Equestrian Written Documentation Project
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TopicA Newe Booke Containing The Arte of Ryding, and Breaking Greate Horses Together with the Shapes and Figures Of Many and Diverse Kyndes of Byttes, Mete to Serve Diverse Mounthes. Blundville's 1561 translation of Grisone's Rules of Riding/Gli Ordini di Cavalcare published in 1550Gli Ordini di Cavalcare Federico Grisone, 1550 (Tobey/Deigan translation)Livro da ensinanca de bem cavalgar toda sela Duarte 1438 (2006 Preto and Preto translation)The Book of Horsemanship Duarte I of Portugal 1438 (Forgeng translation 2016)The Compleat Horseman Gervase Markham 1614 (Discourse on Horsemanship originally published 1593)Triumph of Maximilian, first of this name, of glorious memory dictated to Marx Treitzsaurwein 1512 (Appelbaum translation 1964)A Description of the City of London William Fitz-Stephens 1170Three Essays - On the Duties of a Cavalry General, on Horsemanship, and on Hunting Xenophon ~400BC translated by Dakyns 1897Le Cavalerie Francois Salomon de La Broue 1593/1610Book of the Courtier Baldasare Castiglione 1528La raggione [sic] dell’arte di cavalcare Gio. Antonio de Franceschi 1606 (Tomassini translation) Razze del Regno (Breeds of the Kingdom), manuscript 9246 Grisone unpublished 16th Century (Tomassini translation)Anatomia del Cavallo Carlo Ruini originally published 1598 (NIH plates from 1618)La Gloria del cavallo Pasquale Caracciolo 1566 (Tomassini translation) http://amshistorica.unibo.it/50Essais de Destiers Michel de Montaigne 1595La nobilta di Napoli in Dialogo. - Giuseppe Cacchii 1569 (Tomassini translation)Trattato dell'imbrigliare, atteggiare, e ferrare cavalli Cesare Fiaschi 1556 (Tomassini translation)Cavellerie della citta di Ferrara likely Agusto Argenti 1576 (Tomassini translation)Il cavallarizzo Claudio Corte 1562 (Tomassini translation)Delle razze, disciplina del cavalcare, et altre case pertinenti ad essercitto cosi fatto Giovan Battista Ferraro 1562 (Tomassini translation)Cavallo frenato Pirro Antonio Ferraro circa 1577-1586 published posthumously by his sons in 1602 (Tomassini translation)Escuirie de M. de Pavari Marco de Pavari 1581 (Tomassini translation)Scuola de' cavalieri di Ottaviano Siliceo gentilhuomo trojano, nella quale principalmente si discorre delle maniere, & qualita de cavalli, in che modo si debbono disciplinare, & concervare, & anco di milglirare le razze Ottaziano Siliceo 1598Compendio dell'heroica arte di cavallaria Alessandro Massari Malatesta 1599/1600Lo Cavaller Ponc de Menaguerra 1493 (Fallows translation)Doctrina del arte de la cavalleria Juan Quijada de Reayo 1548 (Fallows translation)Del Justador Luis Zapata de Chaves 1589-1593 (Fallows translation)El Passo Honroso de Suero de Quinones Pero Rodriguez de Lena 1434 (Fallows translation)Tratado de la cavalleria de la gineta Hernan Chacon 1551 (Fallows translation)traictié de la forme et devis d'ung tournoy René of Anjou 1460 (Elizabeth Bennett translation)De equo animante (Il cavallo vivo) Leon Battista Alberti 1556 (Latin/Italian)Opera di Mescalzia Filippo Scaccho da Tagliacozzo 1591Hippiatria sive Marescalia / Laurentii Rusii ... ; in qua praeter variorum morborum plurima, ac saluberrima remedia, plures quàm in priore editione com[m]odissime frenorum formae excusae sunt, ut nullum tam novo oris vitio laborantem equum invenias, cui non hinc occurrere facilime possis. 1532An Apology for Poetry Philip Sidney 1595Calabriensis Hippiatria Jordanus Ruffus 1256 http://amshistorica.unibo.it/49De Digno scendis Hominibus Pietro Monte 1492 (Collectanea 1509)The Battle of Tannenberg or Grunwald, Jan Duglosz, 1410 (selected and translated by Michael J. Mikos 1999)The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Battle of Agincourt 1415 (translated by Thomas Johnes 1840)Munyatu’l-ghuzat, A 14th Century Mamluk-Kiptchak Military Treatise (translated by Kurtulus Öztopçu )The Siege of Constantinople Kritovoulos 1453. (trans. Charles T. Riggs, 1954)The Golden Bull of the Emperor Charles IV 1356 (Yale Law Website)libros de monteriaRast, Antonius
Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82Augsburg Version (1553) [edit] by Werner Ueberschär https://wiktenauer.com/wiki/Antonius_Rast?fbclid=IwAR35eRyyOvGBbgOe3sop7QSZtaz0nN91525mP4nRO8w2E4qZncvuUqL6Pt8#Mounted_Fencing
Riding as Art or PastimeMoreover to prove that the art of riding and breaking great horses is no vile art, Grisone useth the authority of the noble poet Virgil: who in his Eclogues calleth King Picus for a more excellency and greater praise a tamer or breaker of horses.In the military art, there is no discipline of greater beauty than that of horses, and none so adorned with handsome impressions. But it is also a useful art, endowed with great value. And this art is equally as difficult and worthy of praise as it requires one to employ time and measure, In the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ: having in mind that we should be able to do everything, and in accordance with the saying that writing books is an endless task, which I do for my own relaxation and entertainment, and being aware that the art of being a good horseman is one of the main skills necessary to knights and squires, I am going to write several things about it with the objective of improving the riding skills of those who decide to read my writings in good will and to follow my recommendations.the art of being a good horseman in one of the most important skills that lords, knights, and squires ought to possessWe shall now say something of the commendable excercise of riding great Horses. Our English Gentry from a sloth in their industy aim for the most part at no more skill than the riding of a ridden and perfect horse, which is but only the setting forth of another rider's virtue and thereby making themselves richer in discourse than action.In a suburb immediately outside one of the gates there is a field that is smooth, both in name and in fact. Every Friday (unless it is an important holy day requiring solemnity) crowds are drawn to the show and sale of fine horses. This attracts the earls, barons and knights who are then in the city, along with many citizens, whether to buy or just to watch.It would add, I think, to the beauty of the scene if at this point they formed in companies of tribes, and giving their horses rein, swept forward at the gallop to the Eleusinio ...Each trooper should hold his Lance straight between the ears of his charger, which in proportion to the distinctness given to the weapon will douse terror, and. at the same time create a vague idea of multitudinousness. As soon as ceased from the charge; and now with footing slow, let them retrace their course to the temples. In this way, every detail characteristic of knightly pageantry will have been displayed to the delight of god and man...I also recognize the fact that these performances are good and beautiful and will give pleasure to the spectators. Cavalerice actually means, of course, Knight [ie gentlemen] and expert in the art of training combat and school horses: art that the Italians call the Art of the Horseman [Cavallerizzo] have used the word escuyer [horseman/squire] if in France it meant only good horseman, but since it can adapt to other meaning I found it more appropriate to use a foreign word, also according to the opinion of some of my friends very experienced in this art.I would hope that our Courtier is a perfect horseman in every kind of saddle. and in addition to understanding horses and knowledge of riding, I would have him work diligently to elevate himself a little above others in everything, so that he may be well recognized for his excellence. As we read of Alcibiades, that he surpassed all the nations with whom he lived.each in their particular province, so I would have our Courtier exceed all others, in each of their best professions. And since it is the special pride of the Italians to ride well with the bridle [a la brida]. to school wild horses with consummate skill, and to play at tilting and jousting - in these things let him be among the best of the Italians, In tournaments and in the arts of defence and attack, let him shine among the best in France,. In lance throwing, bull-fighting and in casting spears and darts, let him excel amoung the Spaniards. But above everything, he should temper all his moverments with a certain good judgement and grace, if he wishes to merit that universal favor which is so greatly prized.The cheerfulness of the horse is the most beautiful part of him, and the most valuable.It seems well to me to declare that in no age did cavalry have a greater value than in the time of the King Alfonso of Aragon and of the Kings Ferrante the elder and the younger, during which, for the care that they held in it, the horses were provided with a nice disposition and a wonderful attitude, but adorned with a beautiful name.And Although the use of combat on horseback with wonderful dexterity and artifice has always been flourishing, more than in any other part of the world, especially under the Serene Kings of Aragon; who, when they lived in Naples, used to take delight in good riding, renewing everyday various equestrian games, thus encouraging the Nobles to do the same, giving them every support and leisure, in order to make them dedicate [themselves] to weapons and Horses.not only in Italy, Spain, Turkey but throughout the world there isn't such a rare beauty of horses as in such a noble and wonderful city, which is for the natural quality of the air causes men to take delight in these beautiful horses and in the art of riding, in which are excercised not only Mercenaries to earn their living, but also any and all honorable gentlemen and riders for pleasure. Through the practice of riding all of these people become elevated just as were Alexander the Great, Caesarm and the same Mars. And to learn this beautiful art of riding, men of all conditions come to Naples from all parts of Europe, some to become perfect marsters, and many nobles instead, for their solace, delight and pleasure, as the king of Naples did in ancient times...In my homeland, Ferrar, it is customary to hold feasts. tournaments, and various sorts of cavalcades in which each rider, according to his power and with every careful diligence strives to have the very best horses available, and having to be held a magnificient and sumptuous feast for the momory of the creation of our Illustrious and most Excellent Prince, for the greatest enjoyment and amusement of the gentlemen an honrable tournament was prepared in which appeared