German-English Theological "Lexicon"
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Term/Phrase TranslationPOSNotesContextSourceCitation
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Abrackernhard work that leads to exhaustion; toilnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Achzehnbittengebeteighteen benedictions, Shemoneh Ezreh (or Shmoneh Esreh), the AmidahnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Admirationsmotifadmiration motif, motif of wondernsee Francis McDonagh’s translation of the Miracle Stories of the Early Christian Tradition, p. 69: “The motif of wonder comprises all the narrative elements which express astonishment, fear, terror, and amazement”Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Akoluthiesequence, ordernAkoluthie: not sure how to translate this word; Wolter seems to use it to mean something like “sequence” or “order”, e.g. Lukas orientiert sich nun wieder an der Markus-Akoluthie und… (Lukasevangelium, 200). It seems like scholars may sometimes use the term akoluthia or Akoluthia, but that this is not very common (see e.g. here and here). “order” might be the best option?Lukas orientiert sich nun wieder an der Markus-Akoluthie und… (Lukasevangelium, 200)Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Aktualisierungmaking current, updating, upgradingnAktualisierung – this seems related to Aktuell – so that – at last in some cases – the meaning relates to making current, updating, or upgrading rather than actualizing in the sense of realizing (see here).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Ansatzapproach, conception, starting pointnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Anschlussconnection, pronoun (see note)nWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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ApostelkonventApostolic Convention, Jerusalem CouncilnAnschluss: This means something like “connection”. In some contexts it can mean “pronoun”, e.g., Der relativische Anschluss.
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Appellstrukturappeal dimensionnZimmermann, Puzzling, 147,Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Auferstehung(intransitive) resurrection, rise; (transitive) resurrection, raisingnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Aufforderunginvitation, requestn
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Aufhebungnullification; abrogation, cancellationnaufheben/Aufhebung: never quite sure how to translate this loaded word. I usually go with “nullify”/”nullification”. Other options like “abrogation” and “cancellation” might also work? Since Aufhebung can have the nuance of making something ineffective without actually destroying it, nullify might be better than abrogate?
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Auftretenactivity, appearance (not physical), entrancenin From Jesus to the New Testament, I believe that I usually translated this term with “appearance”, but during the translation of Jesus of Nazareth I moved away from this translation since it sometimes conveyed the false impression that the concern was with Jesus’s physical appearance. Even though it is not perfect, I am increasingly using “activity” and some variation of this for the verb. In some cases “entrance” might work for Auftreten (?).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Ausbreitungsnotizdissemination noticenI have been translating this with “dissemination notice”, which could probably be improved upon. Thus far, I haven’t stumbled upon a standard translation for this form critical term. It looks to me like Theissen expresses the same concept with Ausbreitung des Rufes, which John Bowden translates with Spread of the news.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Auseinandersetzungdispute, conflictn
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Ausgangssituationstarting situtation, situation of departurenFor the sake of readability, I have been translating this term with “starting situation”, though “situation of departure” would perhaps be more precise.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Ausgangstext"earliest recoverable text fro which most variants may be seen to have descended"nThis definition has been taken from J.K. Elliott "Majority Text or Not"This definition has been taken from J.K. Elliott "Majority Text or Not"
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Ausrüstungsanweisunginstructions on equipment, equipment instructions, instructions for equipmentninstructions on equipment, equipment instructions, and instructions for equipment all seem to be solutions that scholars have adopted. See here.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Ausrüstungsregelequipment rulenequipment rule (see here)Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Aussagewortcontains a statementn“Aussagewort”, which contains a statement, can be distinguished from “Mahnwort”, which contains an admonition.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Befundfindings, evidencenthe sum of a variety of findings, so in many cases it may be better to translate it with “findings” rather than “finding”. It may also work to use “evidence” for some contexts.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Begängnissenrites, proceedures, celebrationsnused by Frey in the context of the Qumran communities communal celebrations"und in der Anlage zu gemeinschaftlichen Begängnissen zusammenkamen"
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Begriffword/term, conceptnThis is probably my least favorite German word. It seems to me that it often hovers between “word/term” and “concept”, which creates problems when it needs to be translated. For my part, I think it would be more precise and therefore preferable if German authors would write “Wort” when they mean “word/term” and “Konzept” when they mean “concept” (cf. James Barr, The Semantics of Biblical Language, p. 210-211). In my translation of Jens Schröter’s book From Jesus to the New Testament, I think I tended to translate it as “concept”, whereas I am translating it mostly as “word” or “term” in Christoph Markschies’ book Christian Theology and its Institutions in the Early Roman Empire.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Begriffspaarlexical pairnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Begründungjustification, explanation, ground(s), grounding, grounding explanationnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Begründungsschwierigkeitenexplanatory difficulties, fundamental explanatory difficulties, difficulty justifying one's positionnThis is a bit of a tricky word and I'm not entirely certain of the definitions I have offered.Trotz ihrer großer Beliebtheit und extrem weiter Verbreitung ist diese Hypothese mit erheblichen Begründungsschwierigkeiten belastet:du Toit; Some thoughts on the social-historical background of Paul's letter to the Galatians
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Begründungszusammenhangcontext of justification, context of discoverynfor Wolter this is a technical term that means “context of justification”. It comes from Hans Reichenbach, who is American: “context of discovery”, “context of justification” (see here)Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Beinamesurname, epithet, bynamennot sure how to capture this. The intended meaning is often something different than “surname” and “epithet” also doesn’t seem to fit many uses. “byname” may be the best option for some uses, even if it is also not exactly on target. [If Matthew Novenson is correct (see here) we might be dealing with an honorific rather than a title or a name in the case of “Christ”, though this would only be the correct translation for Beiname if the German author shared Novenson’s understanding.]Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Beschneidungcircumcisionn
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BildfeldimagerynSo wird zum Beispiel durchgehend das Bildfeld des Säens beibehalten in der Deutung beibehalten.du Toit; Verhüllung und Enthüllung (40)Coppins
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Bildfeldtraditiontradition of this imagery, stock metaphors, traditional backgroundnRuben Zimmermann, Puzzling, translates this as “tradition of the imagery” (17) or “the tradition of this imagery” (202). Elsewhere he places Bildfeldtradition(en) in parentheses after “stock metaphors” (29) and after “traditional background” (224).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Bildweltfigurative worldn
