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ABCDEFGHIJKLPQRSTUVWXYZAAABACADAEAFAGAHAIAJ
1
idnametopicsubjectEU/national
below nat. treshold
descriptiondeveloper
development_date
language
processPhase
programming_language
project_url
source_code_url
statetagsvalidation
validation_method
2
to implement
data available
importance in RECORD
commentto implement
data available
importance in RECORD
comment
3
4Unusual split of contract
Contract splitting to circumwent thresholds or allow only big suppliers to bid
easyhard to process10
important connection between above and below threshol
uneasyhard to process10
This redflag indicates risk if there are two or more contracts issued for identical items over a short period of time for no apparent reason, which results in the application of a less competitive procurement method. It also indicates risk if the purchase of items that should have been procured jointly, but are procured by each sub-unit (eg one vehicle for on department).
World BankEN
MULTIPLE_PHASES
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, contract splitting, procedural indicator
null
4
5Many awards just below tresholdCircumwent thresholdsISSUEReasyeasy to process9
aseparate for eu-national and below, compare tresholds
uneasyhard to process9
This redflag indicates risk if there is an unreasonably large number of contracts awarded just below national competitive bidding treshold [NCB] OR there are related and simultaneous purchases from the same supplier in amounts just under the NCB threshold
World BankENAWARD
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
quantity, theoretical, contract splitting, price, procedural indicator, statistics
null
5
10Tailored specificationsTailored specificationsuneasyhard to process9
needs further elaboration
uneasyhard to process9
This redflag indicates risk if there is a close similarity between the specifications and the winning bidder’s product or services AND/OR specifications stipulate a brand name without stating “or equivalent” AND/OR there are complaints from other bidders that the specifications match too closely those of a single competitor, or that a bidder prepared the contract specifications
World BankENPLANNING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, subject, procedural indicator, bid, rigged specifications
null
6
11Few bidsLow level of competitionnot possibleno data9
no data on who purchased the documentation
not possibleno data
This redflag indicates risk if only a few of the companies that purchase the bidding documents submit bids (especially if more than half drop out) AND/OR relatively few companies submit bids, compared to prior similar tenders AND/OR fewer than the normal or expected number of potential bidders apply for prequalification.
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, output indicator, bid, rigged specifications
null
7
17aCompetitor established right before procurementuneasyeasy to process9
comp.reg data needed, issues with comp.IDs
uneasyeasy to process9not super easy
8
17b
Company has a high ratio of contracts within sector / at a contracting authority
CONTRACTOReasyeasy to process9low hanging fruiteasyeasy to process
9
28Different evaluation criteriaeasyeasy to process9
if there is an ammandment is always suspicious
uneasyhard to process9
This redflag indicates risk if the evaluation criteria differ from those issued in the bidding documents AND/OR improper or arbitrary evaluation sub-criteria or procedures are developed at the time of evaluation that differ from the issued bidding documents AND/OR there are changes in the scoring of bids or arbitrary scoring of bids
World BankENAWARD
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, process rigging, biased evaluation
null
10
32BEC members being under pressureInfluenced decision makersnot possibleno data9Whistleblower?not possiblehard to process9
This redflag indicates risk if there is a pressure exrcised by project officials on BEC members to select a certain contractor
World BankENAWARD
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, analogue indicator
null
11
34Business similaritieseasyeasy to process9uneasyhard to process9
This indicator indicates risk if there is a suspicious bid pattern between bidders, like same or similar telephone or facsimile numbers or address shared by bidders
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, collusive bidding, bid
null
12
39Discrepancies in delivery
Delivery not according to contract
not possibleno data9not possibleno data9
This redflag indicates risk if there are discrepancies between inspection findings, test results, or contract specifications and the contractor’s claims for payment (incl. false statements, missing supporting docs) AND/OR statements contradict results of background or due diligence checks
World BankEN
IMPLEMENTATION
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, fraud
null
13
54Bidders take turns winningCartelleasyeasy to process9uneasyhard to process9
This redflag indicates risk if there are only a few companies in the market that always bid together and they take turns winning
