDAdditive ManufacturingGenerative DesignFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
48GDfXGenerative Design for SustainabilityGDfSSustainability
47DfXDesign for ImpactDfIPerformanceImpactFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
50DfXDesign for EconomyDfEcoSustainabilityEconomyFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
51DfXDesign for EffectivenessDfEfxOperationsEffectivenessFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
52DfXDesign for EfficiencyDfEffOperationsEfficiencyFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
53DfXDesign for Autodesk UniversityDfAUPresentationAutodesk UniversityThe nuances for picking a conference venue suited for the best Autodesk University yetThis is just an example of how we might crowsdsource the content in this spreadsheet for future use.Autodesk University
Conference Venues
Participant Needs
Vendor Needs
Sponsor Needs
Venue Cost
Square Footage
Overall Conference Experience
Location (current: Las Vegas, NV)
Total Square Footage Required
Total Square Footage Available
Cost of Accommodations
Proximty of participants to venue
Bandwidth of High-speed Internet
Total number of participants allowable
Total amount of space available for people, machines, demos, etc.
54DfXDesign for Digital ManufacturingDfDMManufacturingDigital ManufacturingThe nuances when the target manufacturing process is going to be 90% executed by a machine.Common Digital Manufacturing tools include (but are not limited to): additive manufacturing machines (3D printers), laser cutters, water-jet cutters, CNC machines, etc.Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
55DfXDesign for Laser CuttingDfLCSubtractive ManufacturingLaser CuttingLaser cutting is a subtractive manufacturing process whereby a focused beam of light w/coordinated motion is used to cut and etch away materials in a workpiece. Not all lasers (and manufacturing tools in general) are made equally well. As with most digital fabrication machines, you have great machines with poor software, poor machines with great software, great software and great machines (your ideal case) and well...poor machines with poor software.

In our experience, no one builds a crap machine out of the box. Most of the hardware works and is good if you buy from a reputable manufacturer. That being said, good software without good hardware is a waste of time. Our marketplace uses a number of lasers, most of which are good machines...where they differ is in operator ability and the software used to produce your artwork in laser-ready form.

I'd say there are colloquially three types of lasers:
Hobby lasers (Glowforge)
Production Lasers
* "Chinese Lasers" - poor software, decent machines
* Epilog Lasers - decent software (printer driver), good machine (workhorse)
* Universal Lasers - better software (printer driver + interface), better machine (workhorse, finnike)
* Trotec Lasers - best software (printer driver + interface), best machine (workhorse, good quality)
Common Materials
Caliber / Quality of Lasers
Caliber / Quality of Software
Caliber / Quality of Print Drivers
Caliber / Quality of Supporting Community
Caliber / Quality of Training assoc w/Machine / Tool

Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
Laser Power (Feeds, laser power %)
Speeds (length / time)
Laser Frequency
DPI - varies by material, quality, speed > big impact to engraving speed (with minimally impacting quality).
1) Power & Speed Settings / material
2) Resolution vs. Job Time vs. Quality
3) Strong factors on cost / time / quality
4) Job efficiency / effectiveness vs. number of process iterations / job orders
0) Establish desired materal type and format (acrylic, birch, other)
1) Design in 2D Vector Tool (AI or Inkscape)
2) Configure design for Laser Cutting Tool (line weight, line color, artwork style, DPI, raster type [stucki, jarvis], etc
3) Perform testing on material to insure output quality, timing, etc.
4) Think through jigs / fixtures to optimize fabrication time for speed, effectiveness
5) document process, measure timing, optimize workflow
6) deterimine actual cost of production (time, materials, etc.)
7) determine demand required to fully employ a fabricator
8) determine cost of procuring essential tools to perform job
9) document constraints, pains, issues: operator is required to keep machine in peripheral vision when operating (this means you can't leave to use the restroom unless you pause or find someone else to watch the machine)
10) Brainstorm new ways to help You3Dit users to improve their fabrication ability: add a working document for every machine type and enable You3Dit fabricators to add key details. You3Dit to provide template and structure.
1) Determine what audience cares most about: quality, speed, cost, quantity...ask them to prioritize
2) Once this list is prioritized, then determine what resources / tools are essential to execute: power / speed settings, location of machines, software design tools, etc.
1) Online: quality of images and plots MATTERS. Sadly. Cut sheets w/materials: raster / engrave, outline, vector cutCDM
56DfXDesign for Waterjet CuttingDfWJCSubtractive ManufacturingWaterjet CuttingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
57DfXDesign for MachiningDfMachSubtractive ManufacturingMachiningFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
58DfXDesign for Chemical SafetyDfCSSafetyChemical SafetyFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
59DfXDesign for SafetyDfSSafetySafety (General)Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
60DfXDesign for ReliabilityDfRDesign ObjectiveReliabilityFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
61DfXDesign for ServiceabilityDfSvcDesign ObjectiveServiceabilityFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
62DfXDesign for Sheet MetalworkingDfSMManufacturingSheet MetalsSheet Metal, flat pattern, material, bend extents (k factor, bend radius)

