List of Original Biomaterial Fossils
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List of Biomaterial Fossil Papers (maintained)
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Peer-reviewed journal articles on surviving endogenous biological material including tissue and DNA.
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Researchers: Brian Thomas, Institute for Creation Researchicr.org
icr.org/i/articles/news/dino-soft-tissue-web.jpg
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Bob Enyart, Real Science Radiorsr.orgrsr.org/dino-soft-tissue
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#YearDescriptionAgeAuthors, Publication, etc.LinkOther NotesVol (Issue), pp, etc.
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992018Starch (a polysaccharide) in a forest deposit280MYLiu et al. Fossil starch reveals early plant–animal mutualism, Geologypubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article/46/5/423/529024/280myold-fossil-starch-reveals-early-plantanimal
"ultrathin sections of the megaspores indicate that they may have been produced after the megaspores were fertilized" and "used to attract and reward animals... for megaspore dispersal"
46(5):423-426
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982017Sea turtle muscle protein, beta-keratin, pigment54MYLindgren, Schweitzer et al. Juvenile sea turtle, Nature: Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/s41598-017-13187-5
3-inch long turtle (as with entire list, no report that it was found coated in biological iron)
7(13324):1-13
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972017Bird preening (sebaceous) gland still containing oil48MYO'Reilly et al. Uropygial gland lipids in 48MY-old bird, Proc. Royal Soc. Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1865/20171050icr.org/article/10401284(1865)
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962017Dinosaur eggshell color by protoporphyrin/biliverdin66MYWiemann et al. Dinosaur egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs, PeerJpeerj.com/articles/3706/
"Preserved dinosaur egg color... pushes the current limits of the vertebrate molecular and associated soft tissue fossil record..."
PeerJ 5:e3706
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952017Ginkgo leaves "full of organic molecules"200MYVajda et al. Molecular signatures of leaves unexpected, Nature Eco & Evolnature.com/articles/s41559-017-0224-5icr.org/article/fossil-plants-contain-original-moleculess41559-017-0224-5
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942017Melanin in nodosaurus dino (and other biologicals)112MYBrown et al. Exceptionally preserved armored dinosaur, Current Biology cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(17)30808-427(16):2514-2521.e3
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932017Tick-related mammalian "red blood cells"20-45MYPoinar, Tick erythrocytes reveal piroplasms, Journal of Medical Entomologyacademic.oup.com/jme/article/3073510/Fossilized-Mammalian-Erythrocytes-Associated-With54(4):895-900
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922017Nothosaurus coracoid vessel, hydroxyproline~225MYSurmik et al. Intraosseous fossilized middle Triassic soft tissue, Sci of Naturencbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28280877104(3-4):25
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912017Reconfirmation of B. canadensis dinosaur collagen80MYSchroeter, Schweitzer et al. Expansion of sequence, J of Proteome Researchpubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b0087316(2):920-932
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902017Lufengosaurus rib collagen195MYLee et al. Collagen in an early Jurassic sauropod, Nature Communicationsnature.com/articles/ncomms14220ncomms14220
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892016Proteinaceous amide groups in chert1.88GYAlleon, Bernard et al. Molecular preservation of 1.88 Ga... organic..., Naturenature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ncomms11977ncomms11977
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882016Early Triassic reptile blood vessels, etc.247MYSurmik et al. Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile, PLoS ONEjournals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151143icr.org/article/organic-residue-247-million-years-old/pone.0151143
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872016Psittacosaurus dinosaur skin now also has keratin130MYVinther et al. Camouflage in an Ornithischian dinosaur, Current Biologycell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(16)30706-0.pdfnews.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/dinosaur-camouflage-fossil-find/26:2456–2462
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862016Beta-keratin in oviraptor dinosaur claw75MYMoyer, Schweitzer et al. The claw of nesting dinosaur, Proc Royal Society Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1842/20161997283(1842):1-7
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852015Hadrosaur "blood vessels from Brachylophosaurus"80MYCleland, Schweitzer et al. Blood vessels characterization, J Proteome Respubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00675The first paper to sometimes drop qualifier "like" as in "blood-vessel-like" and state clearly "dinosaur vessels", etc.14(12):5252-5262
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842015Dinosaur collagen and red blood cells75MYBertazzo, et al. Fibres and cellular structures..., Nature Communicationsnature.com/ncomms/2015/150609/ncomms8352/full/ncomms8352.htmlncomms8352
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832015Dinosaur melanosomes and pigment150MYLindgren et al. Molecular composition of Jurassic feathers, Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/srep13520srep13520
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822015A pterosaur's orange claw material150MYHone et al. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue, PeerJpeerj.com/articles/1191/
"The claw sheathes seen here do seem to be genuinely preserved soft tissues given their clear colour and texture differences to the surrounding matrix."