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Bildwortword picture, parabolic saying, figures, figurative sayingnI was rendering this with “picture word” but I am now using “parabolic saying”. Ruben Zimmermann, Puzzling, renders it with “figure(s)” (106, 107) and figurative saying (108).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Binsenweisheitcommonplace, truism, common knowledgenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Bußsakramentsthe sacraments of Penancen
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Clusterbildungformation of clusters, cluster formation, clusteringnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Differenzdifference, differencesnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Dogmatikgrundrißdogmatic foundationsntypically separate words: Dogmatic Grudriß; see Barth's "Dogmatik im Grundriss"
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Doppelbildwortedouble parabolic sayings, double metaphorsnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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DramatiktensionnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Eingreifenintervention, breaking innWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Einigungsmodellmodel of unity, unitary modelnTommy Wasserman
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Enthüllungrevealing, revelation, unveilingn
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Entweihtedefiled womannBillerbeck
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Entwurfoutline, concept, scheme, set forthnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Enzyklopädiebackground knowledge, general knowledge, cultural encyclopedianWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Erbarmenmercy, compassionnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Erkenntniszusammenhangcontext of recognitionnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Erleichterungrelief (physchological), alleviatenThis word usually means “relief” (psychological). It can also designate the thing that makes something easier and thus results in “Erleichterung”. Wolter uses in the context of textual criticism, i.e. with regard to making a reading easier. In one case I paraphrased it in relatino to the context of his usage with “to readings that alleviate this problem.” In the context of textual criticism, the best solution in some cases may be to translate it with “an attempt to make the text easier.”Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Ermahnungadmonission, exhortationn
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Erzählstrangnarrative strandn
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Erzähltheoretischnarrative theoreticaln
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Exponentoutstanding representativenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Festkalenderfestival calendarn
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Feststellungstatement, observationnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Figurenerzählungnarration of a character, authorial narrativenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Folgeconsequence, episodencan mean a great deal moreWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Formulierungformulation, phrasingsnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Forsetzungcontinuationn
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Frontstellungopposition, hostility, confrontation, confrontational stancenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Fruchttragensbearing fruit, fruitfulnessnUsed in the context of the parable of the sower in Mk 4
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Gattunggenre, controversy dialoguenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Gebetsanrufcall to prayern
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Gefälleslope, orientationnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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GefügestructurenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Gegenüberthe opposition of, the contrast with, the juxaposition ofnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Geheimhaltungsgebotecommand to secrecyncontext of Mk 8:30; 9:9 concerning Jesus' command to the disciples to not reveal his identity
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Geheimhaltungsmotivsecrecy motifnused in the context of Mk
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Geistbesitzendowed with the Spiritn
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Geistesgabe(n)spiritual gift(s)n
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GeistträgerSpirit-bearernThis word is notoriously difficult for me to translate.
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Geistträgerschaftstatus as a bearer of the Spiritn
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Gelassenheitrelaxedness, lack of anxietynWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Genusvoicenoccurs in the discussion of verbsWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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GeschäftbusinessnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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GescheheneventsnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Geschichtehistory, storynWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Gesichtspunktaspect, pointnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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GestaltfigurenThis is often used by du Toit to describe the "figure" described and prophesied about in Dan 7
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GewichtungemphasisnI had been translating this word as “weighting” but prompted by Jay Thomas Hewitt, I have started translating it with “emphasis”, which seems to work well since the focus is on the result of the Gewichtung.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Glaubensgenossenfellow-believersn
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Gleichnisparable, simile nVery often a definition of parable is sufficient. There are times when an author will use this term in conjunction with another term that can also refer to a parable. In these instances, similie might be best. See context.Während dem Innenkreis das Geheimnes der Gottesherrschaft gegeben ist, gilt für die Außenstehenden, dass sie alles in gleichnissen oder Gleichnisreden erfahren.du Toit; Verhüllung und Enthüllung (38)
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Gleichnisredeparablen
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Gliederungstructure, outlinenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Gliederungseinschnittstructuring divisionnstructuring division might work; using caesura for Einschnitt might also work for some uses, e.g. when there is talk of a tieferen Gliederungseinschnitt.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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GottesherrschaftRule of Godn
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GräzisierungGraecizing, Greekizing, GreekificationnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Gründungsaufenthaltfounding sojourn, foundational visit, original, church founding visitnUsed in the context of Paul's original visit to a city where he establishes a church.
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Gruppierungfaction, groupnIn the context of Galatians, this would is better translated as "faction" instead of a simply "group"
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Handlungserregungspunktthe point that stimulates the actionnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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Handlungssouveränmaster of actionnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
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HeidenchristGentile Christiann
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Heilbringerredeemern
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Heiligungsanctification n
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Heilsanspruchclaims to salvation, salvific claimsn
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Heilsgegenwartsalvific presencendu Toit, Der abwesende Herr
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Heilshandelnsaving action, salvific activityn
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Heilshoffnungenhope of salvation n
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Heilskönigking of salvation, salvific kingnBillerbeck
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