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, collusive bidding, reputation, statistics
null
14
56Lack of biddersLow level of competitioneasyeasy to process9uneasyhard to process9
This redflag indicates risk if (more than half of the) companies that buy the bidding documents refrain from submitting bids AND/OR substantially fewer bids have been received than in previous, similar tender AND/OR well-known qualified companies do not bid, especially if they purchased the bidding documents
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, collusive bidding, output indicator, bid
null
15
66call for tender not published in official journaleasyeasy to process9
Not publishing the call for tenders in the official journal increases the probability of single received and valid bids and the winner’s contract share in every regression. Therefore the indicator's value is set 0, if the call for tender was published in official journal and 1, if no call for tender was published in official journal
Corruption Research Center Budapest
HUPLANNING
http://tendertracking.eu/about
N/AACTIVE
exclusion of bidders, input indicator, process rigging, weighted indicator, restricted information, binary indicator, leaking confidential information, procedural indicator, algorithmic
VALIDATED
the indicator is partially validated. the developers only set forth possible ways of validation of CRI, but according to their own assessment, it takes several years to validate the aforementioned indicators on a whole scale. These elementary validation routes, however, are important as follows:
1. analysis of cross-sectional and time-series distribution of CRI
2. relationship between the amount of spending not reported in the PP database and CRI on the organisational level
3. analysis of profitability and turnover growth of winning firms with different CRI
4. political control of winning companies is collated with their CRI
5. comparison of average CRI of "crony companies" with those whose success is largely unaffected by government change.
16
67procedure type
extended use of restricted procedures
PROCUREMENTeasyeasy to process9
Every non-open procedure type carries a higher corruption risk than open procedures in terms of single received and valid bids and winner’s contract share. Therefore developers set the indicator's value 0 , if there is ano open procedure, 1, if there is an invitation procedure, 2, if there is a negotiation procedure, and 3, if there are other procedures (e.g. competitive dialogue). Indicator's value is 4, if procedure type is missing/erroneous.
Corruption Research Center Budapest
HUPLANNING
http://tendertracking.eu/about
N/AACTIVE
exclusion of bidders, input indicator, process rigging, weighted indicator, restricted information, leaking confidential information, procedural indicator, algorithmic
VALIDATED
the indicator is partially validated. the developers only set forth possible ways of validation of CRI, but according to their own assessment, it takes several years to validate the aforementioned indicators on a whole scale. These elementary validation routes, however, are important as follows:
1. analysis of cross-sectional and time-series distribution of CRI
2. relationship between the amount of spending not reported in the PP database and CRI on the organisational level
3. analysis of profitability and turnover growth of winning firms with different CRI
4. political control of winning companies is collated with their CRI
5. comparison of average CRI of "crony companies" with those whose success is largely unaffected by government change.
17
74annulled procedure re-launched subsequentlyannulled procedureseasyeasy to process8
reformulate methodology
This indicator is contradictory to the prescriptions of the EU Public Procurement Directive or the Hungarian Public Procurement Law, but according to the authors is in line with a corrupt rent extraction logic, since contract awards are annulled and relaunched more often when there were multiple bidders .The indicator's value is set 0, if the contract was awarded in a non-annulled procedure and 1, if the contract was awarded in a procedure annulled, but relaunched. Both annulations by the procuring entities or courts are taken into consideration.
Corruption Research Center Budapest
HU
MULTIPLE_PHASES
http://tendertracking.eu/about
N/AACTIVE
input indicator, process rigging, weighted indicator, binary indicator, procedural indicator, algorithmic
VALIDATED
the indicator is partially validated. the developers only set forth possible ways of validation of CRI, but according to their own assessment, it takes several years to validate the aforementioned indicators on a whole scale. These elementary validation routes, however, are important as follows:
1. analysis of cross-sectional and time-series distribution of CRI
2. relationship between the amount of spending not reported in the PP database and CRI on the organisational level
3. analysis of profitability and turnover growth of winning firms with different CRI
4. political control of winning companies is collated with their CRI
5. comparison of average CRI of "crony companies" with those whose success is largely unaffected by government change.