PeerJ 3:e1191
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812014Precambrian metazoans (multicellular animals)530MYMoczydłowska, et al. Biogeochemisty of Ediacaran Metozoa, J of Paleontologycambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/microstructure-and-biogeochemistry-of-the-organically-preserved-ediacaran-metazoan-sabellidites/2961F8F4A2E33EA7B8B6CE683896E27788(2):224-239
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802014Bird, marine reptile, mosasaur, icthyosaur pigments55-190MYEdwards et al. Pigments through time [survey], Pigment Cell Melanoma Res.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/pcmr.12271"...so far the data show that original chemical retention may be more common than previously believed."27(5):684-685
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792014Turtle, mosasaur, and icthyosaur eumelanin55-190MYLindren et al. Pigmentation... melanism in extinct marine reptiles, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7489/full/nature12899.html506(7489):484-488
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782014Gastropod egg capsule chitin200MYWysokowski et al. Chitin in 200-million-year-old egg capsules, Paleobiologycambridge.org/core/journals/paleobiology/article/identification-of-chitin-in-200millionyearold-gastropod-egg-capsules/425056844537EFF61EC3B68849653790What's an egg capsule? See Wikipedia for "Otheca" and shark cases at:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_case_(Chondrichthyes)40(4):529-540
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772014Extinct aquatic bird Gansus feather melanosomes~125MYMoyer, Schweitzer et al. Melanosomes or Microbes, Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/srep04233"have refined the age of the Xiagou Formation lacustrine beds to the early Aptian stage"srep04233
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762013Triceratops osteocytes; soft sheets of fibrillar bone 65MYArmitage, Anderson, Soft sheets of fibrillar bone from horn, Acta Histochemicasciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065128113000020Published in Italy (Acta Histochemica)Hear interviews with the authors at:rsr.org/triceratops115(6):603-608
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752013Vauxia sea sponge chitin505MYEhrlich et al. 505-million-year old chitin in Vauxia gracilenta, Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/srep03497srep03497
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742013Lufengosaurus embryo bone protein190MYReisz, Embryology of early Jurassic dino with evidence of organic... Naturenature.com/articles/nature11978nature.com/news/oldest-dinosaur-embryo-fossils-discovered-in-china-1.12779
False: Earliest 'known' organic remains of a terrestrial vertebrate. See 1966 below.
496(7444):210-214
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732013Signature of blood in mosquito gut46MYGreenwalt et al. Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins. Proc. Nat'l Acad of Scipnas.org/content/early/2013/10/08/1310885110.abstractsmithsonianscience.org/2013/10/blood-molecules-preserved-for-millions-of-years-in-abdomen-of-fossil-mosquito/?utm_medium=referral&utm_source=pulsenews10-14-2013
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722013Dino DNA & proteins actin, tubulin, PHEX, histone66-80MY
Schweitzer et al. Analyses of dino osteocytes support endogenous... Bone
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23085295"All of our assays require at least 4 or more bases to generate reactivity... each capitalizing on different aspects of the chemistry of DNA... [show] identical patterns..."52(1):414-23
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712013Biological material in crinoids350MYO'Malley et al. Taxon-specific organic molecules, Geologygeology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2013/01/17/G33792.1.abstract41(3):347-350
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702012Cuttlefish ink sac160MYGlass et al. Jurassic period eumelanin pigment, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/109/26/10218.abstract?sid=b46190e9-09ce-4c52-ac78-de00da96d75bweb.archive.org/web/20120525074302/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/05/120521-squid-cuttlefish-ink-sacs-fossils-melanin-science-simon/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+ng/News/News_Main+(National+Geographic+News+-+Main)&utm_content=Google+Reader109(26):10218-10223
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692012Archaeopteryx black melanin organosulpher residue150MYCarney et al. Color and nature of Archaeopteryx feather, Naturenature.com/articles/ncomms1642"not due to precipitation of the inorganic mineral"ncomms1642
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682012Jurassic turtle osteocytes145MYCadena, Schweitzer, Osteocytes preservation from the Jurassic, Bonethebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282%2812%2900865-4/abstract?refuid=S8756-3282%2812%2901318-X&refissn=8756-328251(3):614-620