Rate Limits?
Process physics: Follow the material: what's the process?
Material, thickness, bend angle, k factor, seam gap, relief, flat patterns

Rate Limits?
63DfXDesign for DocumentationDfDocCommunicationsDocumentationDesigning parts, products and components that are easily documentedChris Linder from AU. #DocumentDNA

"The foundation of Automation is Standardization"
Hatch Patterns (Escher)
Multiple Environments (3 Elements for great docs)
Technical (Accuracy) / Visual (Clarity) / Digital (venn diagram)
1) Purpose
2) Clarity
3) Appearance / Clean layout
4) Good / useful content / accurate / compliance / Precision
1) Redundant info
2) missing info
3) Typos / Obvious errors / non-obvious errors
4) Sloppy!
QC on Documentation: looking to fix the bad

Types of users: Entry CAD, Entry BIM, CAD Manager, BIM Manager, Project Manager, QC Reviewer, Owner / Principal

Rate Limits?
Number of redlines
Number of dimensions
Number of details
Font sizes
Line weights
Doc Efficiency: Produced, Consumed, Edited
File Size
Technical vs.Visual
Technical vs. Digital
Digital vs. Visual
QC Time Requirements
Documentation Time vs. Design time
Physical Tools for Documentation
Digital Tools for DocQC
Strategies for good DocDNA
Tactics for good DocDNA
Cleanup time, strategies, tactics
File Size
Styles & Types: text, diims, tables, walls
Plotting: page setups, ctb's, sheet sets
Templates: DWT files, palettes, sheets
Batch Tools - BAttE (
Chris Linder, Chris McCoy
64DfXDesign for Medical DevicesDfMDMedical DevicesMedical Devices (General)Thinking through the key features of medical devices, things that need to be characterized and addressed that is unique to the medical field (as opposed to traditional product design)Internal v. External Application
What system: cardiovascular, skeletal, epidermal, cerebral, etc.
Level of integration into the patient:
Risk Profile: heart valve or fitbit?
FDA Guidelines
65DfXDesign for Additive Manufacturing (Production)DfAM(Prod)Additive ManufacturingAdditive Manufacturing (Production)This is how AM is designed for the production case. Could be analogous to DfT or Design for Tooling (whereby the tool here is a production additive machine).Build orientation
Stacking Policy
Material: Polymer / Metal
66DfXDesign for CastingDfCastManufacturingCastingDesign for Casting (leveraging AM)
Design for DieCasting
Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
67DfXDesign for PersonalizationDfPersDesign ObjectivePersonalizationFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
68DfXDesign for CustomizationDfCustDesign ObjectiveCustomizationFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
68DfXDesign for Sustainability - EconomicDfSEconSustainabilityEconomicFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
69DfXDesign for Sand CastingDfSCManufacturingCastingSand casting is a basic low-cost process and lends itslef to economical product0ioj in large quantitiees with practically no limit to the size, shape or complexity of the part produced. Fundamentals
1. All eections should be designed with a uniform thickness
Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
70DfXDesign for Plastic FormingDfPFManufacturingNMR (No mold required), plastic box enclosures. Like sheet metal forming but for plastics.Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
71DfXDesign for AM(PBF: MJF)DfAM(MJF)Additive ManufacturingDesign for AM in the context of HP's MultiJet FusionThe build speeds and material properties lend this process to quick turn parts. Many vendors leveraging these machines to transform their low-volume production capabilitiesFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
72DfXDesign for Microstructural MechanicsDfMMDesign ObjectivePBF, Electron Beam Melting EBMDesigning for microstructural properties by leveraging unique metals forming processes enabled by EBM and the processing software. Example: DOE test sample which has DOE written out into the material based on grain growth and crystalline structure.As presented in AMx Supplementary InformationFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
73DfXDesign for Manual AssemblyDfManAssyManufacturingScale ManufacturingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsBoothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
74DfXDesign for High-Speed Automatic Assembly and Robot AssemblyDfAA / DfRAManufacturingScale ManufacturingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsBoothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
75DfXPCB Design for Manufacturing and AssemblyPCB DfMAManufacturingManufacturing & Assembly (General)Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsBoothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
76DfXDesign for Powder Metal ProcessingDfPMPManufacturingPowder Metal ProcessingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsBoothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
77DfXDesign for Die CastingDfDCManufacturingCastingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsBoothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
78DfXDesign for Investment CastingDfICManufacturingCastingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsBoothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
