ICR's List of Soft Tissue Papers
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ICR's List of Original Biomaterial Fossils: Updated
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Articles Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals (supplemental material supporting papers at dinosaursofttissue.com)dinosaursofttissue.com
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From Brian Thomas & the Institute for Creation Researchicr.orgicr.org/i/articles/news/dino-soft-tissue-web.jpg
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#DateDescriptionAgePublicationLinkOther Notes
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15/30/1977Catfish fatty fin in Green River50MYBuchheim and Surdam, Geology, 5:198geology.gsapubs.org/content/5/4/196.abstract?sid=1359d9f9-8306-4ebf-bbe6-a54cfcf05578Dr. John Whitmore, Cedarville creationist professor of geology, pointed out that no biological material was identified (see * below, note on Terminology)
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26/14/1992Osteocalcin in a seismosaur bone150MYMuyzer, et al., Geology, 20:871-874bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1994-January/000854.html
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39/25/1992DNA in amber30MYMorell, et al., Science, 257:1860sciencemag.org/content/257/5078/1860.extractLikely contamination: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v362/n6422/pdf/362709a0.pdf
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46/16/1994Unaltered amino acids in amber insects130MYBada, et al., Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta, 58(14):3131-3135sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703794901856
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56/16/1994Dinosaur DNA from hadrosaur bone65MYWoodward, et al., Science, 266(5188):1229-1232sciencemag.org/content/266/5188/1229A famous case of contamination: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/268/5214/1191 and http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v378/n6556/abs/378485a0.html
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65/19/1995Live bacteria spores from amber25-40MYCano and Borucki, Science, 268(5213):1060-1064sciencemag.org/content/268/5213/1060.abstract
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76/10/1997Heme (iron compound) in T. rex bone67MYSchweitzer, et al., PNAS, 94(12):6291-6296pnas.org/content/94/12/6291.abstract
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86/2/1999Live bacteria from halite [salt] deposit250MYVreeland, et al., Amer. Soc. For Microbiology, 99th General Mtg.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16127644
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96/21/1999Live bacteria from separate rock salts250MYStan-Lotter, et al., Microbiology, 145(12):3565-3574mic.sgmjournals.org/content/145/12/3565
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106/21/1999Icthyosaur skin19MYLingham-Soliar., Proc. Royal Soc. B, 266(1436):2367-2373mendeley.com/research/rare-soft-tissue-preservation-showing-fibrous-structures-in-an-ichthyosaur-from-the-lower-lias-jurassic-of-england/There was no soft tissue - the fibres had been replaced by calcium phosphate, only impressions remained
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116/21/1999Keratin in Madagascar Cretaceous bird65MYSchweitzer, et al., Jour. Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(4):712-722tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.1999.10011183
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129/1/2001T. rex collagen SEM scans65MYArmitage, Creation Research Society Quarterly, 38(2):61-66creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/38/38_2/Trex.htm
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136/26/2004Isolated non-spore-forming bacteria living in amber 120MYGreenblatt, et al., Microbial Ecology, 48(1):120-127digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bio_fac/355/
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143/24/2005T. rex soft tissue68MYSchweitzer, et al., Science, 307(5717):1952-1955sciencemag.org/content/307/5717/1952.abstract
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158/1/2006Frog bone marrow10MYMcNamara, et al., Geology, 34(8):641-644geology.gsapubs.org/content/34/8/641?ijkey=c5a35e6b7bf0fd6f515be330120599b4321e122e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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166/30/2007T. rex collagen68MYSchweitzer, et al., Science, 316(5822):277-280sciencemag.org/content/316/5822/277.short
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174/7/2008Psittacosaurus skin125MYLingham-Soliar, T. et al, Proc. Royal Soc. B, 275:775-780rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/775.full.pdfThere was no soft tissue - the fibres had been mineralised/pyritised only impressions remained
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187/8/2008Feather melanocytes100MYVinther, J. et al, Biology Letters, 6(1):128-131jakobvinther.com/Biol.%20Lett.-2010-Vinther-128-31.pdf