so richly armed and fairly dressed knights, riding their horses so easily and with such skill, which certainly nowhere else to be seen any better; because this filled the bystanders with wonder. I affirmed that, realizing my abilities and not being able to stand the comaprison with this honorable and noble company, I was driven by the zeal for my own honor to retire from it [that company], so as not to turn red in the face in the presence of such valiant knights, and with the firm intention not to wear weapons again nor to join similar knights, until such time as I was sure to be worthy of such company.They were on horseback armed in the ancient style with morions and shields covered with mirrors of steel, which made a great reflection and they were dressed in rich white drapes made of gold and with superb plumes on top.Much is to be commended Sir Cesare Fiaschi truly honored knight, who has put the above canter to music, to communicate clearly and well (as I understand it, the big time) and the big measure that is requires. I would not only place it to music, but also all the other excercise (as he did). but knowing that the most of the riders, and professor of this art are ignorant of music, as are the majority of men, not to confuse them. I didn't: judging that a good practice, and time after time, and excercise will produce the effect.whenever a Knight, both for his mistake or that of the horse, does not match with others in harmony, measures and order, not only causes discomfort, but great disorder: nor in any place, time or action (not talking of warfare) the virtues held by a knight on horseback are more noticeable than in the Tournament.Whenever the prize is to be awarded to the most elegant knight, let the judges watch attentively - since the knight who wears the best, most expensive, magnificent armour should be expected to win - if the trappings lean or hang unevenly on one side than the other and if the crest is straight and fastened firmly, for such mistakes once noticed can lead to the loss of the prize.for the Oracle said that the most impressive thing in the world was an armoured knight on horseback. each of the judges ought to have a white rod as tall as he is in his hand, which he carries upright, on foot and on horseback, wherever he is, during the festival, so that everyone may better know who are the judgeshttp://www.liberliber.it/mediateca/libri/a/alberti/de_equo_animante/pdf/de_equ_p.pdfhttps://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/horse/hor_scaccho_p01.htmlhttps://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/horse/hor_rusius_title.html[John Pietro Pugliano] said soldiers were the noblest estate of mankind and horseman the noblest of soliders.,,they were the masters of war and ornaments of peace. The horse separates princes, magistrates, and knights from less people, and no lord can fittingly be seen among ordinary people except through the mediation of a horse.We decree that whenever the emperor or king of the Romans shall hold his solemn courts, in which the prince electors ought to serve or to perform their offices, the following order shall be observed in these matters. First, then the emperor or king having placed himself on the royal seat or imperial throne, the duke of Saxony shall fulfil his office in this manner: before the building where the imperial or royal session is being held, shall be placed a heap of oats so high that it shall reach to the breast or girth of the horse on which the duke himself shall sit; and he shall have in his hand a silver staff and a silver measure, which, together, shall weigh 12 marks of silver; and, sitting upon his horse, he shall first fill that measure with oats, and shall offer it to the first slave who appears. This being done, fixing his staff in the oats, he shall retire; and his vice-marshal, namely, he of Pappenheim, approaching-or, in his absence, one-third the marshal of the court,- shall further distribute the oats.
And do not think that the horse, although he is well put together by nature, can work well on his own, without human aid and true teaching. It is necessary to awaken the parts of his body and the hidden virtues that are within him through means of the art of riding, and throughd good discipline his goodness will become manifest to a greater or lesser degree. On the contrary, when the art of riding is false, it ruins him, and hides every good quality, therefore when it is good it compensates that many areas in his nature where he is lacking.This art [riding] brings, besides other advantages, courage to the heartYou should know first of all that you will attain this art more by native talent, by acquiring and maintaining good mounts and having the opportunity to ride them regularly and by living in a household and country that breeds and values good horsemenBut the true horse rider shall not only recreate himself by riding the Horses whom others have made perfect, but shall by his own practice bring his Horse from utter ignorance to the best skill that can be desired in his motions. From this he shall find a twofold pleasure, the one an excellent contentment to his mind, that he can perfome so worthy an action without the chargable assistance of others, and the other a healthful support to his body, when by such recreation his spirits and inward faculties are revived and inflamed.The order in which the men will ride with showiest effect on these occasions has already been noted. Although it is almost a proverb that grace is not to be learned, I say that whoever would acquire grace in bodily excercises (assuming first he is not naturally capable), ought to begin early and learn the rudiments from the best masters...And of the men we know at the present day, consider how well and gracefully my lord Galeazzo Sanseverino, Grand Equeery of France, performs all the bodily excerices: and because in addition to the natural aptitude pe possesses, he has taken utmost pains to study with good marters, and always to have about him, men who excel and to select from each the best of what they know.I have already said many times that knowing this art without knowing how to put it into practice, would be like knowing only one part of it, by means of which one could be helpful to others rather than serve himself; as the old Riders of this profession did, like the happy memory of my Master, Sir Gio. Battista Pignatelli, and others of his age in the city of Naples, who with their very big experience could communicate this art to others, although they could no longer personally practice it because of their ageThe illustrious homeland can therefore be glorified more than other cities, being adorned by many excllent men in this very rare and difficult art, who understand almost with human intellect, the tone of the voice, the gestures, the rewards and the threats of the Rider and exactly obey his will. So that, in a way, it seems that in its actions it became really a man, so that it can do anything but speak.And because to some rider it might seem strange that I wanted to put Music in my second treatise, jusging it possibly unnecessary, in response I say that without measure and time it cannot be made good, and so I show it, and those who do not know how to do it by art will learn it through continuously riding practice.And that is true you can see in considering that without the horse it would be difficult to enjoy that great pleasure and happiness, which the view of the countryside away from the tulmult of the city and the goodness of the weather and the serenity of the sky gives to men. being impossible to go there on foot without a lot of effort and discomfort, which would take away the pleasure, either in whole or in large part.Each tourneyer gives to the heralds and pursuivants who carry his banner a coat with his arms and a big strong horse, and a habergeon if the herald or pursuivant wants one, with a salet, vambraces, rerebraces, gauntlets, and leg harness. But in the high Germanies and on the Rhine, they don't do this; for the banners of the tourneyers are carried by young and handsome companions, dressed for war, and on horseback; who are all armed like crayfish or in white harness, with sallets or kettle hats trimmed with feathers, and leg harness; and they have over their clothes fair hukes with goldwork or the devices of their masters. And they are mounted on horses almost as strong as the tourneyers'; the horses are covered richly and gently. And these companions are always at the tails of their masters' horses, and never let their banners fall, or lose their masters in the crowd.No earthly thing bred such wonder to a prince as to be a good horseman. Skill of government was but a pedanteria in comparison.But when the emperor or king shall have gone into table, the ecclesiastical prince electors-namely the archbishops,-standing before the table with the other prelates, shall bless the same according to the order above prescribed; and, the benediction over, all those same archbishops if they are present, otherwise two or one, shall receive from the chancellor of the court the imperial or royal seals and signets, and he in whose arch chancellorship this court happens to be held advancing in the middle, and the other two joining him on either side, shall carry those seals and signets-all touching with their hands the staff on which they have been suspended-and shall reverently place them on the table before the emperor or king. The emperor or king, however, shall straightway restore the same to them, and he in whose arch-chancellorate this takes place, as has been said, shall carry the great seal appended to his neck until the end of the meal, and after that until, riding from the imperial or royal court, he shall come to his dwelling place. The staff, moreover, that we spoke of shall be of silver, equal in weight to twelve marks of silver; of which silver, and of which price, each of those same archbishops one-third; and that staff afterwards, together well the seals and signets, shall be assigned to the chancellor of the imperial court to be put to what use he pleases. But after he whose turn it has been, carrying the great seal, shall, as described, have returned from the imperial court to his dwelling place, he shall straightway send that seal to the said chancellor of the imperial court. This he shall do through one of his servants riding on such a horse as, according to what is becoming to his own dignity, and according to the love which he shall bear to the chancellor of the court, he shall be bound to present to that chancellor.