79DfXDesign for Injection MoldingDfIMManufacturingMoldingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate LimitsBoothroyd, Dewhurst, Knight
80DfXDesign for Hot ForgingDfHFManufacturingForgingFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
81DfXDesign for Part HandlingDfPHAssemblyManual AssemblyThese are general guidelines to design parts that are handled with ease1. Design parts tha have an end-to-end symmetryand rotational symmetry about the axis of insertion.
2. Design parts that cannot be made symmetric, obviously asymetric
3. Provide features that prevent jamming of parts that tend to nest or slack when stored in bulk
4. Avoid features that allow tangling of parts when stored in bulk
5. Avoid parts that stick together or are slippery, delicate, flexible, very small or very large, or that are hazardous to the handler (i.e., parts that are sharp, splinter easy, etc.)
82DfXDesign for Insertion and FasteningDfIFAssemblyManual AssemblyThese are general guidelines to design parts that are inserted and fastened with ease1. Design so that there is little or no resistance to insertion and provide chmfers to guide the insertion of two mating parts. Generous clearance should be provided, but care must be taken to avoid clearances that result in a tendancy for parts to jam or hang-up during insertion.
2. Standardize by using common parts, processes and methods across all models and even across product lines to permit the use of higher volume processes that normally result in a lower product cost. Ex: 1/4-20 screws as the only screw used in a product.
3. Use pyramid assembly--provide for progressive assembly about one axis of reference. In general, it's best to assemble from above.
4. Avoid where possible, the necessity for holding parts down to maintain their orientation during manipulation of the subassembly or during the placement of another part. If holding down is required, then try to design so that the part is secured as soon as possible after it has been inserted.
5. Design so that a part is located before it is released. A potential source of problems arises from a part being placed where, due to design constraints, it must be released before it is positively located in the assembly.
6. When common mechanical fasteners are used, the following sequence indicates the relative cost of different fastening processes, listed in the order of increasing manual assembly cost:
a. snap fitting
b. plastic bending
c. riveting
d. screw fastening
7. Avoid the need to reposition the partially completed assembly in the fixture
83DfXDesign for Composite Materials / ManufacturingDfCMMaterialsComposite MaterialsTargeted for engineers and designers who want to leverage the strengths of composite materials despite some of their limitations. Advantages: strength to weight, electrical isolation, tailored mechanical properties, potentially lower costFundamentals
1) Fiber / polymer matrices 2) anisotropic material 3) specifically, orthotropic material 4) loading conditions need to be well defined to use reliably

1) Aerospace 2) Automotive 3) Marine / Boating 4) Space structures


Rate Limits
84DfXDesign for Regional SpecificsDfRSGeographyRegional SpecificsFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
85DfXDesign for Parmetric ModelingDfPMDesign ObjectiveParametric DesignParametric Design and Configurations allow designers / clients rapid prototype in the CAD tool prior to fabricating expensive prototypesFundamentals
1) create a high-level process
2) determine the key variables and initial values for relevant to a CAD model parameters
3) identify, define and fully understand your constraints: time, money, CAD tools desired / available, known variables vs. unknown vars, CAD robustness
4) choose a format to call out variables and be consistent
5) consider using an excel document / google sheet to define variables first
6) understand how you'll build your part, component, assembly such that you can generate the variety of configurations needed
Rate Limits
86DfXDesign for Adaptive Devices (Accessibility)DfADDesign ObjectiveAccessibility / AdaptabilityTargeted for folks with accessibility challenges, additive manufacturing and other digital manufacturing methods, this set of design rules helps you consider the key factors in solving accessibility issues with clever mechanical designFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
87DfXDesign for Wireless ConnectivityDfWCDesign ObjectiveRF / WirelessThere are mechanical challenges in building wireless-ready devices. 1) TRP / TIS Testing
2) Antenna Design
3) RF Simulations
4) Wire Routing
5) Cellular OTA Requirements: Verizon / ATT / Etc.
6) Key Players: TaoGlas, Edgeworx, Digi International
7) RF Environment
8) Ground Plane
9) Human Flesh / other materials impact efficiency
1) Antenna Efficiency Target > 50%
88DfXDesign for Punch & DieDfPDManufacturingToolingDesign for Punch and Die in thermoforming / sheet forming. Pulled from Kalpakjian & SchmidKey Variables:
1) punch speed
2) corner radius on punch
3) corner radius on die
4) clearance distance, c, ~2-8% of sheet thickness, but as low as 1% for fine blanking