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672011Chitin arthropod (scorpion) and eurypterid proteins417MYCody et al. Molecular signature of Paleozoic chitin-protein complex, Geologygeology.geoscienceworld.org/content/39/3/255.abstract39(3):255-258
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662011Type 1 collagen in Cretaceous mosasaur humerus~70MYLindgren et al. Microspectroscopic evidence of bone proteins, PLoS ONEjournals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.00194456(4): e19445
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652011Endogenous Mississaepia cuttlebone chitin sheets34MYWeaver et al. Late Eocene cuttlefish B-chitin consistent organics, PLoS ONEdx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195pone.0028195
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642011Lizard tail skin breakdown products50MYEdwards et al. Tissue preservation in 50MY-old reptile skin, Proc Royal Soc Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/03/12/rspb.2011.0135.fullrspb.2011.0135
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632011Type l collagen in T. rex and hadrosaur dinosaurs68MYSan Antonio, et al, Dinosaur peptides... mech of protein survival, PLoS ONEplosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020381pone.0020381
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622011Bird feather pigment from Confuciusornis sanctus120MYWogelius et al. Biomarkers for eumelanin pigment in fossil record, Sciencescience.sciencemag.org/content/333/6049/1622333(6049):1622-1626
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612010Stegosaurus plate keratin~150MYChristiansen et al. Stegosaur impressions, Swiss Journal of Geosciencesresearchgate.net/publication/226416413_Exceptional_stegosaur_integument_impressions_from_the_Upper_Jurassic_Morrison_Formation_of_Wyoming103(2):163-171
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602010Messel feather highly reflective nanostructure40MYVinther et al. Structural coloration in a fossil feather, Roy Soc Biology Lettersncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2817243/
Published online Aug. 26, 2009. "The keratin... has degraded... the preserved layer of melanosomes is apparently highly reflective."
6(1):128-131
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592010Archaeopteryx feather shaft original chem remains150MYBergmann et al. Archaeopteryx feathers & bone chemistry, Proc Nat Acad Scincbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2889062/?tool=pmcentrez107(20):9060-9065
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582010Sinosauropteryx compsognathid dino melanosomes125MYZhang et al. Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of dinos & birds, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/nature08740.html463:1075-1078
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572010Hadrosaur biomolecules, collagen & other proteins80MYPeterson et al. Microbial biofilms [&] soft tissue in archosaurs, PLoS Onejournals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0013334"compelling evidence countering the argument that these structures are simply microbial biofilm."pone.0013334
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562010Psittacosaurus dinosaur skin color125MYLingham-Soliar et al. Integument & color of a ceratopsian, Science of Naturespringerlink.com/content/3wnn717728x963n2/Published in Germany (Naturwissenschaften)rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/775.abstractPsittacosaurus sample used in PRSB 275:775-780.97:479-486
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542010Mammal hair in amber100MYVullo et al. Mammalian hairs in early Cretaceous amber, Science of Natureadsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NW.....97..683V97(7):683-687
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532009Hadrosaur vessel proteins, sequenced collagen80MYSchweitzer et al. Biomolecular... protein sequences of hadrosaur, Sciencesciencemag.org/content/324/5927/626.abstract324(5927):626-631
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522009Hadrosaur skin cell structures/macromolecules66MYManning et al. Chemistry in a mummified hadrosaur, Proc. Royal Society Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1672/3429.fullRelated: Hadrosaur their teeth were more advanced than today's grazers. rsr.org/soft#teeth276:3429-3437
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512009Salamander muscle, whole18MYMcNamara et al. Organic... fossil musculature with ultracellular detail, P RS Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1680/423.full277(1680):423-427
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502008Feather melanocytes100MYVinther et al. The color of fossil feathers, Royal Society Biology Lettersrsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/5/5224(5):522-525