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194/30/2009Hadrosaur blood vessels80MYSchweitzer, M. et al, Science, 324(5927):626-631sciencemag.org/content/324/5927/626.abstract
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208/26/2009Purple Messel feather nanostructure40MYVinther, J.et al, Biology Letters, 6(1):128-131jakobvinther.com/Biol.%20Lett.-2010-Vinther-128-31.pdf
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215/19/2009Primate "lda" soft body outline40MYFranzen, J.L. et al, PLoS ONE, 4(5):e5723plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723A soft body outline isn't soft tissue
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227/1/2009Hadrosaur skin cell structures66MYManning, P. et al, Proc. Royal Soc. B, 276:3429-3437rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1672/3429.full
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238/18/2009Squid ink sac150MYWhilby, P.R. et al, Geology Today, 24(3):95-98onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2451.2008.00666.x/abstractThe soft body structures were all completely fossilised, not soft anymore
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2411/5/2009Salamander muscle, whole18MYMcNamara, M. et al, Proc. Royal Soc. B, 277(1680):423-427rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1680/423.full
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252/25/2010Sinosauropteryx melanosomes125MYZhang, F. et al, Nature, 463:1075-1078nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/nature08740.html
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263/10/2010Psittacosaurus skin color125MYLingham-Soliar, T.G. and Plodowski, Naturwissenschaften, 97:479-486springerlink.com/content/3wnn717728x963n2/(Psittacosaurus sample analyzed also in Proc. Royal Soc. B, 275:775-780)rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/775.abstract
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275/14/2010Mammal hair in amber100MYVullo, R., Naturwissenschaften, 97(7):683-687adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NW.....97..683V
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285/18/2010Archaeopteryx original elements150MYBergmann, U., PNAS, 107(20):9060-9065pnas.org/content/107/20/9060
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298/9/2010Mosasaur blood, retina65-68MYLindgren, J., PLoS ONE, 5(8); e11998plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011998There was no soft tissue - the originally soft structure had been mineralised/phosphatised - only impressions remained
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3011/12/2010Fossilized penguin melanosomes36MYClarke, J.A. 35 al, Science, 330:954-957sciencemag.org/content/330/6006/954.abstractWhile the archaeopteryx melanomes (Nature, 2012) were accompanied by biomarkers, etc., these penguin organelles are not likewise reported and, while astounding, may be fully permineralized.
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3111/18/2010Shrimp shell and muscle360MYFeldman, R.M. and C.E. Schweitzer, J. Crustacean Biology, 30(4):629-635bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1651/09-3268.120150528: Brian Thomas of ICR agreed with RSR that this paper refers to fossilized soft tissue and not to extant endogenous biologial material.
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322/7/2011Chitin and chitin-associated protein417MYCody, G.D. et al, Geology, 39(3):255-258geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/39/3/255.abstract
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363/23/2011Lizard tail skin breakdown products40MYEdwards, N. P. et al, Proc Royal Soc B, onlinerspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/03/12/rspb.2011.0135.full
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376/8/2011Type l Collagen, T.rex and hadrosaur68MYSan Antonio, J.D. et al, PLoS ONE, 6(6):e20381plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020381
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386/30/2011Bird feather pigment120MYWogelius, R.A. et al, Science, onlinesciencemag.org/content/333/6049/1622
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Preliminary Reports Published Elsewhere
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398/10/2009Live yeast in amber45MYWired Sciencewired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/17-08/ff_primordial_yeast?currentPage=all
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409/27/2010Lobster shell"millions"Keighley Newskeighleynews.co.uk/news/8409907.Fossil_find_rocks_museum___s_boffins/
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4110/22/2010Mosasaur cartilage80MYBuchholz, C.C., Rapid City Journalrapidcityjournal.com/news/article_fe339138-dd7c-11df-87de-001cc4c002e0.htmlThe cartilage was an impression, not soft remains
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Additional Publications added by Real Science Radio (often from reports by ICR's Brian Thomas)rsr.orgOther Notes