Shearing Die Shapes
1) punch, shear angle, blank thickness, die
2) Bevel shear
3) double bevel shear
4) convex shear
89DfXDesign for DurabilityDfDDesign ObjectiveDurabilityThe ability for a product or component to survive under the harshest conditions.Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
90DfXDesign for Selective Laser MeltingDfSLMManufacturingSLMPowder-based Metal Additive Manufacturing has many opportunities and challenges as it relates to design. Minimizing support structures, minimizing amount of powder needed, etc. are all things to be thinking about when designing for SLM, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
91DfXDesign for Portable PowerDfPPDesign ObjectivePowerDesign for Portable Power is the need to have rechargeablility or power storage onboard physical productsFundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
92DfXDesign for DeploymentDfDplyDesign Objective"This should include the structure to aid in delivery coordination, ease of installation and documentation readiness. Ensure the product is structured to be easy to identify upon receipt and order by the end user. "Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
93DfXDesign for ProcurementDfProDesign Objective"Guideline for designing new or revising existing designs of Printed Circuit Boards and Printed Circuit Board Assemblies and fabricated sheet metal part piece parts. It can reduce overall product costs and improve factory efficiency"Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
94DfXDesign for Supply ChainDfSCDesign Objective"Design to improve the supply chain efficiency, inventory turn-over and reduce lead times. Design for high assembly and manufacturing efficiency. Design to improve the logistics efficiency, reduce the cost for product logistics(packaging, transport, etc.). The product should be designed to ensure full or maximum fault detection coverage at in-circuit, functional and system test where applicable."Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
95DfXDesign for TestabilityDfTxDesign Objective"The group of design techniques used to add testability features to hardware product design. The premise of the added features is that they make it easier to develop and apply manufacturing tests for the designed hardware. The purpose of manufacturing tests is to validate that the product hardware contains no defects that could, otherwise, adversely affect the product’s correct functioning."Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
96DfXDesign for FlexibilityDfFDesign Objective"Design the product to be scalable in capacity. The ease of expandability should be taken into consideration from both a hardware/software perspective. Design the product functions to be easy to modify or add new functionality. The design should take the extensibility of the product into consideration."Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
97DfXDesign for ProfitabilityDfPDesign ObjectiveEconomicsDuPont Model?"Nesting, or optimally placing items into a build volume for 3D printing is, therefore, an essential part of 3D printing operations. Usually done through one person’s specific experience, nesting takes into account the finish of parts in different orientations, success rates, and more. We can, however, go beyond this process and put a number to different builds, different nestings, and various parts. Because we are early in getting parts made in their millions, we can now begin to redesign parts for profitability."Fundamentals, Applications, Implications, Rate Limits
98DfXDesign for Adhesive JointsDfAJDesign ObjectiveJoiningAdhesively bonded joints are essential in many engineering contexts for their versatility, low cost, and weight savings.Fundamentals
1. Types (chemistry): epoxies, polyurethanes, polyimides
2. Forms: paste, liquid, film, pellets, tape
3. Type: hot melt, reactive hot melt, thermosetting, pressure sensitive, contact, etc.
4. Load carrying capabilities: structural, semistructural or non structural

Joint Types: single lap, double lap, scarf, bevel, step, butt strap, double butt strap, tubular lap


Rate Limits
1. Design to place bondline in shear, not peel
2. Where possible, use adhesive with adequate ductility
3. Recognize environmental limitations of adhesives
4. Recognize surface preparation methods
5. Design in a way that permits or facilitates inspectsion of bonds where possible.
6. Allow for sufficient bond area so that the joint can tolerate some debonding before going critical
7. AWhere possible, bond to multiple surfaces to offer support to loads in any direction
Shigley, J., Mischeke, C, Budynas, R. "Mechanical Engineering Design."