This resource was created to share knowledge of e-learning resources from around the world for use as alternatives to, or in conjuction with, laboratory or fieldwork practical activities in the Biosciences. It is a living resource, please add to it and share with colleagues. Any comments or feedback, please contact the developer, Dr Dave Lewis, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, UK. Email:
Sheet 2 has details of
build your own systems for home use and Sheet 3, details of platforms. This resource was developed in part with funding from a British Pharmacological Society Teaching Grant
© University of Leeds & D.I. Lewis, 2020. This work (excluding logos) is made available for reuse under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
TitleDisciplineDescriptionType of ResourcePlatformDeveloper/Supplier (Contact Details)CostWeb AddressPublicationAdditional Publications
Netter’s 3D Interactive AnatomyAnatomy3-D human anatomy visualisation platform3D visualisation softwareWeb basedVIVED Learning, supplier, S. M., CHOI, S., BARNETT, J. & ROGERS, K. A. (2016). Mixed methods student evaluation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory. Anat Sci Educ, 9, 272-85
REFLECTAnatomysuperimpose anatomical visualizations over the user’s body in a large display, creating the impression that see the relevant anatomical illustrations inside their own bodyAugmented realityPC Windows 10Roghayeh Barmaki rlb@udel.eduBARMAKI, R., YU, K., PEARLMAN, R., SHINGLES, R., BORK, F., OSGOOD, G. M. & NAVAB, N. 2019. Enhancement of Anatomical Education Using Augmented Reality: An Empirical Study of Body Painting. Anatomical Sciences Education, 12, 599-609
Virtual immunologyImmunology3 modules: Organs & Lymphoid tissues, Inflamation, antigen/antibody. Includes simuations of investigation in each process/systemSimulated investigationWeb-basedLaboratório de Comunicação Celular (LCC), Oswaldo Cruz Institute - IOC/FiocruzFreehttp://www.lcc.kftox.comBERCOT, F. F., FIDALGO-NETO, A. A., LOPES, R. M., FAGGIONI, T. & ALVES, L. A. 2013. Virtual immunology: software for teaching basic immunology. Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 41, 377-83.
Whole Brain AtlasNeuroanatomyIdentification of critical human brain regions in health and disease. Including 3D viewerMRI & SPEC imagesWeb basedKeith A. Johnson, M.D. (; J. Alex Becker (, J. P. & SCHLEIDT, S. 2008. Effective use of computer simulations in an introductory neuroscience laboratory. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 6, A64-7.
MRIcroNeuroanatomyAnatomical identification and measurement of human brain regions from imagesSoftwareAppleMcCausland Center for Brain Imaging, Univ of South Carolina, USAFree, J. P. & SCHLEIDT, S. 2008. Effective use of computer simulations in an introductory neuroscience laboratory. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 6, A64-7.
Talairach DemonNeuroanatomyAnatomical identification of human brain regions from imagesSoftwareJava 1.4 or betterResearch Imaging Institute of the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio (UTHSCSA)Free, J. P. & SCHLEIDT, S. 2008. Effective use of computer simulations in an introductory neuroscience laboratory. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 6, A64-7.
SimulationsPlusPharmacologySimulations of all stages of the drug discovery and development processSimulation softwareSLP Simulations Plus IncContact developer. Licences available for educational use
NeuronifyNeuroscienceEducational simulator for neural circuitsAppApp (andriod, Apple & Windows)Ovilab, University of Oslo, source An Educational Simulator for Neural Circuits
Svenn-Arne Dragly, Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Andreas Våvang Solbrå, Simen Tennøe, Anders Hafreager, Anders Malthe-Sørenssen, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting and Gaute T. Einevoll
eNeuro 9 March 2017, 4 (2) ENEURO.0022-17.2017; DOI:
3D altas of Human EmbryologyEmbryology14 user-friendly and interactive 3D-PDFs of all organ systems in real human embryos between stage 7 and 23 (15 till 60 days of development), and additional stacks of digital images of the original histological sections and annotated digital label files3D PDFsWindows or AppleBernadette S de Bakker, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam Meibergdreef 15, 1105AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Free interactive three-dimensional digital atlas and quantitative database of human development
Bernadette S. de Bakker*, Kees H. de Jong, Jaco Hagoort, Karel de Bree, Clara T. Besselink, Froukje E. C. de Kanter, Tyas Veldhuis, Babette Bais, Reggie Schildmeijer, Jan M. Ruijter, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Vincent M. Christoffels, Antoon F. M. Moorman*
See all authors and affiliations

Science 25 Nov 2016:
Vol. 354, Issue 6315, aag0053
DOI: 10.1126/science.aag0053
CHEKROUNI, N., KLEIPOOL, R. P. & DE BAKKER, B. S. 2020. The impact of using three-dimensional digital models of human embryos in the biomedical curriculum. Ann Anat, 227, 151430.