18
8Short noticetricks with deadlineseasyeasy to process8
set value according to law and statistics
uneasyhard to process8easy for RO
This redflag indicates risk if the period between the advertisement and the bid submission deadline is very short. The Worldbank's Handbook does not imply actual timespan.
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, temporal indicator, restricted information, statistics
null
19
X
cross check with data on complaints, disputes, court decisions
uneasyhard to process8
check for different applications of these data, high hanging and tasty fruit
20
25Anomalies around bidseasyeasy to process8
if the date was prolonged
easyeasy to process8
if there is a "bid"
This redflag indicates risk if a bid's due date has been extended after some of the bids have been submitted AND/OR Some or all bids are disqualified for simple errors AND/OR Complaints from bidders that they were not allowed to submit bids AND/OR A bid is “forgotten” in the safe.
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
exclusion of bidders, theoretical, partially analogue indicator, bid manipulation, bid
null
21
33Winning bid is poorly substantiatednot possibleno data8not possibleno data8
This redflag indicates risk if technical specifications are copied from the bidding documents or are incomplete AND/OR the manufacturer’s authorization is missing, outdated or inadequate AND/OR The bid does not match procurement requirements (e.g., in terms of quantity, quality, qualifications) AND/OR Pages of a bid are missing or not signed (when required)
World BankENAWARD
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, process rigging, bid, biased evaluation
null
22
35Unreasonably high bid prices by losing bidderseasyeasy to process8uneasyhard to process8
This redflag indicates risk if there is a suspicious bid pattern that consists of unreasonably high bid prices submitted by losing bidders for which there is no legitimate explanation and which cannot be attributed to an error. The World Bank does not indicate accurate ratio for suspiciously high amount.
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, collusive bidding, price, bid, statistics
null
23
50Icrease in contract valuePrice increase during deliveryeasyeasy to process8in SP and HUuneasyhard to process8
This redflag indicates risk the increase in contract value (e.g., unit costs)
World BankEN
IMPLEMENTATION
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, process rigging, price, abuse of contract changes and amendments
null
24
55Bidders have close ties to each otheruneasyhard to process8
only 2. part (in HU also part 1)
This redflag indicates risk if a successful bidder subcontracts work to losing bidder(s), which may include those that withdraw their bids AND/OR cross-ownership of bidding companies or family ties (similar names of key staff and owners or family members own the bidding companies)
World BankENBIDDING
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/governance/brief/anti-corruption
non existent
NOT_DEVELOPED
theoretical, collusive bidding, reputation, statistics
null
25
63exclusion of all but one bid
exclusion of unfavourable bidders by authority
easyeasy to process8
for sure in Hu, maybe in Poland
This numeric redflag-component is part of an index (CRI) that indicates risk risk of grand corruption. Developers rely on the scheme that in order to award the contract to a "specific" bidder, the procuring entity - if it could not deter all but one bidder from submissing bids - excludes the bids of all unwanted bidders on administrative or formal grounds or unfairly assesses the bids to favour a particular bidder. Therefore the value is set to 1, if 1 bid was NOT excluded, and 0, if more than 1 bid NOT excluded. Input indicators of the model, correlate with this output.
Corruption Research Center Budapest
HU
MULTIPLE_PHASES
http://tendertracking.eu/about
N/AACTIVE
output indicator, binary indicator, bid, algorithmic
VALIDATED
the indicator is partially validated. the developers only set forth possible ways of validation of CRI, but according to their own assessment, it takes several years to validate the aforementioned indicators on a whole scale. These elementary validation routes, however, are important as follows:
1. analysis of cross-sectional and time-series distribution of CRI
2. relationship between the amount of spending not reported in the PP database and CRI on the organisational level
3. analysis of profitability and turnover growth of winning firms with different CRI
4. political control of winning companies is collated with their CRI
5. comparison of average CRI of "crony companies" with those whose success is largely unaffected by government change.
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