Having recognized how rare Your Most Illustrious and Revered Highness is, not only endowed with a great mind and how many gifts nature has lavished on you, and how highly you prize the art of riding (in constant conformity to the natural disposition found in your illustrious and very ols family), I resolve today to choose you amoung so many princes there are ine the world, as the dedicatee of this little work of mine.It is also well known that good horses bring happiness to the heart of the riders, if they are at least reasonably skilledThose who wish to possess thia art need to have the three main things through which one acquires any art: Great Will, adequate ability, and much knowledgeNow for as much as to the Art of Riding belongeth diverse Turnings and Leaps right pleasant and curious to behold, and though not generally used in the Wars, yet not utterly useless for the same and many times very needful for the health of one's Body.The spectacle presented to the Senate will be that of an ever rapidly moving stream of cavaliers...Consider the effect of such spectacle:the Grim advance of rival squadrons front to front; the charge; the solemn pause as... they stand confronting one another; ...a second swift yet hostile advance...; and once again the trumpet sounds, and for a third time they make a final charge across the field... all the actions you want from him must be obtained without beatings, but with skill and arthaving said that Music is very useful, I add, that it is necessary, in order to understand the measure of time in circling and in the other airs.The good Musician, who prefers to appear rather bizarre than to play an instrument out of tume or false or not entirely good, not to play Music if it in not excellent and perfect; and this happens to be excellent and rare to hear, not so much for his skill, but also for the quality of the instrument and the music, in which all who practice this exercise will find an example, so that they make sure that they will be able to procure good horses.What a peerless beast a horse was, the only serviceable courtier without flattery, the beast of most beauty, faithfulness, courage, and such more, that if I had not been a piece of a logician before I came to him, I think he would have persuaded me to have wished myself a horse.Then the margrave of Brandenburg, the archchamberlain, shall approach on horseback, having in his hands silver basins with water, of the weight of twelve marks of silver, and a beautiful towel; and, descending from his horse, he shall present the water to the lord emperor or king of the Romans to wash his hands.
Although the art of riding is generally taught by people of low rank, I did not disdain to write about it, I did not want to teach this art by personal example, but rather through the written rules. My intention, bu writing these rules, was to redeem the art of riding from vile expression, knowing full well that they endeavour to lift up this virutous and admmirable art, the shade of which becomes any worthy knight. Kings and celebrated men were in the past called masters in this art.we very much praise this art [riding] because a healthy man, with strong will, if he does not get fat, is able to keep his skill as he ages, which does not happen with most arts.Since all men naturally desire honor, profit, and proprer pleasure, it seems to me that all lords, knights, and squires should greatly desire this art, seeing as how it engenders these benefits for those who practice it well.The Horse of all Creatures is the noblest, strongest, and aptest to do the best and worthiest service in both Peace and War. He is valiant, strong, and nimble, and above all other beast most apt and able to endure the extremest labors. ..He is most gentle and loving, apt to be taught and not forgetful when an impression is fixed in his brain.The greater part of gymnastic exercises are performed in the sweat of the brow While Equestrian exercise is performed with pleasure. To whom, as for the Orator, besides the Art, are required the Imitation and the exercise, and above all the desire to achieve excellence: things that are so effective in every profession, that no one should distrust himself when, left the vain games and the idleness contrary to virtue, he practices all the time, learning: and so much more for a Noble man, whom having to surpass the other in every praise, as he surpasses, them in dignity, with more ardor he will have to strive to acquire the perfection of this very honorable profession. in which the military glory mainly consists.Moreover, as we learn it to have hitherto been observed so we decree, that, after their aforesaid offices have been performed by the secular prince electors, he of Falkenstein the sub-chamberlain, shall receive for himself the horse and basins of the margrave of Brandenburg; he of Northemburg, master of the kitchen, the horse and dishes of the count palatine; he of Limburg, the vice-cupbearer, the horse and cup of the king of Bohemia; he of Pappenhelm, the vice-marshal, the horse, staff and aforesaid measure of the duke of Saxony. That is, if these be present at such imperial or royal court, and if each one of them minister in his proper office. But if they, or any one of them, should see fit to absent themselves from the said court, then those who daily minister at the imperial or royal court shall, in place of the absent ones,-each one, namely, in place of that absent one with whom he has his name and office in common,-enjoy the fruits with regard to the aforesaid functions, inasmuch as they perform the duties.
Once there was a time in the Kingdom of Naples, khown as Sybaris, where not only men, but also horses, learned how to dance to the sound of the symphonyIt stands to reason that those who excel in this art should have much enjoyment, given that we see people who excel in arts of little profits - such as throwing the bar, jumping with feet together, and other similar arts - enjoy praise for their excellence. If these people naturally rejoice in such praise, what should someone do who excels at the art of riding, which enjoys such a privileged place among the people to whom it pertains?By training him to adopt the very airs and graces which he naturally assumes when showing off to best advantage, you have got what you are aiming at - a horse that delights in being ridden, a splendid and showy animal, the joy of all beholdersThe count palatine of the Rhine shall likewise enter on horseback, having in his hands four silver dishes filled with food, of which each one shall be worth three marks; and, descending from his horse, he shall carry them and place them on the table before the emperor or king
One cannot call a life abundant, a feast complete, a game valrous, or a battle great unless there were horses.This manner of riding upright on horseback seems to me soemthing that we should observe in everything we do...At times in life we encounter adversities of action, speech, care or memory, such that we feel ourselves at risk of being thrown into rage, ill-will, sorrow, weakness of heart, demeaning ourselves, or giving displeasure to God and men, or we are preoccupied by lack of faith or despai of our ability to begin, continue of finish well the things we can and should do...At such times we should striaghten ourselves by our own power and good counsel, and by that of others who have great knowledge, will, and ability to act and advise in such matters. We should keep in mind counteracting precautions for whatever is making us fall in one of these directions, and we should also speak and hear the things that counteract the failing to which we feel ourselves inclined, and not those that unbalance us more, even if our will desires it - sad people often like to speak of the causes that engender sadness, even though this makes the sadness increase. A horse so prancing is indeed a thing of beauty, wonder and a marvel; riveting the haze of all who see himAfter this, likewise on horseback, shall come the king of Bohemia, the arch-cupbearer, carrying in his hands a silver cup. or goblet of the weight of twelve marks, covered, filled with a mixture of wine and water; and, descending from his horse, he shall offer that cup to the emperor or king of the Romans to drink from.
Horses have been and will ever be necessary,,,not only noble men need them, but also men of lower ranks who through their efforts wish to better themselves and become illustrious.
Who cannot say that every Prince considers it glorious to call himself Knight, the name born of this regal animal.
Rider PositionAlways let your right stirrup be shorter than the other by half a holeBut I caution you to hold your hand steady and more or less light, according to what is needed for his type of mouth, because sometimes when this occurs in some horse, it is due to the rough hand of the rider, who lacks the expertise in subduing him in a timely manner and to make him tolerate the bit, whether the bars of his mouth are hard or soft. But it suffices that on horseback they should look and act like men, and not like animals less useful than the ones they ride.Then as before, mount his back, seat yourself just and even in the Saddle, make the reins of your Bridle of equal length, carry your rod without offence to his eye in your right hand, the point either directly upright or thwarted towards your left shoulder.The notion that the hipparch is to ride at a slower pace than his phytarchs, and to handle his horse precisely in their style, seems to me below the dignity of the office. You see how ungraceful a rider is who strives to sit bolt upright in the saddle in the manner we call Venetian as compared with another who seems not to be thinking about it, and sits his horse as free and steady as if he were on foot.Don Carlo of Lanoia, Prince of Solmone, Who excercising admirably in every way on horseback. among other trials made two which aroused great admiration and were told to me by reliable persons: once he rode with a flat saddle and without stirrups a very wild horse, keeping between the saddle and the boot, in the place of the knees, two large silver coins, that never moved: and another time keeping them with the same firmness between the feet and the stirrups, running fast with a horse. He participated in jousting with lances of enormous size and often using saddles without cantles, to show great strength and agility.During my childhood in Naples, the Prince of Sulmona, to show the strength of his position while he was maneuvering a reluctant horse with all sorts of riding excercises kept below his knees and under his toes some reals [coins], as if they were nailed.It is bad to hear a rider scream on horseback and also very bad to see him squirm with his limbs and with his waist, because with that he must move only a little bit at a certain time to aid him [the horse], so that he does the rider's will, showing also, in this way to the bystanders not to be a staue, but instead, to have elagance and good manner in staying on a horse.the Rider must stand up straight, solid and loose on the horse, however he must not look affected or angry, but with cheerful rather than a severe face; so it happened than many Riders looked more beautiful dressed ( that is to say armed) than unarmed because under the visor of their helmer, whatever was their face, happy or sad, the affectation or mutation of the members of the face could not be seen,,, I wish, therefore, that starting from the head, when the Rider is on horseback (as I said) shows more joy than melancholy in his face, so that it will not only bring a better view, but it will also show to the bystanders that he well possesses what he does, or is about to do, and that it is very easy for him.No less attention should be paid to the knight's orderliness and restraint when he makes his entrance in the ilsts. In order that he be seen and praised for his outstanding skill, how he rallies forth, how he holds his legs and his body in the saddle, and the way in which he turns, because the horse's rump should not touch the tilt on turning around nor in any other way.When riding you should stand as straight to the saddle as if you were standing at attention before the king and for this reason it should have short saddletrees and a short saddle cloth because it makes the man-at-arms legs look longer.The knight should hang his feet evenly, as when a man walks, and the tips pointed slightly outwardsThe shortest spurs are more convenient than the long ones, because they won't get pulled or twisted off in the press.