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492008Psittacosaurus skin fibers~125MYLingham-Soliar, Psittacosaurus complex fibre architecture, Proc Royal Soc Bncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2596897/275(1636):775-780
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482008T. rex amino acid sequences68MYSchweitzer et al. Molecular methods examining..., Comptes Rendus Palevolsciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631068308000250researchgate.net/publication/222219084_Microscopic_chemical_and_molecular_methods_for_examining_fossil_preservation7(2-3):159-184
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472008Osteocyte (bone cells)5MYBell et al, Mineralized osteocyte: a living fossil, American Journal of Physicsncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615594137:449-456
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462007Tyrannosaurus rex collagen68MYSchweitzer et al. T. rex soft tissue suggests the presence of protein, Sciencesciencemag.org/content/316/5822/277.short316(5822):277-280
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452007Triceratops blood vessels, osteocytes66MYSchweitzer, Horner et al. Cellular preservation from Cretaceous, Proc RS Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1607/183See Table 1274(1607):183-197
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442007T. rex proteins sequenced68MYAsara, Schweitzer et al. Mastodon & T. rex protein sequences, Sciencescience.sciencemag.org/content/316/5822/280316(5822):280-285
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432007T. rex proteinaceous materials, sequenced collagen40-150MYSmejkal, Schweitzer, Will tech. enable dino proteomics, Exp Rev Proteomicstandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1586/14789450.4.6.695?scroll=top&needAccess=true4(6):695-699
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422006Frog bone marrow10MYMcNamara et al. Organic preservation of amphibian bone marrow, Geologygeology.gsapubs.org/content/34/8/641?ijkey=c5a35e6b7bf0fd6f515be330120599b4321e122e&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaIn 2006 also, Schweitzer's Dangerous Discovery, dinos smell like cadaversdiscovermagazine.com/2006/apr/dinosaur-dna34(8):641-644
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412005Sauropod egg shell ovalbumin protein~75MYSchweitzer et al. Molecular preservation in dinosaur eggshells, P Roy Soc Bresearchgate.net/publication/7853645_Molecular_preservation_in_Late_Cretaceous_sauropod_dinosaur_eggshells272(1565):775-784
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402005Avian bone collagen implying "molecular integrity"~75MYAvci, Schweitzer et al. Bone collagen from late Cretaceous, Langmuirncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15807605
"No appreciable differences in collagen pull-off properties were measured between fossil and extant bone samples under physiological conditions."
21(8):3584-3590
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392005Dinosaurian cellular and sub-cellular preservation~68MYWittmeyer, Schweitzer, Dino vessels and cells in fossils, J Vert. Paleontologyjstor.org/stable/4524499?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents25(3) 65th Ann. Mtg
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382005T. rex vessels, cells, soft flexible connective tissue68MYSchweitzer, Horner et al. T. rex soft-tissue vessels, cellular preserv., Sciencesciencemag.org/content/307/5717/1952.abstract307(5717):1952-1955
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372004Isolated non-spore-forming bacteria living in amber 120MYGreenblatt et al. Micrococcus luteus - Survival in Amber, Microbial Ecologydigitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bio_fac/355/48(1):120-127
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362003Skin fibers130MYE. Frey et al., Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs, Geological Society Pubicationcatalog.princeton.edu/catalog/7809219No. 217
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352003Iguanodon dinosaur osteocalcin protein120MYEmbery et al. Proteinaceous material in Iguanodon bone, Connective Tissue Rtandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03008200390152070Full paper:researchgate.net/publication/10586201_Identification_of_Proteinaceous_Material_in_the_Bone_of_the_Dinosaur_Iguanodon44(1):41-46
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342002Metasequoia cellulose (with no O18)34-56MYJahren, Sternberg, Oxygen isootopes in Arctic fossil wood, GSA Todaygeosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/12/1/pdf/i1052-5173-12-1-4.pdf1/2002:4-9
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332001Tyrannosaur rex collagen SEM scans65MYArmitage, Mummified collagen fibers in fossil T. rex bone, CRS Quarterlycrsq.org/scanning-electron-microscope-study-mummified-collagen-fibers-fossil-tyrannosaurus-rex-bone38(2):61-66