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11993-2016Original dinosaur biological material65-150MYScience, J Vert Pal, J Ap Genet, Proc R Soc, PLoS One, PNAS, Nature, etc.DinosaurSoftTissue.com#research
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21964????Kabat, E. A. et al, Experimental Immunochemistry 2nd ed., pp. 85–90books.google.com/books?id=FcWOMgEACAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=editions:UOM39015003223339
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31966Collagen & vessels in dinosaur bone200MYPawlicki R., et al, Cells, collagen fibrils and vessels in dinosaur bone, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v211/n5049/abs/211655a0.html
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41968Collagen from Megalosaurus egg shell166MYVoss-Foucart, Paleoproteins, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiologysciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010406X68909547
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51968Intact proteins from half of many bones 150MYMiller & Wyckoff, Proteins in Dinosaur Bones, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/60/1/176.full.pdf
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61972The biochemistry of animal fossils??Wyckoff, R. W. G., Scientechnica Ltd, Bristolworldcat.org/title/biochemistry-of-animal-fossils/oclc/473555965
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71972Biological material in saltwater clam shell??Crenshaw, M. A., Biomineralization Research Reports, 6:6–11books.google.com/books?id=DFTyAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&dq=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nyp_UfTGFubp2QWA7IHoCA&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQTitle: "The soluble matrix of Mercenaria mercenaria shell"trove.nla.gov.au/work/11289249?versionId=13234046
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81973????Westbroek, P., et al, Calcified Tissue Research, 12:227–238springerlink.com/content/v6305k8k5g324668/
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91974Dinosaur proteins and polysaccharides70MYDeJong, E. W., et al, Nature, Differentiation of lacunae and canaliculi...nature.com/nature/journal/v252/n5478/abs/252063a0.html
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101985Metabolic pathways of dinosaur bones80MYPawlicki R. Metabolic pathways of fossils. Part V. Histochem Cytochemncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4065383See previous parts also, especially Parts 3 & 4.
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111987Seven hadrosaurs' unfossilized bones80MYDavies K. Duck-billed dinosaurs from the north slope of Alaska, J of Paleont.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.toriah.org%2Farticles%2FDavies-1987.PDF&ei=YRO8UJWCKerB2QXzqYGQBA&usg=AFQjCNHTYmfYUc8c_10tOUoZBzvLbPcqIw&sig2=ixQ-LPvYwjbb-mUQvXGNBA&cad=rja
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121993Organic material in dinosaur specimens65MY+Ostrom, P.H. et al, Geology, Assessment of tropic structure of Creataceous...geology.gsapubs.org/content/21/6/491.abstract
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131993Chloroplast tree gene partly sequenced35-40MYPoinar, H.N. et al, Nature correspondence, 363(6431):677nature.com/nature/journal/v363/n6431/abs/363677a0.htmlDominican amber, extinct Hymenaea protera Poinar, 346-base-pair segment
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142002Metasequoia cellulose (with no O18)34-56MYJahren & Sternberg, Johns Hopkins & U of Miami, Geological Soc of Americageosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/12/1/pdf/i1052-5173-12-1-4.pdf
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152003Skin fibers130MYE. Frey et al., Paleobiology of Pterosaurs. UK: Geological Society Pub. 217geolsoc.org.uk/SP217
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162008Osteocyte (bone cells)5MYBell LS, et al, Mineralized osteocyte: a living fossil. Am J Phys 137:449-56ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615594
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172012Cuttlefish ink sac160MYGlass, Wilby, Simon, et al, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/109/26/10218.abstract?sid=b46190e9-09ce-4c52-ac78-de00da96d75bweb.archive.org/web/20120525074302/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/05/120521-squid-cuttlefish-ink-sacs-fossils-melanin-science-simon/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+ng/News/News_Main+(National+Geographic+News+-+Main)&utm_content=Google+Reader
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182012Jurassic turtle osteocytes145MY+Cadena E., Schweitzer MH. Bone, Osteocytes preservation from the Jurassicthebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282%2812%2900865-4/abstract?refuid=S8756-3282%2812%2901318-X&refissn=8756-3282