You must ride and sit upon the horse, not only with great heart without fearing him, but also envisioning thta you and he are one as the same body, feeling, and will.The first and most important: you should hold yourself strongly on the mount in everything that is does or that can happen to itBy giving your body and thrusting your Legs forward, go forward. To avoid being jolted off his horse at any moment, the trooper should, in charging, lean wellback, and to prevent his charger stumbling, he should while wheeling hold his head well up, but along a staight stretch he should force the pace. All those riders who will show in public must take care to keep the time with the waist and the limbs, both head and arms as legs and feet, always making every effort to appear on horseback as graceful as they can, because, besides being beautiful to watch, they will also help the horse, that will appear more graceful and better in any sort of air he will perform.Let it been seen at the head of the lists how the knight grasps the lance, how he sits in the saddle, how he holds his legs, if he loses his stirrups.He shall walk with some room in the seat to rest, and without leaning on the front arcon, otherwise the rider will proceed looking like a travelling bag. In sum, the posture of the knight depends on the saddle; in a poorly fitted saddle there is no way that he will ever sit well.
You should remain still, firm, and refrain from leaning to one side while you are riding him...Your nose should always be aligned with his forelock that is between his ears, and this will be the sign to recognize whether you are seated evenly in the saddleFourth, you should be firmly seated in the saddle in an appropriate manner, as required by the nature of the mount and what it is doing.For HELPS, the first is the voice...the second is the bridle...Then the Rod.,,Lastly the calves of the legs, stirrup leathers and stirrups. Some to these helps add the help of the Spur, but it must be done in a just and true time, and with such gentle bitterness that the Horse may understand it for help.a horse accustomed to be led from the side wil have least power for mischief to horse or man, and at the same time be in the best position to be mounted by the rider at a moment's notice, were it necessary.In order to maintain decorum and the noble excercise of jousting, and in order best to judge the good jouster's skill, following the tenor of many chapters devoted to running with sharp lances, let the vices of dropping the lance when picking it up. or losing one or both stirrups, and contracted legs be censured at the judge's discretion because these fouls, if they are not redressed, are worth a lance broken to the opposing jouster.The bluster should stand a walk towards the tilt standing on the stirrups and not sitting on the saddle or contracting his legs like a roasted chicken, but upright and erect, and the length of the stirrups should be such that there is a palm's breadth between the knights seat and saddle, for if the stirrups are too long he will look ugly and weak and graceless.
Likewise, holding the reins in the left hand and the crop in the other, you will ride him in a balanced way and will holf him with your knees and thighs well-placed and in contact with the saddle, and you will allow your legs to fall straight down in the way that you do when you are standing up. And you will aid him whenever needed, more or less, according to what is going on, by letting your feet fall down in such a way to position themselves in the stirrups in the proper place, with the point of the toe and the heel of each foot turned, so that by turning your face to one side or the other - without forcing or moving your body and pressing your weight down in the stirrup - you will notice that the point of your foot will be a straight line with your nose.Fifth, you should be fluid in everything you do, and in this matter I will briefly offer, as best I can, instructions on certain arts that are done on horseback.there is a secret pleasing and cherishings of a Horse with the bridle which must be exercised in the doing of his lessons, and that is the sweetening of his mouth by easing of your bridle hand and gently drawing it up back again, letting it come and go with such unperceiving motion that none but the beast may know it.supposing the rider fairly seated, whether bareback or on a saddle-cloth, a good seat is not that of a man seated in a chair, but rather the post of a man standing upright with his legs apart. In this way he will be able to hold on to the horse more firmly by his thighs; and this eract attitude will enable him to hurl a javelin or to strike a blow from horseback...The leg and foot should hang loosely from the knee;by keeping the leg stiff, the rider is apt to have it broken in collision with some obstacle; whereas a flexible leg will yeild to the impact, and at the same time not shift the thigh from its position. The rider should also accustom to be as supple as possible; for thus will he enlarge his scope of action, and in case of a tug or shove be less liable to be unseated.And that, taking care over his proper deportment, let him ride the customary lap around the lists. And so that he may be recognized as a great knight of the jousting saddle, let him hold his body straight and slightly rigid, let him not hang his right arm down, but rather hold his hand to place on the bouche of the shield (and, at one time, on the buckle of the guige); his legs straight, hanging directly in line with his torso,, neither pushing them forward nor bending them backwards, but rigid and very close in the horse's belly; his feet well placed, the toes level with the heels watching where to prick with the spurs.
Depending on the type of saddle you should always ride with long stirrup leathers but always with the right stirrup a hald point shorter than the other and keep the stirrup leather beneath the knee, ,,,whn you position the stirrup leather above the knee, you will ride longer and more amenably, watching that the point of each foot is aligned with the point of the ears of the horsem and not aligned with the shoulder as that would be wrong...The latter style with the stirrup leather above the knee was more popular in the olden days because the riders at that time often used horses that were armed with horse armor and needed about a palm's length longer.Sixth, you must know well how to strike with the spurs, as requires by the situation and by the mount; and regarding this I will write about the design of spurs; and how you should govern with a stick or rod.But in collecting him, the rider should as little as possible sway the horse obliquely with the bit, and as little as possible incline his own body; or, he may rest assured a trifle will suffice to stretch him and his horse full length upon the ground.
Seventh: you should hold your hand well with all types of bits and horse's mouths at all times.when the horse breaks off into a gallop, the rider ought to bend forward, since the horse will be less likely to slip from under and so to pitch his rider off,
Eleventh: you should be elegant in every kind of saddle and style of riding and in the things that the mount does, as required by the saddle and style and what the horse is doingl and you should know how to configure yourself and your mount to look good and show well, and to conceal shortcomings in yourself and the mount.in pulling him up short the rider should lean back; and thus escape a shock.
one of the main things you should possess to be a good rider is to be strong in holding yourself on the mount. In leaping a ditch or tearing up a steep incline, it is no bad plan to let go the reins and take hold of the mane, so that the animal may not feel the burthen of the bit in addition to that of the ground.
First is by having a good manner of riding upright on horseback and in everything you do.In going down a steep incline the rider must throw himself right back and hold in the horse with the bit, to prevent being hurled headforemost down the slope himself if not his horse.
Second, by tightening your legs.It is a good thing for the rider to accustom himself to keep a quiet seat, especcially when mounted on a spirited horse
Third, by firming your feet in the stirrups.
Fourth by holding on with your hands at the moment of need.
Fifth, by knowing the manner of riding that each saddle calls for, acording to its style and configuration, in order to be stronger in it.
Sixth, by knowing how to configure yourself. the saddle. and the stirrups advantageously for whatever you have to do, as required by the manner of the mount.
For the principal and most general ones are knowing how to sit upright according to the things you are doing; tightening your legs; helping with your feet and hands; knowledge of saddles; and configuring yourself, the saddle, and the stirrups.
There are five distinct ways to ride from which all the others are derived.
There are those saddles that require you to have your legs straight and a bit forward and firmed in the stirrups, sitting in such a way that youare relying equally on all three parts...the ones that pricipally call for this kind of rising are the ones that today are called "Brabant" saddles... If you want to ride strongly in this type of sadle, you should extend the stirrups so that you settle into it, holding your legs straight.
The second style involves sitting fully in the saddle, holding your legs straight or a bit gathered, not paying heed to the stirrups. In this style, the strength of riding come sin keeping yourself upright and tightening your legs according to the moment. ...you should not entirely disregard the help you can have from stirrups, even if you devote more attention to tightening your legs, keeping yourself upright, and knowing how to hold your body in everything the mount does, rather than to the help of the feet.
The third is to ride firmed in the stirrups with your legs straight, not sitting in the saddle, but recieving some help from the arcons. The saddles in which you ride this way are the ones in which we joust or tourney, and others of similar fashions.
You must make the stirrups firm with bindings or strong straps, or some other good manner. You should not thrust them forward, and your legs should always be as straight as you can hold them. Your feet should be quite firm, and you should never sit in the saddle, because it makes you lose elegance, fluidity and steadiness, and also makes you less strong.
You should not suppose that to be stronger in the joust, it is advantageous to sit in the saddle with one of your legs gathered, because certainly the reverse is tue is the stirrups are bound, but rather you should do your best to hold both of them quite straight at all times for it often gets us out of mishaps and falling and makes us more fluid and elegant.
The fourth is to keep your legs gathers, sitting in the saddle with your feet firmed. Everything here is the same as I have said for Brabant saddles and other that call for that style of riding, except that in these you should never be stretched out while you should not be gathered in Brabant saddles. And these are the Jennet saddles and others that call for that kind of riding.
