German-English Theological "Lexicon"
The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss

Comment only
a.a.O.ibid.abbv.From "am angeführten/angegebenen Ort"
abgesehen vonapart fromv
Abrackernhard work that leads to exhaustion; toilnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Achzehnbittengebeteighteen benedictions, Shemoneh Ezreh (or Shmoneh Esreh), the AmidahnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Admirationsmotifadmiration motif, motif of wondernsee Francis McDonagh’s translation of the Miracle Stories of the Early Christian Tradition, p. 69: “The motif of wonder comprises all the narrative elements which express astonishment, fear, terror, and amazement”Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Akoluthiesequence, ordernAkoluthie: not sure how to translate this word; Wolter seems to use it to mean something like “sequence” or “order”, e.g. Lukas orientiert sich nun wieder an der Markus-Akoluthie und… (Lukasevangelium, 200). It seems like scholars may sometimes use the term akoluthia or Akoluthia, but that this is not very common (see e.g. here and here). “order” might be the best option?Lukas orientiert sich nun wieder an der Markus-Akoluthie und… (Lukasevangelium, 200)Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Aktualisierungmaking current, updating, upgradingnAktualisierung – this seems related to Aktuell – so that – at last in some cases – the meaning relates to making current, updating, or upgrading rather than actualizing in the sense of realizing (see here).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
allein aus diesem Grundeonly because, already becausephraseallein aus diesem Grunde: “only because” or “already because” might be a workable solution for this phrase, but I haven’t really found anything that really captures it, i.e., that conveys that the point in question is settled by the reason mentioned on its own without even needing further arguments. Cf. schon allein below.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
allererstintensification of "only"advWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Anbruch der Gottesherrschaftin-breaking of the rule of God, onset of God's rulephrase
anklingento be reminiscent of, to be touched upon, to be discerniblevWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Ansatzapproach, conception, starting pointn"It seems like I often translate this with “approach” or “conception” but on at least one occasion I translated it with “starting point” (cf. ansetzen an etwas)"Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Anschlussconnection, pronoun (see note)nAnschluss: This means something like “connection”. In some contexts it can mean “pronoun”, e.g., Der relativische Anschluss.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
anspielento alludev
Antiochenisch ZwischenfallAntiochian incidentn.phrreference to Gal 2:11f.
ApostelkonventApostolic Convention, Jerusalem CouncilnI believe that Jerusalem Council is a better translation for this because it is the more common title given to the event in English speaking circles
Appellstrukturappeal dimensionnZimmermann, Puzzling, 147,Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
artifiziellartificial, contrivedadv; adjWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auch deshalbalso for that reasonphraseadds another reason why something is . . . Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auch nur(can have the force of) simplyphraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auch sonstin other place as well, also . . . elsewherephraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auch wenneven thoughphrasenot "even if"Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auf der Ausdrucksebene des Texteson the level of expression of the text, on the surface of the textphraseI have translated this with “on the level of expression of the text”, but it is probably preferable to adopt a solution such as “on the surface of the text”.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auf der Hand liegendit is obvious, evidentphrase
auf der Stelle tretendoes not make any progressphraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
aufbegehrenrevolt, protest struggle for predominancevthis verb is often used for those in subordinate classes, so that “revolt” is often captures the sense, though in some cases “protest” or “struggle for predominance” might be better?Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
aufbereitento process sth., to preparev“aufbereiten” means sth. like “to process sth.” but – just like vorbereiten – with a focus on the result being preparatory for sth. (see here). So “to prepare” might still be the best translation – although the focus is more on the process itself than with “vorbereiten”. Actually, “to prepare” might be quite good in that regard (“to prepare a meal”). The two aspects seem to be expressed by the same verb in English?Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Auferstehung(intransitive) resurrection, rise; (transitive) resurrection, raisingnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Aufforderunginvitation, requestn
aufhebento nullify, cancelvaufheben/Aufhebung: never quite sure how to translate this loaded word. I usually go with “nullify”/”nullification”. Other options like “abrogation” and “cancellation” might also work? Since Aufhebung can have the nuance of making something ineffective without actually destroying it, nullify might be better than abrogate?Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Aufhebungnullification; abrogation, cancellationnaufheben/Aufhebung: never quite sure how to translate this loaded word. I usually go with “nullify”/”nullification”. Other options like “abrogation” and “cancellation” might also work? Since Aufhebung can have the nuance of making something ineffective without actually destroying it, nullify might be better than abrogate?