Human pathophysiologyPathophysiologyUse of clinical case studies and manekin to practice clinical skills and "diagnose" pathological conditionsCase studies & manekinNot applicableUniversity of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; publicationCHEN, H., KELLY, M., HAYES, C., VAN REYK, D. & HEROK, G. 2016. The use of simulation as a novel experiential learning module in undergraduate science pathophysiology education. Adv Physiol Educ, 40, 335-41.
Molecular mechanics and dynamics characterization of an in silico mutated proteinMolecular/structural BiologyStudents to use molecular dynamics software to generate “their” mutations and observe the effects on enzyme structure in silicoSimulation softwareWindowsNot (just) Another Molecular Dynamics program (NAMD), Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group, University of Illinois, H., ROBINSON, L. C., BRAME, C. J. & MESSINA, T. C. 2013. Molecular mechanics and dynamics characterization of an in silico mutated protein: a stand-alone lab module or support activity for in vivo and in vitro analyses of targeted proteins. Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 41, 402-8.
NeuroDynamix IINeuroscienceSimulation of single neurone with ability to modualte individual conductances. Includes multiple developed lesson plansSimulation softwareUnknown, K. M. 2012. A structured-inquiry approach to teaching neurophysiology using computer simulation. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 11, A132-8.
Sheffield Bioscience ProgrammesPharmacology; PhysiologyCollection of 18 simulations of common in-vivo and in-vitro pharmacological studies and human physiological studies (with more to be added)Simulation softwareHTML5, Windows & MacProf D Dewhurst, multi-user licence (no annual renewal). Contact supplier, D., LEATHARD, H. & ULLYOTT, R. 1996. Intestinal motility: A computer simulation of the effects of drugs on colonic peristalsis, for teaching undergraduate pharmacology students. Atla-Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 24, 11-19
Programme for teaching pharmacokinetics and therapeutic monitoring of PkEdu drugsPharmacologyPharmokinetic simulation softwareSimulation softwareWeb-basedc/o Prof Slanar ( Department of Pharmacology, Charles University, PragueFree
Strathclyde Pharmacology SimulationsPharmacologySimulations of pharmacological studies in isolated tissues, organs and nerves, and whole animalsSimulation softwareWindowsc/o John Dempster (, Univ of Strathclyde, UKLicenced. Contact Developer
Anatomy & Physiology Revealed Online Access (Fetal Pig Version)Anatomy; PhysiologyInteractive virtual fetal pig dissectione-bookNot applicableUniversity of Toledo, USA. Distributed by McGraw HillLicenced. Contact supplier
Visible BodyAnatomy; Physiology3D-interactive anatomical & physiological lessons and assignments of whole (human) body, organs and systensVirtual 3D modelsWindows, iPad/iPhoneVisible Body Inc, Boston, USALicenced. Contact Developer
Anatomy & Physiology Revealed 4.0Anatomy, PhysiologyInteractive human anatomy and physiology edUniversity of Toledo, USA. Distributed by McGraw HillLicenced. Contact supplier
Virtual Anatomy LaboratoryAnatomyMulti-media interactive web-pages to explore human anatomy. Includes options to test knowledgeInteractive webpageWeb-basedUniversity of Indiana, USAFree
MDCUNE Modular Digital Course in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education at UCLANeuroscienceCollection of simulations and modules to explore neurophysiological concepts and mechanisms, neuroinformatics, molecular neuroscience, behavioural adaptations, neuroanatomy and big (Neural) data. Some student manuals included. Includes SWIMMY software (neurophysiological phenomena & mechanisms of motor pattern generation)Simulation software, modules and student manualsWindows or AppleUniversity of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), USAFree, W. 2009. Modular Digital Course in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (MDCUNE): A Website Offering Free Digital Tools for Neuroscience Educators. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 8, A26-31. GRISHAM, W., KELLER, L. & SCHOTTLER, N. 2015. Gel Scramble: An E-Tool for Teaching Molecular Neuroscience. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 13, A174-83.
WebMicroscopeHistologyBeing updated, L., NIVALA, M. & KRONQVIST, P. 2013. More technology, better learning resources, better learning? Lessons from adopting virtual microscopy in undergraduate medical education. Anatomical Sciences Education, 6, 73-80.
Human patient simulatorPhysiologyHuman patient simulator for use in physiogical studiesCustomer Service (LearningSpace) - International. CAE HealthcareContact supplier, J. P. & HURST, S. A. 2010. Novel undergraduate physiology laboratory using a human patient simulator. Med Educ, 44, 523.