The firmest way to ride in these is to squeze your feet and the whole of your legsright up against the horse as much as you can, keeping them gathered and riding in the middle of the saddle, not sitting against the rear or forward arcon. Your feet should be well firmed and flexed as if the stirrups were attached to them, lowering your heels and entirely observing the manner I have described, not sitting carelessly in the saddle such that you loosen your legs and fail to firm your feet. Nor should you firm your feet so much that you rise from the saddle or loosen your legs equally at the calves, at the knees, and above so that everything is as evenly tightened and firmed as possible.
As to sitting in the middle of the saddle, you should understand that this applies if the horse is running or walking. If it is jumping, it is good to stay in the middle of the saddle, firming your feet and tightening your legs, and straightening your body backwards, as I will explain when I discuss how to keep from falling formwar. If the horse is trotting, the best way is to hold yourself firm on the rear arcon, If it is cantering, or trots poorly or hard, you should lift yourself in the stirrups and come against the forward arcon.
In all the saddles I have mentioned you could observe this manner of riding with the legs bent, just as with the jennet saddle, sitting stroung and settled and fluid but it is not as elegant in others that I have seen, only in jennet saddles, in which to my mind it looks good when people ride this way when they have the occasion to use them.
The fifth manner is riding without stirrups, using a pack saddle or entirely bareback. The trick here lies in tightening your legs and folding yourself upright versions: first, with the legs extended and tightened at the knees and thighs; second, gathering the legs and squeezing them against the horse; third, squeezing with the entire leg this way, and placing the tips of the feet near the mount's elbows.
To hold yourself strong in all there manners of riding, it is principally necessary to know how to ride upright in everything the mount does as I had said, and to recognize how to help yourself and what you should do.
We can be thrown off the mount in one of four directions: forward, backwards, or to either side.
We can be thrown forward by the following situations: when the horse baulks, or when it bucks,..., running in some disordered manner or in doing an easy jump,...,or tipping, and halting on the first set when it is running
We can be thrown backwards by rearing, bucking, jumping, just at the beginning of the run, ascending sharply in a very steep place, or in a very thick spot where the brush interferes with us and the disruption makes us fall.
We can call to one side or the other when the horse shies to the side, turns hard, slips the shoulder, when it bucks, throws a kick, or beginning to baulk, deviating to either side
We can also be thrown in each of these four directions by some external force, or wielding a spear, throwing it, cutting with a sword,or doing some other thing that can make us fall if we do t know how to hold ourselves well, even if the mount does nothing to throw us.
if a mount baulks on me, I need to guard against falling forward, so it will help if I put my hands on the horse's mane and lower myself, supporting myself in the direction where the mount tries to throw me. But if I do this it is a sign of disconcertion or lack of knowledge, the help of the hands is useful only as a last resort, when we are on the verge of falling. Alternatively, as I have experienced sometimes, when the horse bucked briefly and would throw its hindlegs at the end, I would throw my hand onto the rear arcon or the iron strut that some saddles have, which allowed me to keep my body more striaght and stable than by putting my hands on the mane. Someone who knows this well can do it so covertly that even if he had a light stick in his hand, it will never be noticed by others unless they know the trick, as long as he is wearing the right clothing for it.
You should always take heed to protect yourself in any of the aforementioned situations that throw a rider forward, you should should always take heed and as the mount acts, tighten your legs, firm you feet, and striaghten your body back as best you can in a good and reasonable manner, with your legs stright or gathered depending on what the saddle calls for, It as helps in such cases to angle your body, gathering on leg so that it can tighten better, and teh body holds itself more still and secure.
When the mount does any of the things that can throw us backwards, people generally find the best help they can, which is to grab on with their hands and pull their body forward. But they are wrong to rely on grabbing, for you should never grab if you can avoid it by the posture of the body and tightening the legs. You should avoid it because it is not elegant, and because your hands, as far as possible, should be kept ready for use, so they should not be occupied with holding you onto the mount if you can manage without their help. But if you must grab, it is better on the mane or on the forward arcon than on the reins.
Many people, when they begin a run put their hands on the mane in order to sit firm or get steady, and once they have the habit they cannot let go of it. I have found a sure remedy for this: never running for a few days without something in the right hand
When the horse jerks forward, I slant my body a bit, lowering myself forward....I am much more firm than if I stay entirely straight, and I will have to straighten before I move backwards.
I have found a certain technique for when the mount ascends a very stteep incline, keeping yourself upright without placing your hands on teh mane; it works well to gether your legs, tightening them, and lift your feet backwards, with your body upright.
Whatever the mount does that can throw us...our most important help lies in moving our torso...our body should match the horse...to do this it helps greatly to tightern our legs, with our feet and hands assisting when necessary.
None is better than the other, for I have seen strong riders use each each of them, to ensure strength, everyone should ride as he is accustomed and as called for by his saddle and stirrups, and the things he and the horse is doing. Tightening the legs more in one place than in another or having the whole foot in the stirrup or not so much makes no great difference.
Riding strong in the Jennet saddle involves tightening at and around the knees and below; the rider derives the greatest part of his strength from the heels or spurs and virtually nothing from the knees upwards.
Those who ride in a Brabant saddle recieve great help from the kness opward.
Those who joust in our manner are principally helped by the knees and around them.
Generally speaking, most people find greater strength placing the enitre foot in the stirrup.
If we want to hove our feet entirely in the stirrups, to be more stable in the stirrup the tips should go a bit outward; and if only to the middle or the tip, we should turn them inward.
This is how to be strong; to look good, I think people will say it is better to keep the feet straight, not points in or out according to our custom.
The jennet style of saddle calls for having the legs gathered, and sitting inside the saddle. Someone who has never seen this, and was accustomed to ride in other saddles that call for extended legs, stretching them out as in a Brabant saddle, would never ride as strong as someone who was accustomed to hold their legs gathered, as such saddles require
Brabant saddles also call for different manners depending on their design. Some are high and strong in the rear and front arcons, and short in the seat. If someone tries to ride in this kind of saddle as he is accustomed, he will never do it well, for its tightness does not let you stay in the middle, when the mount acts roughly. ...it is better to lift yourself in the stirrups two to three fingers above the middle of it holding your legs straight
If the saddle is long or flat, it is best to sit in the middle of it, although not in such a manner that you lose the force and teh gelp of firming your feet and tightening your legs.
when jousting in our manner, where you are strapped in place, it is much stronger to be high in the stirrups than inside the saddle. But if you are not strapped in place, it is better to sit in the saddle than to ride lifting in the stirrups.
Thus each type of saddle calls for its own style of riding, even though the differences are minor
But it suffices that on horseback they should look and act like men, and not like animals less useful than the ones they ride.
TackNeitther must you use any other kind of bridle than this or any other saddle for fear of hurting his back than a soft pad of straw.Since there is no doubt that the horse should have a firmly set head and neck and a good mouth for him to be of value in anything else, I deem it oppurtune to remark that you should avoid the disorderly practice that many employ of using several harsh kinds of bits on the horse, thinking that in so doing they will set his head correctly and make him halt properly. What they do not realize is that these bits cause the horse to lose heart and become exasperated, and from this great error, it will no longer be possible for him to reach his true perfection. Instead, you can train your horse with true art and discipline, employing a bit pleasing to him upon which he can temperately rest and secure his mouth.I see riders use all these styles, some in good and ordered manner, in keeping with the type of saddle, the activity, and the nature of the horse; others, not knowing more thatn one manner, try to ride the same way in every kind of saddle. But if you want to be a good rider, you should know as much as you can about all these ways of riding, because you will often need to ride in each of these kinds of saddles, owing to breaking a stirrup, or because you find the stirrups too long or too short in a situation where you cannot adjust them, or because you find yourself in saddles of various types. If you are unaccustomed to more than one type of saddle and you should hapen to be engaged in some valiant action, but in a different type of saddle, you will not be half a man. Your horse being brought to this perfection that he will perfectly tread his large Rings, stop, retire, advance before, jerk behind, and turn readily on either hand, you shall then take away his noseband and bit and instead thereof put upon his head a gentle noseband of two joints and three pieces with the chap band underneath which you shall buckle close, but not tight, and be sure that the nose-band lies upon the tender gristle of the Horse's Nose Somewhat near to the upper part of the Nostril.when the rider is seated, he must,,,teach his horse to stand quiet, until he has drawn his skirts from under him, if need be, and got the reins to equal length and grasped his spear in the handiest fashion; and, in the next place, he should keep his left arm close to his side. This position will give the rider absolute ease and freedom, and his hand the firmest hold.Several envious or not very skillful often blamed that great and important character, Sir Giovan Battista Pignatelli, since he wasn’t very dedicated to the diversity of the bridles and cavessons and they nearly pretend that one could think that he ignored their effects. On the contrary, what once made me admire his knowledge and that moved me the most to seek and to serve him, is the thought that, as he made the horses so obedient and so easy to manage and showing so beautiful airs in his school without however commonly using any other bit than an ordinary cannon and a common cavesson, his rules and his experience should have much more effect than the ways of those that apply so much to the artifice of an infinity of bridlesAnd I say this only because I dislike changing the bridle every day as is customary for many people in present times, who put some bridles in the horses' mouths, without knowing the reason. And this happens because they are ignorant of the effect produced by each bridle and of the needs of the horse, and if by chance they allege one of two good reasons, to them it sounds like much, but I say that this is like a walk in darkness.that to curb well a horse there is a need for hundreds of bridles, but I declare, that this variety and qunatity will at some point be useful, when one will do a perfect choice of each and do not apply them guessing, but with art, judgement, experience, and time, considering that the different qualities of mouths are more than the types of curbsAnd the Saddle should be made of bars and cross bars so that it is strong as can be, with one board on top of the othre. And the buckle that holds the stirrups leathers in place should be at the middle of the bar, and two digits in front rather than behind, and measuring the distance with a string from one end of the board to the other and below the bars to just a little above the wollen lining pad, two digits maximum.The saddle, if the knight has long legs, on a long saddle cloth so that he does not look lanky; if he is short, on a short saddle cloth so the knight looks bigger in even proportion, and aligned parallel to the back of each knee, making up for the shortcoming. As they say: 'Where Nature should fail, let Art prevail'on a good horse, completely caparisoned with fabric trappings of good cloth all emblazoned with flames of fire And as to their saddles, they are of the height that is usual for jousting in ancient France, and the peytrel and the chanfron of leather also; and when they are wearing all this equipment on horseback, they cannot aid or turn their horses, because they are so clumsy. And to return to the true and more gentle fashion, the manner of arming yourself that was described above is the most beautiful and safest. And war saddles also are good for tourneying, when they are well closed behind, and not too high at the saddle-bow in front.