aufs schärfstein the strongest termsphraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Auftretenactivity, appearance (not physical), entrancenin From Jesus to the New Testament, I believe that I usually translated this term with “appearance”, but during the translation of Jesus of Nazareth I moved away from this translation since it sometimes conveyed the false impression that the concern was with Jesus’s physical appearance. Even though it is not perfect, I am increasingly using “activity” and some variation of this for the verb. In some cases “entrance” might work for Auftreten (?).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auktorialauthorialadjalthough this is a technical term (see here), it seems that the equivalent English technical term is nevertheless “authorial” (see here).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
aus X heraus kommt es zu Yout of, developsphrase“aus X heraus kommt es zu Y” means that X is the “origin” but that Y does not really remain within X. Perhaps “out of” is a good translation or perhaps something with develops?Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
ausblendenblend out, bracket outvI have struggled to find a good solution for this word. Sometimes I have used “blend out” but this solution seems rather unsatisfactory. David Lincicum suggested “bracket out” for a certain sentence, and I have subsequently adopted this solution on multiple occasions.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Ausbreitungsnotizdissemination noticenI have been translating this with “dissemination notice”, which could probably be improved upon. Thus far, I haven’t stumbled upon a standard translation for this form critical term. It looks to me like Theissen expresses the same concept with Ausbreitung des Rufes, which John Bowden translates with Spread of the news.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Auseinandersetzungdispute, conflictn
Ausgangssituationstarting situtation, situation of departurenFor the sake of readability, I have been translating this term with “starting situation”, though “situation of departure” would perhaps be more precise.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Ausgangstext"earliest recoverable text fro which most variants may be seen to have descended"nThis definition has been taken from J.K. Elliott "Majority Text or Not"This definition has been taken from J.K. Elliott "Majority Text or Not"
ausgestattetequipped, furnished, endowed
auslegento interpretv
Ausrüstungsanweisunginstructions on equipment, equipment instructions, instructions for equipmentninstructions on equipment, equipment instructions, and instructions for equipment all seem to be solutions that scholars have adopted. See here.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Ausrüstungsregelequipment rulenequipment rule (see here)Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Aussagewortcontains a statementn“Aussagewort”, which contains a statement, can be distinguished from “Mahnwort”, which contains an admonition.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
äußern sich incan be seen in, manifest themselves inv.phrWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
aussetzen(many meanings) suspendvThis verb has a lot of meanings (see here/here). It can, among other things, mean that sth., e.g. a regulation, is generally in effect but that there is then an exception. I.e. “das Gesetz zur Steuerhinterziehung wurde in den Jahren 2000-2003 ausgesetzt” (meaning that it was in effect before and after). “suspend” might work for this usage?Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
austauschenchange, switchvchange or switch (the prefix “aus-” conveys the reciprocal aspect, i.e., X for Y and Y for X, or simply the element of change, i.e., X where Y was formerly); the sense is not removal but replacement. synonymous with auswechseln.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
austragensettle, settle differencesvWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auswechselnchange, switchvWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
auszugehen ist davon, dassone can assume that, one can start from the assumption that, one can proceed from the assumptionv.phrWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bedienentakes into account, serves, does justice to, attends to, actuatesvtough word. for example “ein Vorurteil bedienen” means that you “make use of it” in a sense but there is a sense in which you do what the Vorurteil requires of you. Not sure what the best option for translation is: takes into account, does justice to, attends to, serves, actuates, something else????Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bedingen einanderare interdependentv.phrin some cases I think that “are interdependent” might capture this phrase well, i.e. rather than are contingent on each other (or the like)Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Befundfindings, evidencenthe sum of a variety of findings, so in many cases it may be better to translate it with “findings” rather than “finding”. It may also work to use “evidence” for some contexts.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Begängnissenrites, proceedures, celebrationsnused by Frey in the context of the Qumran communities communal celebrations"und in der Anlage zu gemeinschaftlichen Begängnissen zusammenkamen"
Begriffword/term, conceptnThis is probably my least favorite German word. It seems to me that it often hovers between “word/term” and “concept”, which creates problems when it needs to be translated. For my part, I think it would be more precise and therefore preferable if German authors would write “Wort” when they mean “word/term” and “Konzept” when they mean “concept” (cf. James Barr, The Semantics of Biblical Language, p. 210-211). In my translation of Jens Schröter’s book From Jesus to the New Testament, I think I tended to translate it as “concept”, whereas I am translating it mostly as “word” or “term” in Christoph Markschies’ book Christian Theology and its Institutions in the Early Roman Empire.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Begriffspaarlexical pairnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Begründungjustification, explanation, ground(s), grounding, grounding explanationnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Begründungsschwierigkeitenexplanatory difficulties, fundamental explanatory difficulties, difficulty justifying one's positionnThis is a bit of a tricky word and I'm not entirely certain of the definitions I have offered.Trotz ihrer großer Beliebtheit und extrem weiter Verbreitung ist diese Hypothese mit erheblichen Begründungsschwierigkeiten belastet:du Toit; Some thoughts on the social-historical background of Paul's letter to the Galatians