AnatomographyAnatomyinteractive website which supports generating anatomical diagrams and animations of the human bodyInteractive websiteWeb-basedDatabase Center for Life Science, University of Tokyo, JapanFree, Creative Commons Attribution-Inheritance 2.1 Japan licence MANSON, A., POYADE, M. & REA, P. 2015. A recommended workflow methodology in the creation of an educational and training application incorporating a digital reconstruction of the cerebral ventricular system and cerebrospinal fluid circulation to aid anatomical understanding. BMC Med Imaging, 15, 44.
NeuroLabNeuroscienceset of graphical simulations of neural processes at the molecular, cellular or network levels.Simulation softwareWeb-basedLuis F. Schettino, Lafayette College Easton, PA 18042, USA ( F. Schettino (2014) NeuroLab: A Set of Graphical Computer Simulations to Support Neuroscience Instruction at the High School and Undergraduate Level. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ. 2014 Spring; 12(2): A123–A129.
ZygoteAnatomy3D human anatomy models (physical or digital). Also includes "Human Factors" & "Human Body" software which scales digital imagesPhysical or digital modelWindowsZygote Inc. 1045 S. 500 E. STE #200 American Fork, UT 84003, USAContact Company
NeuroBytesNeuroscienceElectronic components that enable students to construct their own neuron simulators and neural circuits, synapse by synapseElectronic componentsNot applicableNeuroTinker Inc. Contact via websiteContact Company, A., FREDIN, Z. & BURDO, J. 2017. The Use of Modular, Electronic Neuron Simulators for Neural Circuit Construction Produces Learning Gains in an Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 15, A151-a156.
Physiology ExperimentsPhysiology; NeuroscienceSimulations (including backgorund material) of all major physiological systemsSimulationsWebFaculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Australia. Email: physiol-sim@monash.eduFree, M. & PRICE, N. S. 2016. Simulated in vivo Electrophysiology Experiments Provide Previously Inaccessible Insights into Visual Physiology. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 15, A11-a17.
Protein PurificationBiochemistrySimulation of some of the more commonly-used protein separation techniques, including opportunities to experiment with the simulation. Includes tutorial exercisesSimulationWebA.G BoothFree
EnzLabBiochemistryEnzyme kinetics simulationSimulationWindows; AppleA.G BoothFree
Genomics ExplorerGenomics; BioinformaticsInteractive interface enabling students to design and undertake studies using a range of genomics tools.Interactive interfaceWebScience Education Resource Centre, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA. serc@carleton.eduFree
Virtual LaboratoryBiochemistrySimulations of 10 biochemical studiesSimulationWebDavid A Bender, Dept of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UCL, UKFree
Learning ScienceBiochemistry; Molecular Biology; Physiology; Pharmacology; Microbiology; GeneticsSimulations/animations of practicals/techniques used across the BiosciencesSimulations and animationsWebLearning Science, Bristol, UK Company
Microbial ecologyEcologyGame to understand the ecology of protists; UNDER DEVELOPMENTGameTBAParmecium PressContact CompanyNot available
Interactive Clinical PharmacologyPharmacologyInteractive animations of all aspects of clinical pharmacologySimulations and animationsWebHitlab NZ and Christchurch Hospital / University of Otago Christchurch, New ZealandFree
NeuronsinactionNeuroscience25 simulations of cellular and synaptic properties of neurones (based on free Neuron simulation software). Includes tutorialsSimulationsWindowsJW Moore, AE Stuart, Dept of Neurobiology, Duke University, USAContact Distributer Oxford Univ Press AE (2009) Teaching Neurophysiology to Undergraduates using Neurons in Action. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ. 8(1): A32–A36.
Backyard BrainsNeuroscienceKits to undertake studies of neural function outside of the class roomElectronic componentsNot applicableBackyard Brains. 308 1/2 S. State, Suite 35, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA, hello@backyardbrains.comContact Company
Pharmacology Teaching MaterialPharmacologySimulations and animations of in-vitro and other pharmacological studiesSimulations and animationsExcel, WordRichard Prince, Univ of Manchester, UK., RJ, McLindon S, and Rutter J. SimXL: A Microsoft Excel-based organ bath simulator. pA2 Online 13 (2015) 229P. Available from:
Simulation of Ionic CurrentsNeuroscience; PhysiologySimulation of whole cell and single channel currents. Includes built-in variabilitySimulationWindowsNoel Davies, University of Leicester, UK Developer
Enzyme KineticsBiochemistryExcel spreadsheets which allow the students to enter enzyme data in order to calculate Km, vmax etc. Additional one with sliders so they can vary Km and Vmax manually to see how it affects the curves (ie simulations)Interactive spreadsheet; simulationExcelFrank Michelangeli, University of Chester, UK.