And at the first handling of him, you shall put on his head a certain collar or halter called after the Neopolitans "Cauezo Zana (sp?)" Likewise with everyone who knows only a single manner of riding, finding himself in another kind of saddle, he will be half crippled, A good rider does the contrary, for in time of need, he is not so inconvenienced by the saddle or stirrups that it hinders him much in what he needs to do compared to the great hinderance that other experience.Then you offer him a Saddle, which you shall set in the manger beofre him that he may smell to it and look upon it , and you shall jingle the girths and stirrups about his ears to make him careless of the noise.The groom should also be instructed to attach the muzzle to the horse's mouth both wien taking him out to be groomed and to the rolling-ground, In fact he should always muzzle him when ever he takes him anywhere without the bit.And the judges saw that it was now time to eat lunch and that there was a debate going on between them about a very high and sturdy jousting saddle, and with amply vaulted rear arcons,which said Juan de Villalobos was using...And the judges said that they declared and ordered that Juan de Villalobos not use that saddle any more, for it was not a war saddle, and in Sueno's Articles it was stated that the deeds of arms be performed in war harness, and without any advantage. And that since there was an advantage in the saddle he was using if they allowed him to perform deeds of arms in it, they would not be ensuring the equality that they had promised to maintain. And thus therefore, in the interests of ensuring equality, they did not, nor ever would, allow him - or anyone else- to perform more deeds of arms in that saddle. And if he wished to finish the deeds of arms, he should put another saddle on his horse that was a war sadlle; otherwise they would not let him finish. Moreover, it is necessary to have a kind of hourt that is attached in front of the bow of the saddle, both above and below, in several places, as well and as securely as you can; and it falls the length of an ell in front of the saddle, and wraps around the breast of the horse. The hourt is good to protect the horse or destrier from being hit in the fray, and it also protects the legs of the tourneyers from blows. This hourt is made of long straw between strong cloth reinforced with whipcords, and inside the hourt is a sack full of straw, in the shape of a crescent, attached to the hourt, that rests against the breast of the horse, and raises the hourt, so that it doesn't bang against the legs of the horse. And besides the reinforcement, there may be rods sewn inside that hold it straight and in place.
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1_oJg-IJG8ataiEGwJLrbuG7vicgA-igqxH_AtKvrqbY/edit?usp=sharinga man will never be a good all-around rider if he does not know the best manner for every type of saddle. You shall take a sweet snaffle bit washed and anointed with honey and salt, and put it in his mouth, In order to insert the bit correctly the groom should, in the first place, approach on the near side of the horse, and then throwing the reins over his head, let them drop loosely on the whithers; raise the headstall in his right hand, and with his left present the bit, If the horse will take the bit, it is a simple business to adjust the strap of the headstall; but if he refuses to open his mouth, the groom must hold the bit against the teeth and at the same time insert the thumb of his left hand inside the horse's jaws. Most horses will open their mouths to that operation.And the reply Lope de Stuniga gave them was that he recognized the advantage Juan de Villalobos had by using the saddle, and that it pleased him to perform deeds of arms with him. And said Juan de Villalobos said that he would not recognize it, nor would he perform deeds of arms in any other saddle but the one in which he started. And Lope de Stuniga responded to this, and he said that he besought the judges to allow Juan de Villalobos to compllete his deeds of arms in that saddle; and not only that but even if he were allowed to put a hundred saddles on his horse which were sturdier than that one, let him put them on, for he would perform deeds of arms with him, and also with anyone else if they stepped forward.the destrier of the prince, lord or baron who is captain of the knights and squires who accompany him ought to enter the city first, covered with the device of the captain, and with four escutcheons of the captain's arms on the four limbs of the horse, and the horse's head decorated with ostrich feathers, and on the horse's neck a collar of bells, and in the saddle a very small page, as best pleases him
...Whatever saddle you put upon his back, see that it stand always more forward than backAnd given what he knows , when he uses a new type of saddle, he will know how to recognize the style of riding it calls for.The next day saddle and bridle him as before and put on him a strong nose band and Martingale, which you shall buckle at such length that he may no more than feel it when he jerkth up his head...At first it should hang somewhat low and rest upon the tender Gristle of the Horse's Nose, whereby corrections may be the sharper when occastion requires it. ...Lastly he shall be careful to note how he winneth the Horse's head and by degrees to draw his martingale tighter and tighter so as the horse may ever have a gentle feeling of the same, and no more, till his Head and Rein be brought to that perfection that you desire and then there to stay.As to reins, we reccomend those which are well balanced, without being weak or slippery or thick, so that when neccessary, they hand that holds them can also grasp a spear.And they then went to check this, and they found that he had inserted his stirrups and stirrup leathers through the cinch as a means of tying them, and likewise he had bolsters on the rear arcons of the saddle, none of which did Pedro de Nava have.the horsecloths of the horses decorated with coats of arms are the right of the king of arms, heralds and pursuivants
Grissone would in no way have a young horse to be ridden at the first with any bit, for fear of marring his mouth...but yet in my judgement not so mete for a young horse for that is traineth the tender grislte of his nose to sore which kind of halter or Cauetsane(?)We must help ourselves by properly adjusting our saddle, bit, and stirrups, firstly making sure that everything is strong and so well secured that we cannot recieve death, injury, or shame from any of them failing, as happens to so many people. This requires us to check them often and diligently, and to correct whatever is wrong, promptly and without hesitation or cutting corners.Smooth bits are better and more serviceable than rough; if a rough bit be inserted at all, it must be made to resemble a smooth one as much as possible by lightness of hand.
You should take great care that the stirrups are neither very wide nor very narrow. In wide ones, the feet do not stabilize well, and in narrow ones, they hurt and tire more quickly, and they are very dangerous if a foot gets caught.
The [stirrup] tread should be neither think nor thin, fon on think ones the foot can not flex well, and on very thin ones it hurts and tires. The reasonable measure for most stirrups seems to be from two fingers to two and a half
For jennet saddles...I prefer [the stirrups] light, more on the small side than large, not broad, and such that the feet can catch and release them without impediment.the horse should also be clad in armor - frontlet, breast plate, and thigh pieces...the horse's belly, being the most vital and defenseless part should be protected. It is possible, to protect it with the saddle cloth. The saddle itself should be of such sort and so stitched as to give the rider a firmer seat, and yet not gall the horse's back.
The stirrup leathers should be broad...and strong such that they sit still.
If you have to ride a spirited mount, the saddle flaps should be such that they do not move under your legs for I have seen some people get into trouble for not knowing how to handle this, riding on saddle covers of cloth or leather or having them so poorly and weakly adjusted and of such a style that they shift around
These days I see some people in Brabant saddles pass their stirrup leathers below the saddle flaps, this striikes me as a good custom that makes them ride more confident and steady.
The saddle should have itss saddle tree, arcons and all other fittings such that they will not break or become disordered.
Everything should be arranged according to your own style, the style of the saddle, and what you have to do in it.
For a rider certainly endures great discomfort if the saddle is made or adjusted contrary to what he would want and should have.
You should make sure it is well palced on the mount, according to the manner it requires.