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322000Live bacteria from halite [salt] deposit250MYVreeland et al. Isolation of halotolerant bacterium from salt crystal, Naturenature.com/articles/35038060Relevant protocol paper:journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0020683#pone.0020683-Vreeland1407:897-900
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312000Non-collagen dinosaur proteinaceous extracts125MYEmbery et al. Non-collagenous proteins from dinosaur Iguanodon, Conn Tis Rtandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03008200009005293?journalCode=icts20"guanidinium chloride extractable protein [with the] levels of glycine, aspartate and serine tentatively suggest the presence of phosphoproteins."41(3):249-259
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301999Alvarezsaurus dinosaur β-keratin protein ~100MYSchweitzer et al. Beta-keratin immunological reactivity, J Exper. Zoologyncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10440726285(2):146-157
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291999Similar live bacteria strains from separate rock salts250MYStan-Lotter et al. Halococcus in Permo-Triassic salt deposits, Microbiologymic.sgmjournals.org/content/145/12/3565145:3565-3574
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281999Keratin in Madagascar bird65MYSchweitzer et al. Immunoreactivity in Cretaceous bird, J. of Vert. Paleontologytandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.1999.1001118319(4):712-722
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271998Tarbosaurus (T. rex) blood vessels80MYPawlicki et al. Blood vessels and red blood cells in dinosaur, Annals Anatomyncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9488909Published in Germany (Anatomischer Anzeiger)180(1):73-77
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261997T. rex peptides and proteins; likely type 1 collagen~68MYSchweitzer et al. Biomolecules in Cancellous Bone, J. of Vert. Paleontologyjstor.org/stable/4523811?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents17(2):349-359
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251997Fossil diatom chitin24MYStankiewicz et al. Preservation of chitin in 25-million-year-old fossils, Scienceacademia.edu/1557518/Preservation_of_chitin_in_25-million-year-old_fossilsSee also:science.sciencemag.org/content/276/5318/1473.11276(5318):1541-1543
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241997Heme in Tyrannosaurus rex bone67MYSchweitzer et al. Heme compounds in dinosaur trabecular bone, PNASpnas.org/content/94/12/6291.abstract94(12):6291-6296
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231995Live bacteria spores from a bee encased in amber25-40MYCano and Borucki, Revival of bacterial spores in Dominican amber, Sciencesciencemag.org/content/268/5213/1060.abstractCano didn't clone but "revived" this bacteria, in 1991worldandischool.com/public/1996/january/school-resource14683.asp268(5213):1060-1064
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221994Unaltered amino acids in amber insects130MYBada et al. Insect in amber racemization, Geochemica et Cosmochemica Actasciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001670379490185658(14):3131-3135
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211994Cretaceous DNA for mitoochondrial cytochrome b 80MYWooodward et al. DNA sequence from Cretaceous bone fragments, Sciencencbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7973705Related paper: Half-life of DNA is 521 yearsrspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/10/05/rspb.2012.1745DNA should degrade to single bases in < 7M years266(5188):1229-1232
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201993Chloroplast tree gene partly sequenced35-40MYPoinar et al. DNA from an extinct plant, Scientific Correspondencenature.com/nature/journal/v363/n6431/abs/363677a0.html
Dominican amber, extinct Hymenaea protera Poinar, 346-base-pair segment
Related paper: Half-life of papyrus DNA is 24 yearsncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11920366363(6431):677
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191993Organic material in T. rex and theropod dinosaurs65MY+Ostrom et al. Trophic structure of Creataceous communities, Geologygeology.gsapubs.org/content/21/6/491.abstractIn 1993 also: Dino DNA: The Hunt and the Hypescience.sciencemag.org/content/261/5118/16021(6):491-494
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181992Termite nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences25-30MYDeSalle et al. Oligo-miocene amber termite DNA sequences, Sciencencbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1411508"mitochondrial [16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)] and nuclear (18S rDNA) genes were amplified"257(5078):1933-1936
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171992Osteocalcin in a seismosaur dinosaur bone150MYMuyzer et al. Preservation of bone protein osteocalcin in dinosaurs, Geologypubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/20/10/871/205605/preservation-of-the-bone-protein-osteocalcin-in?redirectedFrom=fulltext20:871-874