NeurosimNeuroscienceSix simulations of neural activity at the cellular or small systems level. Includes tutorials and classroom activitiesSimulationWindowsWJ Heitler, University of St Andrews, UK. Developer. Individual and Institutional options available
PhysioEx 10.0Physiology; Sports & Exercise Sciences63 physiological laboratory simulationsSimulationsWindows, ApplePeter Zao; Timothy Stabler; Lori A. Smith; Andrew Lokuta; Edwin Griff, Published by PearsonContact Publisher
LabHeartPhysiologyInteractive computational model for simulating cardiac electrophysiology. Includes workbookSimulationWindowsDonald M Bers, Jose Puglisi, Jorge Negroni, Rafael Mejia-Alvarez, Eleonora Grandi, Dennis Borger, Wajeeh Salah, Joseph A Schwartz c/o University of California Davis Health, USAFree JL & Bers DM (2001). LabHEART: an interactive computer model of rabbit ventricular myocyte ion channels and Ca transport. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 281, C2049-C2060.
LabAxonPhysiology; NeuroscienceComputer simulation of the Squid action potential. Includes workbookSimulationWindowsDonald M Bers, Jose Puglisi, Jorge Negroni, Rafael Mejia-Alvarez, Eleonora Grandi, Dennis Borger, Wajeeh Salah, Joseph A Schwartz c/o University of California Davis, USAFree
3DBrainNeuroscience; PhysiologyEnables students to zoom around the interactive brain structures. Discover how each brain region functions, what happens when it is injured, and how it is involved in mental illness. Each detailed structure comes with information on functions, disorders, brain damage, case studies, and links to modern research.Interactive animationAppDNA Learning Center, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA. dnalcweb@cshl.eduFree or
Flow cytometryMolecular/cellular Biology; immunologyEnables demonstration of important concepts in flow cytometry, such as threshold and compensation, on actual data files which are played or "acquired" on the simulator. Data files cover a wide variety of cell types. When confronted with an unfamiliar sample, a user can scan, choose and play representative data, and view the instrument settings (and/or staining protocol) used to obtain the data."SimulationJavaJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
SimbryoEmbryologyAnimations of embryological processes (Early development, cardiovascular, gentiourinary, gastrointestinal, pulmononary, head & neck). Includes malformations.3D AnimationsWindows (Flash)Stanford University School of Medicine. Contact Phil & Grant EckerFree
Evogeneoa Tree of LifeEvolutionEnables understanding of evolutionary biology. Students are given a unique list of species which they have to draw an evolutionary tree for using the interactive toolInteractive graphical interfaceWindows; AppleEvogeneaoFree
PharmaCalcPharmacologyPharmacokinetic simulation program based on first-order kinetics and compartment modeling, where doses, therapeutic range and halflife/clearance can be set as parameters, producing graphs of results. Includes tutorialSimulationWindows (Java)Stefanie D. Krämer ETD Zurich email: stefanie.kraemer@pharma.ethz.chFree
Virtual Physiology SeriesPhysiologySimulation of physiological and pharmacological experiments, 6 different laboratories available: SimHeart, SimVessel, SimMuscle, SimNerv, SimNeuron and Drug laboratory.SimulationWindowsHans A. Braun ( and Aubin Tchaptchet (
IleumPharmacologyGuinea-pig ileum simulation. Range of agonists & antagonists can be testedSimulationWindows & Apple OSBiosoft, email:£30
CardiolabPharmacologyIn-vivo cardiovascular simulator. Range of agonists & antagonists can be tested as well as the ability to mimic stimulation of vagal and sympathetic cardiac nervesSimulationWindows & Apple OSBiosoft, email:£75
MEMPOTNeuroscience; PhysiologySimulation of membrane potentials on excitable cellsSimulationWindows & Apple OSPeter Barry, University of New South Wales, Email: $395. Includes Instructor's Manual, Student's Notes and departmental site license J. Physiol. (259, Adv. Physiol. Educ. 4), S15-S23, 1990
ARTMEMNeuroscience; PhysiologySimulation to illustrate how membrane potentials are set up across an ion-selective artificial membraneSimulationWindows & Apple OSPeter Barry, University of New South Wales, Email: $200 Instructor's Manual, Student's Notes and departmental site license Biomed. Eng. 22: 218-215, 1994
MEMCABLENeuroscience; PhysiologySimulation of a microelectrode experiment illustrating the passive time-dependent properties of a spherical neuron and the cable properties of a nerve and muscle fibreSimulationWindows & Apple OSPeter Barry, University of New South Wales, Email: $200 Instructor's Manual, Student's Notes and departmental site license
Animal simulatorPhysiology; Pharmacology;Collection of 63 simulations covering both physiological and pharmacological studies in multiple (in-vitro and in-vivo) preparationsSimulationWindows & Apple OSReed Elesvier: support@animalsimulator.comContact supplier
Male & Female rat anatomyAnatomy3-D graphic model rat anatomical model. Models of other species or individual organs available3-D graphic model3ds max 2010 and above (.max); Cinema 4D 11 and above (.c4d); Autodesk FBX (.fbx)Developed by dugongmodels, Supplied by TurboSquid ($164