Gait How to correct that horse which doth smite his forefeet with his hinderfeet
This fault is most commonly incident to a young horse and therefore besides making his shoes shorter behind the otherwise they ought to be you must also favor him whilst he treadth the rings, not increasing the number of his turns nor quickening his pace, but according as his strength and breath shall require, which by often riding him a little at once, will increase every day more and more
The horse needs very much measure in everything: even at the walk, even at the trot, even at the canter, even at the gallop, even at the halt, even in the manege, even in the leaping, and finally even in the carriage of his head, and even when standing still.In his galloping...His inward feet should play before his outward, and each of a side follow the other so directly that gallop may appear as the best grace of all his motions.“It is a delight to see the palfreys trotting gently around, the blood pumping in their veins, their coats glistening with sweat, as they alternately raise then lower both feet on one side together. ”If the young horse in walking bends his knees flexibly, you may safely conjecture that when he comes to be ridden he will have flexible legs since suppleness invariably increases with age. Supple knees are highly essteemed and with good reason, rendering as they do the horse less liable to stumble or break down from fatigue than those of stiffer build.
In his changes, where you may let him feel your leg and show him your rod on the contrary side. Herein is to be noted that continually those changes must be done ever with great quickness and more stirring nimbleness Then to see the horses more suitable for squires, rougher yet quicker in their movements, simultaneously lifting one set of feet and setting down the opposite set.As he falls into a natural trot, he will gradually relax his limbs without the slightest more agreeably to the gallop.
Prospective buyers watch as all are put through their paces: first, their trot, followed by their gallop (in which their two sets of legs, front and rear, are thrust out forwards and backwards, in opposition to each other)the preference is given to starting on the left foot, it will best conduce to that lead if any, while the horse is still trotting, the signal to gallop should be given at the instant of making a step with his right foot. As he is on the point of lifting his left foot he will start upon it, while turing left will simulaneously make the first bound of the gallop, since as a matter of instinct, the horse, being turned to the right with his left
MountingCause him to be brought forth to some block...when you mount him for the first time, proceed as follows, As the horse will walk securely in just a cavesson noseband, without anyone pulling himm, have someone who happens to be around lead him to you, now giving him pats, and now threatening and pushing him a bit with the hands on the right side, so as to use the great diligence to make him approach the mounting block where you are standing. Reassuring the horse at all times with you hand, in this way, you will ride him pleasurably. And you will remain still not lonly for as long as it takes you to adjust your clothing, but for longer, without letting him make any movement at all, Just remain still and quiet, patting him often on his neck.Always observe to mount and dismount at the block only, unless some special occasion constrain you to the contraryIt is good for the groom to know how to give a leg up in the Persian fashion, so that in case of illness or infirmity of age, the master himself may have a man to help him on horseback without trouble, or , if he so wish, be able to oblige a friend with a man to mount him.
First than see that your horse be surely girded and if he be come weare a bridle, see that the curb there of be flattened as is ought to be. And when you are mounted, make the reanes or your bridle even and of a iuste (juste) length, without stearing your horse until you have settled yourself and your cloths about you. If, when the groom brings up the horse to his master to mount, he knows how to make the horse lower his back, to facillitate mounting, we have no fault to find.
When the moment to dismount has come, you should never do so among other horses, nor near a group of people, nor outside the exercising grounl but on the precise spot which is the scene of his compsory exertion. There let the horse find relaxation.
Horse characteristics, breeding, and selectionNot withstanding there be some young horses so slow of growth as although they can do their things orderly, yet they have no strength, nor force in their doings until they be five or six years old, because their joints before that time are not full knit nor their mouths thoroughly stayed. And note that from five years to fifteen a horse being not maimed nor hurt may very well continue in his goodness: yea some horses will continue to 20 years and above...Even and regal, he becomes one with the will of the rider who sits upon him. And besides this, the following things should suit him; the walk to be elevated; the trot smooth, the canter gallant, the gallop swift, the leaps alternating, the halt agile, and the manege prompt and sure.Good horses are one of the greatest advantages for men who go to war.For the choice of the best Horse, it is diverse, according to the use for which you will employ him.After that the high-bred young colts, not yet trained or broken, "high-stepping with elastic tread".a horse that will not obey is only fighting for the enemy and not for his friendsa melancholic horse will never make as much a fine showing as a horse who is lively and cheerful, so the discerning Rider must make him like that, with every care and artThe Kingdom of Naples is located in the most abundant, fertile and enjoyable part of Italy in which there are fifteen hundred cities, lands and castles surrounded by walls, and endless other villas and inhabited farmhouses. […] And having so many pastures, Plains, Mountains, Valleys and waters there are many breeding farms for which the country is so suitable that there born are horses who are very vigorous, robust, and of long life, and with admirable disposition and attitude. Therefore, as I want to give you knowledge of some of them to help all private riders and Princes looking to have good horses, I will write the name of their owners, and with the drawing of the brandBut if among all horses. those who are adorned with all the qualities and suitable for every kind of excercise are very rare, only the Neapolitans are worthy of such praise, because they are excellent in walking, in performing the passage, in trotting, cantering, as well as in combat, vaulting, hunting, they are also of good size and of great beauty and endurance, they are very strong and of remarkable lightness, with a clever mind and of great courage; they have a steady head, a pleasant mouth and an amazing obedience to the bridle, and finally they are so docile and so skilled that ridden by a good rider, the move to the shythm and nearly dance.And since you can not find on earth any body totally simple, or rather of simply quality, we will say that one cannot find a fire that is warm and dry, air that is not warm and moist, water that is not moist and cold, earth that is not cold and dry. So we can also say that there is no horse, that is simply sanguine, nor only choleric, but choleric-sanguine, choleric=burned, choleric-melancholic, phlegmatic-sanquine, phlegmatic-melancholic, earthy-melancholic and icy, and melancholic-choleric.So that the stallion covering, so to say. with more zest will more easily produce hif effect and the mare, not transformed into a whore, with more zest and ease will conceive. The first thing a jouster needs is a good horseThe second article is that all foreign gentlemen and knights will find harnesses and horses and spears there without any advantage or melioration over me or the knights who shall be there with me.And also note that the judges should not allow anyone to appear at the tourney mounted on a horse of excessive and outrageous size and stronger than the others, unless he is a prince.This chapter relates how to shoot arrows on horseback. It has many graceful things. It is necessary that you should have a proper horse. I have described before the horse that is good for shooting.
And first I found that to a horse of certain (?) quality (?) these chief points here following. That is to say to trot clean and loftly (?), to stop lightly, to turn on both hands readily, to gallop strongly, to manege to (?) single turns surely, and last of all to passe and carrer swiftly...to rein well and to bear his head steadily...learn to bound a loft with all four and to park with all, to gallop the gallop Gagliardi, to fetch(?) the Capriole, to dance (?) the Cozuetti and such like kind of faults And although the horse may be of good color with good markings...nevertheless it is necessary that his limbs be balanced and formed with the right proportion.a man who has good mounts and knows how to ride them, recieves these advantages: First, to be more ready to serve his lord and help in the various situations that can happen to him, for his honor and benefit. Second to enjoy riding. Third to be honored. Fourth, to be protected. Fifth, to be feared. Sixth, to be cheerful. Seventh to develop greater and better courage.If you would choose a horse for a Prince’s Seat, any supreme Magistrate, or for any great Lady of State or Woman of eminence, you shall choose him that is of finest shape, the best rein, who naturally bears his head in the best place without a rider’s hand; that is nimblest and easiest pace, gentle to get upon, bold without making affrights, and most familiar and quiet in the company of other Horses. His color would ever be milk white, with red marks, or without, or else fair dapple gray with white Mane and white tail. And of these the English is best, then the Hungarian, the Swedish, the Polish, the Irish.Next packhorses, with robust and powerful legs.Just as a house would be of little use, however beautiful its upper stories, if the under lying foundations were not what they ought to be, so there is little use to be extracted from a horse, and in particular a war-horse, if unsound in his feet, however excellent his other pointsThe perfect breeding farms may end, or deteriorate, for lack of stallions. And, by means of the help of excellent horses, the bad ones can likewise improve and get to be very esteemed. As well as new one of a greater value could be made day by day, but I will leave the task to think and remind these latter to those who will come after me.since it is necessary (as written by Aristolte) that this lower world continuously recieves his virtues and its governance from the supernal motion, and although all horses are subject to Mars, they also participate of the others.And to fortify my opinion, the experience, master of things, shows that the weakness and strength, speed and slowness, come and depend on the climate of the whole body and on its disposition and proportion and not on small socks, as well as little force [does not depend] on little humor....I always liked that my horse has:the chest, animosity, and the back of a Lion; the body, the joints, and the eyes of the Ox; the mouth, the promptness, and the ears of the fox; the greed and the fatness of the pig; without which the natural heat it is hardly supported, and finally I wish he would imitate the short walk of a woman having her determination and grace, lifting his foot as the cock while walking, being joyful and of pleasant appearance.the horse must be big, broad, and strong, steadfast so that after many encounters they get brighter intemperate nor worn out. said Lord Riambau had a strong horse which he and his companion had brought from Aragon, and it was very agile and sure and very handsome, and its colour was silver grey