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192013Signature of blood in mosquito gut46MYGreenwalt, D., et al, Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins. PNAS Oct. 14pnas.org/content/early/2013/10/08/1310885110.abstractsmithsonianscience.org/2013/10/blood-molecules-preserved-for-millions-of-years-in-abdomen-of-fossil-mosquito/?utm_medium=referral&utm_source=pulsenews
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202013Biological material in crinoids350MY
O'Malley, et al, Taxon-specific organic molecules, Geology 41(3):347-350
geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2013/01/17/G33792.1.abstract
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21in prepHadrosaur blood vessels80MYCleland, TP, Zheng W, Zamdborg L, Schweitzer MH. Molecular characteriza
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222014Precambrian Metazoans530MY Moczydłowska, M., et al, Ediacaran Metozoa, J of Paleontology 88(2):224+bioone.org/doi/citedby/10.1666/13-003
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232015Dinosaur collagen and red blood cells75MYBertazzo, et al, Fibres and cellular structures..., Nature Communicationsnature.com/ncomms/2015/150609/ncomms8352/full/ncomms8352.html
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242015Dinosaur melanosomes and pigment150MYLindren, et al., Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic feathersnature.com/articles/srep13520
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252015Not "vessel-like" but "dino blood vessels"80MYCleland, Schweitzer, et al., ...Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus...pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00675
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262015"Orange" Pterosaur claw material150MYHone, et al., PeerJ, A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue...peerj.com/articles/1191/"The claw sheathes seen here do seem to be genuinely preserved soft tissues given their clear colour and texture differences to the surrounding matrix."
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272016Proteinaceous amide groups in chert1.88GY :)Alleon, Bernard, et al., Molecular preservation of 1.88 Ga Gunflint organic...nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ncomms11977
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282016Triassic blood vessels, etc.247MYSurmik, et al., PLOS ONE, ...Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile...journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151143icr.org/article/organic-residue-247-million-years-old/
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292016Psittacosaurus skin now also has keratin130MYVinther, et al., Current Ciology, Camouflage in an Ornithischian dinosaurcell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(16)30706-0.pdfnews.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/dinosaur-camouflage-fossil-find/
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302016Beta-keratin in orviraptor claw75MYMoyer, Zheng, Schweitzer, Microscopic... analysis of the claw of nesting dinorspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1842/20161997
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312017Tick-related mammalian "red blood cells"20-45MY+Poinar, George Jr, Oxford's Journal of Medical Entomologyacademic.oup.com/jme/article/3073510/Fossilized-Mammalian-Erythrocytes-Associated-With
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322014Turtle, mosasaur & icthyosaur eumelaninvariesIf you have reviewed this paper, feel free to send cmts to Bob@rsr.orgnature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7489/full/nature12899.html
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* Terminology: In the age of sequencing endogenous dinosaur proteins, etc., the customary use of "soft tissue" without further clarification to
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describe permineralized remains should be discontinued. As of 2016, the unqualified phrase "soft tissue" should refer to actual biological material
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with "permineralized soft tissue" or its equivalent being used when no endogenous material is being indicated.
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* Reconsideration: The 2010 penguin feathers paper reports fossilized 'organelles' (for definition, listen to rsr.org/organelles). Comment: Bob@rsr.org.
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* Bill Nye and Neil deGrasse Tyson both claimed recently that creationism makes no predictions. But see TWO of our RSR dino predictions
rsr.org/creation-science-predictions#soft
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confirmed, at rsr.org/predictions#soft, by allegedly 530 million-year-old Precambrian soft tissue and sost tissue found in 6 of 8 dino bones!
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* Corrections: Please email suggested additions, corrections, fill-in-the-blanks, clarifications, and opinion on reconsiderations to Bob@rsr.org.
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