Begründungszusammenhangcontext of justification, context of discoverynfor Wolter this is a technical term that means “context of justification”. It comes from Hans Reichenbach, who is American: “context of discovery”, “context of justification” (see here)Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Beinamesurname, epithet, bynamennot sure how to capture this. The intended meaning is often something different than “surname” and “epithet” also doesn’t seem to fit many uses. “byname” may be the best option for some uses, even if it is also not exactly on target. [If Matthew Novenson is correct (see here) we might be dealing with an honorific rather than a title or a name in the case of “Christ”, though this would only be the correct translation for Beiname if the German author shared Novenson’s understanding.]Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bereitenpreparevsometimes means “prepare” but it can also have many other meanings and a translation with “prepare” does not always work. See here.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bereits weilif only, simply becausephraseI have not found a good solution to this phrase: “already because” may be too opaque in English. “if only” has been suggested to me as a solution and perhaps this would work, though I am not convinced. And I don’t really think “simply because” works. The sense is the same as comparative expressions such as schon darum and schon allein, i.e., even on the ground of x alone.”Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
beschneidento circumcizev
bevorzugte Verwendungquite often usedv.phrseems to mean: quite often used in this context (i.e. “bevorzugt” over other lexical choices) rather than indicating that most occurrences of the verb are found in this context.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bezirzento betwitchvUsed in the context of Gal 3:1
BildfeldimagerynSo wird zum Beispiel durchgehend das Bildfeld des Säens beibehalten in der Deutung beibehalten.du Toit; Verhüllung und Enthüllung (40)Coppins
Bildfeldtraditiontradition of this imagery, stock metaphors, traditional backgroundnRuben Zimmermann, Puzzling, translates this as “tradition of the imagery” (17) or “the tradition of this imagery” (202). Elsewhere he places Bildfeldtradition(en) in parentheses after “stock metaphors” (29) and after “traditional background” (224).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bildspendende Metaphorsource domainn.phrIn the context of metaphor theory I think this is sometimes equivalent to source domainWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Bildweltfigurative worldn
Bildwortword picture, parabolic saying, figures, figurative sayingnI was rendering this with “picture word” but I am now using “parabolic saying”. Ruben Zimmermann, Puzzling, renders it with “figure(s)” (106, 107) and figurative saying (108).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Binsenweisheitcommonplace, truism, common knowledgenWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
birgt/bergento containvthis just means “contains” (beinhaltet) and not “conceals” (= verbirgt/verbergen).Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bis aufwith the exception of, save forphraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
bis einschließlichthroughphraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
blühende Fantasievivid fantasyphraseI struggled with this phrase. It is usually used with children, it emphasizes not only that the issue in question does not belong to reality but also that it takes quite a lot of imagination to come up with such ideas. I considered “vivid imagination” but imagination might not be pejorative enough for the way my author was using the term, so I decided on “vivid fantasy” instead. Cf. here.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Bogen schlagenake/forge an arc, make a bridgev.phrWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Bußsakramentsthe sacraments of Penancen
bzgl.concerningabbv.short from bezüglich
Clusterbildungformation of clusters, cluster formation, clusteringnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
d.h.i.e., that meansabbv.from "dass heißt"
damitø, in this way, with thisadvWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
darum auchand, hence, it's because of this that x does yphraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
das Getränk der Vielenthe drink of the Manyn.phrReference to 1QS V14–16, 20–23 (Qumran community rules)
Daseinsgewissheitexistential assuranceWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
dem jemanden vor Augen zu führento presentv.phrlit. something like to lead before the eyes.
den irdischen Jesusthe earthly Jesusphrase
Deutung gebengive meaning to, assign meaning to, give an interpretationphraseWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
dezentsubtle, subdued, quiet, understated, discreet, unostentatiousadjWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
Die beschriebenen Vergleichethe comparisons describedn.phrIn my context, even though "oben" is not included in the phrase, it seems best to translate this as "the comparisons described above"
die Besprochene Weltthe world under discussion, the world referred ton.phrMichael Wolter often uses this phrase. I am translating it with “the world under discussion” (“the world referred to” would be another option). It goes back to the title of a book by Harald Weinrich, namely Tempus. Besprochene und erzählte Welt.Wayne Coppins German-English dictionary
die erzählte Weltthe narrated worldphrase
die Reinheit der Speise der Vielenthe pure food of the Manyn.phrReference to 1QS V14–16, 20–23 (Qumran community rules)
die Zeremonie des Schuhausziehensthe ceremony of removing the shoen.phrreference to Deut 25:9Billerbeck
dies gilt auchthis is also true, this also appliesphrase
Differenzdifference, differencesnWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
differenziertto nuance, carefuladjWayne Coppins German-English dictionary
dochafter all, howeveradvWayne Coppins German-English dictionary