The horse is highly prized when he has heart, and will be agile, a quality more useful than strength. If the horse is strong and cowardly but does not have agility, he will not have that virtuous ability to control all his movements. When he is agile and courageous in every perile, although he may not be very strong, he will last longer than the strong horse and in his movements will be deemed very much more graceful. Nevertheless, having all these qualities together, the horse will be exceptional and very valuable.Knowledge greatly assists ability, in allowing you to get a better bargain in purchasing foals and other animals that can be had cheaply. If we are knowledgeable about them, we can purchase and raise them and benefit them which others can not do if they do not know how.If you will choose a Horse only for travel, ever the better shape the better hope. Especially look that his head be lean, eyes swelling outward, his neck well risen and his joints very strong. Let him be of a temperate nature, neither too furious, nor too dull, willing to go without forcing, and not desirous to run when there is no occasion.Then expensive war horses, tall and graceful, "with quivering ears, high necks and plump buttocks"If the young horse in walking bends his knees flexibiliy, you may safely conjecture that when he comes to ne ridden he will have flexible legs, since the quality of suppleness invariablity increases with age. Brand of the Breed of Angeluzzo dello Tito. In Basilicata. Sent to him by the king Francis from France, due to the fact that in the day of Marignano he found himself on a horse of this breeding farm that served him so well as to bring him to victory. For this reason every year he sent someone to buy foals of this herd. Though now, after the death of Angeluccio, is no longer with such perfection.,,,certainly if horses would be limited to that for which they are inclined by nature, each would be the most excellent in his operationI will not dwell on color, for when covered in silks a brigades a horse's color is not revealed as much as it is when out walking. But even when parading on city streets, the color is of the least importance, although they say within a year the horse and it's master look alike,
And deservedly the name "horse" in the Latin Language means none other than "even" because besides the reason that the ancients gave for its name, the horse very much needs measure in everything: even at the walk, even at the trot, even at the canter, even at the gallop, even at the halt, even in the manege, even in the leaping, and finally even in the carriage of his head, and even when standing still. Even and regal,, he becomes one with the will of the rider who sits upon him. If you will choose a Horse for Portage, that is for the Pack or Hampers, choose him that is exceeding strong of body and limbs, but not tall, with a broad back, out ribs, full shoulders and thick withers, for if he be thing in that part, you shall hardly keep his back from galling. Be sure he takes a strong stride with his feet, for their pace being neither trot nor amble, but only a foot pace, he which takes the largest strides goes at the most ease and rides his ground fastest.In a separate part [of Smithfield] are located the goods that country folk are selling: agricultural implements, pigs with long flanks, cows with swollen udders, "woolly flocks and bodies huge of kine". Also to be found there are mares suited for pulling ploughs, sledges, and two-horse carts; some have bellies swollen with foetuses, while around others already wander their newborn – frisky foals who stick close to their mothers.a comparatively broad chest is better alike for strength and beauty, and better adapted to carry the legs well asunder, so they will not overlap and interfere with one another.who between the foals goes with more boldness and courage, and lightness, like a cat that going in and out of the midst of the herd makes his way with the power of his chest.It should tread very gracefully, so that when it makes its entrance it seems as though the whole enclosure will not be big enough to hold it.
If you would have a Horse for the Wars, you shall choose him that is of a good tall stature, with a comely lean head, an out-swelling fore-head, a large sparkling eye, the white whereof is covered with the eyebrows, and not at all discerned, or if at all, yet the least is best. A small thin ear short and pricking is preferable, but if it be long, well carried and ever moving is tolerable while if dull or hanging, most hateful. He should possess a deep neck, large crest, broad breast, bending ribs, broad and straight back, round and full buttock, with his hip bones hid, a tail high and broad, set neither too thick or too thin, for too much hair shows sloth and too little too much choler and heat. Also to be desired are a full-swelling thigh, a broad, flat, and lean leg, short pasterned, strong jointed, and hollow bones, of which the long is best, if they be not weird, and the broad round the worst. The best colors are brown-bay, Dapple-gray, Roan, bright-bay, Black with a white near foot behind and a white far foot in front, white streak or white star, Chestnut or Sorrel with any of these marks, or Dun with a black stripe. And of these horses for the Wars the Courser of Naples is accounted the best, then the German, the Sardinian, or the French.The neck should not be set on dropping forward from the chest, like a boar's, but, like that of a game-cock rather, it should curve upwards to the crest, and be slack along the curvature; whilst the head should be bony and the jawbone small. In this way the neck will be well in front of the rider, and the eye will command what lies before the horse's feet. A horse moreover of this build will be least capable of overmastering the rider, since it is not by arching but by stretching out his neck and head that a horse endeavours to assert his power.some of those who move more slowly and look lazy might be the best. So great care is needed.You must inquire of the good quality of the father and of the other ancestors, and of his mother’s brother, and then having the good marks, with a perfect coat and the appropriatefeatures, although he does not demonstrate that promptness, you could feel free to chose himbecause in many cases the foal is similar to some of his ancestors, or to the brother of his mother.It should stop well and not on the forelegs
If you choose a Horse for running, let him have the finest shape that may be, but above all things let him be nimble, quick, and fiery, apt to fly with the least motion. Long shapes are sufferable, for though they show weakness, yet they assure sudden speed. And the best Horse for this use is the Arabian, Barbary, or his bastard; Jennets are good, but the Turks are better.”A comparatively large crest and small ears give a more typical and horse-like appearance to the head, whilst lofty withers again allow the rider a surer seat and a stronger adhesion between the shoulders and the body. A "double spine" again is at once softer to sit on than a single, and more peasing to the eye, so too, a fairly deep side somewhat rounded towards the belly will render the animal at once easier to sit and stronger, and as a general rule better able to digest his food.
If you would choose a Horse for hunting, let his shape in general be strong, and well knit together, making equal proportions, for as unequal shapes show weakness, so equal members assure strength and endurance. Your unequal shapes are a great head to a little neck, a big body to thin buttock, a large limb to a little foot, or any of these contraries, or where any member suits not the whole proportion of the body, or with any limb next adjoining. Above all, let your hunting Horse have a large, lean head, wide nostrils, open jaw, a big throat, and the windpipe straight, loose, wellcovered, and not bent in the pride of his Reining. The English horse bastardized with any of the former Races first spoke of, is of all the best.The broader and shorter the loins the more easily will the horse raise his forequarters and bring up his hind quarters under him. ...The Quarters should be broad and fleshy in correspondence with the sides and chest, and if they are also firm and solid through out they will be all the lighter for the racecourse, and will render the horse in every way more fleet.
Lastly, if you will choose a Horse for Cart or Plow, which is the slow draught, choose him of the most ordinary height, for Horses in the Cart unequally sorted, never draw at ease, but the tall hang up the low Horse. Let them be of good strong portion, big breasted, large bodied, and strong limbed, by nature rather inclined to crave the whip, than to draw more than is needful. For this purpose Mares are most Profitable, for besides the effecting of your work, they yearly bring forth increase. If you furnish your draught with Mares to breed, observe in this wise to have them fair-forehanded, that is good neck, breast, and shoulders, for the rest is not so regardful, only let her body be large, for the bigger room a Foal hath in the dam’s belly, the fairer are his members.To come to the thighs and buttocks, if the horse have these separated by by a broad line of demarcation, he will be able to plant his hind legs under him with a good gap between; and in so doing will assume a posture and a gait in action at once prouder and more firmly balanced, and in every way appear to the best advantage.
If you choose a Horse for the Coach, which is called the swift draught, let his shape be tall, broad, and well furnished, not gross with much flesh but with the bigness of his bones. Especially look if he have a strong neck, a broad breast, a large back, sound clean limbs, and rough hooves; and for this purpose, your large English Geldings are best, your Flemish Mares next, and your strong Flemish Gelded Horses tolerable.A horse ought not have large testicles
The best advice of all is not to an over spirited horse for the purposes of war.
RacingThe horses too, in their own way, psych themselves up for the contest: "their limbs tremble; impatient of delay, they cannot stand still". When the starting signal is given, they leap forward and race off with as much speed and determination as they can muster. The riders, eager for glory and hoping for victory, try to outdo one another in using spurs, switches or cries of encouragement to urge the horses to go faster. You start to believe that "all things are in motion", as Heraclitus put it, and lose faith in Zeno's theory that motion is impossible – so that no-one could ever reach the end of a racetrack!the Persians and Odrysians all run races down percipitous slopesThe boys running in the race must be small, dry, nervous, dexterous, and spirited, of good intellect and memory, and in love with this craft.
On occasions when a race is about to be held between these chargers – or perhaps other steeds who, like their kind, are strong enough to bear riders and lively enough to race – the fact is loudly proclaimed and a warning goes up to clear lesser horses out of the way. Two or sometimes three boys prepare themselves to take part as riders in such contests between the fleet-footed creatures. Skilled in controlling horses, they "curb their untamed mouths with jagged bits"; their biggest challenge is to prevent one of their competitors from taking the lead in the race.you should absolutely obstain from setting [a spirited horse] to race against another; as a general rule, your fiery spirited horse in only too fond of contention.