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161991Seismosaurus [now, Diplodocus] vertebra proteins150MYGurley et al. Proteins in bone of Seismosaurus, Journal of Protein Chemistryncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2054066smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/whatever-happened-to-seismosaurus-78770907/Smithsonian's dino guy Brian Switek has been a ST denier:rsr.org/STDs10(1):75-90
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151990Magnolia leaf chloroplast 820-base DNA sequence17-20MYGolenberg et al. Chloroplast DNA sequence from Miocene Magnolia, Naturenature.com/articles/344656a0This paper has been challenged. Please send info/insights you may have on it to Bob@rsr.org. Thank you!344(6267):656-658
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141990Tyrannosaurus tooth hydroxyproline~80MYOstrom et al. High molecular weight material, Adv. in Organic Geochemistrysciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014663809090149TText available at:s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/40454295/Geochemical_characterization_of_high_mol20151128-16148-ir5hvj.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1522106676&Signature=5%2FsA23fXjRdyGVQVsE5W2bofOcQ%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DGeochemical_characterization_of_high_mol.pdf16(4-6):1139-1144
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131987Seven hadrosaurs unfossilized bones80MYDavies, Duck-billed dinosaurs from the north slope of Alaska, J of Paleont.jstor.org/stable/1305145?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents"preservation is remarkable. The bones... display little permineralization..."61(1):198-200
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121985Metabolic pathways of dinosaur bones80MYPawlicki, Metabolic pathways of dino bones Pt. 5, Folia Histochem Cytochemncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4065383Published in Poland (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiolgica)See previous parts also, especially Parts 3 & 4.23(3):165-174
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111976Dinosaur gelatins made from fossil proteins~100MYWyckoff et al. Pleistocene and dinosaur gelatins, Comp Biochem Physiology Blinkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0305049176901796
Hydroxyproline, for example, indicative of collagen, was found in dino bones from Utah, Wyoming, Monatana, and Alberta, Canada.
55(1):95-97
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101976Repeating sequence of Mollusk shell glycoproteins80MYWeiner et al. Characterization of 80M-year-old mollusk shell proteins, PNASncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC430682/
"repeating amino acid sequence, found in contemporary mollusk shell proteins, was identified in the fossil glycoproteins."
73(8):2541-2545
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91974Dinosaur proteins and polysaccharides70MYDeJong et al. Antigenic properties of macromolecules over 70 Myr, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v252/n5478/abs/252063a0.html
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81972Modern (advanced) proteins in ancient fossils~145MYSchopf, Fossil Proteins "Biochemistry of animal fossils" book review, Sciencescience.sciencemag.org/content/178/4065/1086.2"the major conclusion is reached that 'analyses made of the oldest fossils thus far studied do not suggest that their proteins were chemically any simpler than those now being produced.'" p. 125178(4065):1086
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71972Jurassic collagen, evidence of various proteins~145MYWyckoff, The Biochemistry of Animal Fossils, Scientechnicabooks.google.com/books?id=f-YKAQAAIAAJ&dq=-schopf+%22The+Biochemistry+of+Animal+Fossils%22+%22Ralph+W.+G.+Wyckoff%22&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=jurassicNAS member: "Jurassic bones have retained as much protein as the younger Cretaceous." p. 81books.google.com/books?id=f-YKAQAAIAAJ&dq=-schopf+%22The+Biochemistry+of+Animal+Fossils%22+%22Ralph+W.+G.+Wyckoff%22&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=%22proteins+were+chemically+any+simpler%22152 pages
100
61972Biological material in saltwater clam shell?Crenshaw, M. A., Biomineralization Research Reportsbooks.google.com/books?id=DFTyAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&dq=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nyp_UfTGFubp2QWA7IHoCA&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQTitle: "The soluble matrix of Mercenaria mercenaria shell"trove.nla.gov.au/work/11289249?versionId=132340466:6–11
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51968Collagen from Megalosaurus dinosaur egg shell166MYVoss-Foucart, Paleoproteins, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiologysciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010406X6890954724(1):31-32
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