List of Biomaterial Fossil Papers
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List of Biomaterial Fossil Papers (maintained)
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Peer-reviewed journal articles on surviving endogenous biological material including tissue and DNA.DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.10126.61766researchgate.net/project/Biomaterial-Fossils-List-at-bflistrsrorgbflist.rsr.org
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Brian Thomas, Ph.D. paleobiochemistryicr.orgicr.org/fresh-fossilsicr.org/brian_thomas
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Bob Enyart, Real Science Radiorsr.orgrsr.org/dino-soft-tissuersr.org/bob-enyart
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#YearDescriptionAgeAuthors, Publication, etc.LinkOther NotesVol (Issue), pp, DOI, etc.
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1072019Precambrian chitin (from glucose) from fungi walls ~950MYLoron et al. Early fungi from the Proterozoic era in Arctic Canada, Naturenature.com/articles/s41586-019-1217-010.1038/s41586-019-1217-0
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1062019Partially unracemized feather amino acids in amber99MYMcCoy, Collins et al. Amino acids from feathers in amber, Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/s41598-019-42938-9"Burmese amber sample shows less racemisation than the Baltic amber sample which is unexpected given that Burmese amber ~99 Ma is approximately twice as old as Baltic amber ~44 Ma"9(6420):1-8
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1052019Edmontosaur osteocytes, blood vessels, collagen66MYUllmann, Nellermoe et al. Patterns of cellular preservation Cretaceous Res.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667118304324?via%3DihubIn vast Edmontosaurus bonebed, each specimen yields abundant osteocytes, blood vessels, and collagen; surprisingly, there's no correlation between burial depth nor spongy or dense bone.99:1-13
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1042019Anchiornis feather keratin160MYPan, Schweitzer et al. Direct evidence of molecular evolution of feathers PNASpnas.org/content/early/2019/01/23/1815703116
"Keratins have [enhanced] preservation potential over other nonbiomineralized tissues." This is presumed apparently because feathers are not normally saturated in hemoglobin. See rsr.org/ms.
10.1073/pnas.1815703116
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1032018Flexible portions of skin layers, red-brown liver trace180MYLindgren, Schweitzer et al. Icthyosaur homeothermy and crypsis, Naturenature.com/articles/s41586-018-0775-x
"still-flexible remnants of the original scaleless skin... epidermal and dermal... cellular, sub-cellular biomolecular constituents... also possible internal organ trace... red-brown liver... in rib cage."
564:359–365
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1022018Bivalve organics in the late Cretaceous 66MYMyers et al. Cretaceous Pinna organic matrix & shell microstructure, Geologypubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/46/8/711/543297/exceptional-preservation-of-organic-matrix-and?redirectedFrom=fulltext
"interprismatic proteins are preserved with intact peptide bonds, and suggest an abundance of the amino acid glycine"
http://www.icr.org/article/more-exceptional-preservation-of-organic-material/46 (8):711-714
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1012018Dickinsonia lipid biomarkers showing cholesteroids558MYBobrovskiy et al. Steroids establish Ediacaran Dickinsonia as animal, Sciencescience.sciencemag.org/content/361/6408/1246
"lipid biomarkers extracted from organically preserved Ediacaran macrofossils... Dickinsonia... produced cholesteroids..." But Google: Günter Bechly dickinsonia, for his rebuttal.
361(6408):1246-1249
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1002018Starch (a polysaccharide) in a forest deposit280MYLiu et al. Fossil starch reveals early plant–animal mutualism, Geologypubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article/46/5/423/529024/280myold-fossil-starch-reveals-early-plantanimal
"ultrathin sections of the megaspores indicate that they may have been produced after the megaspores were fertilized" and "used to attract and reward animals... for megaspore dispersal"
46(5):423-426
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992017Sea turtle muscle protein, beta-keratin, pigment54MYLindgren, Schweitzer et al. Juvenile sea turtle, Nature: Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/s41598-017-13187-5
3-inch long turtle (as with entire list, no report that it was found coated in biological iron)
7(13324):1-13
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982017Bird preening (sebaceous) gland still containing oil48MYO'Reilly et al. Uropygial gland lipids in 48MY-old bird, Proc. Royal Soc. Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1865/20171050icr.org/article/10401284(1865)
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972017Dinosaur eggshell color by protoporphyrin/biliverdin66MYWiemann et al. Dinosaur egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs, PeerJpeerj.com/articles/3706/
"Preserved dinosaur egg color... pushes the current limits of the vertebrate molecular and associated soft tissue fossil record..."
PeerJ 5:e3706
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962017Ginkgo leaves "full of organic molecules"200MYVajda et al. Molecular signatures of leaves unexpected, Nature Eco & Evolnature.com/articles/s41559-017-0224-5icr.org/article/fossil-plants-contain-original-moleculess41559-017-0224-5
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952017Melanin in nodosaurus dino (and other biologicals)112MYBrown et al. Exceptionally preserved armored dinosaur, Current Biology cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(17)30808-427(16):2514-2521.e3
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942017Tick-related mammalian "red blood cells"20-45MYPoinar, Tick erythrocytes reveal piroplasms, Journal of Medical Entomologyacademic.oup.com/jme/article/3073510/Fossilized-Mammalian-Erythrocytes-Associated-With54(4):895-900
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932017Nothosaurus coracoid vessel, hydroxyproline~225MYSurmik et al. Intraosseous fossilized middle Triassic soft tissue, Sci of Naturencbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28280877104(3-4):25
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922017Reconfirmation of B. canadensis dinosaur collagen80MYSchroeter, Schweitzer et al. Expansion of sequence, J of Proteome Researchpubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b0087316(2):920-932
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912017Lufengosaurus rib collagen195MYLee et al. Collagen in an early Jurassic sauropod, Nature Communicationsnature.com/articles/ncomms14220ncomms14220
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902016Proteinaceous amide groups in chert1.88GYAlleon, Bernard et al. Molecular preservation of 1.88 Ga... organic..., Naturenature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ncomms11977ncomms11977
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892016Early Triassic reptile blood vessels, etc.247MYSurmik et al. Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile, PLoS ONEjournals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151143icr.org/article/organic-residue-247-million-years-old/pone.0151143
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882016Psittacosaurus dinosaur skin now also has keratin130MYVinther et al. Camouflage in an Ornithischian dinosaur, Current Biologycell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(16)30706-0.pdfnews.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/dinosaur-camouflage-fossil-find/26:2456–2462
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872016Beta-keratin in oviraptor dinosaur claw75MYMoyer, Schweitzer et al. The claw of nesting dinosaur, Proc Royal Society Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1842/20161997283(1842):1-7
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862015Hadrosaur "blood vessels from Brachylophosaurus"80MYCleland, Schweitzer et al. Blood vessels characterization, J Proteome Respubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00675The first paper to sometimes drop qualifier "like" as in "blood-vessel-like" and state clearly "dinosaur vessels", etc.14(12):5252-5262
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852015Dinosaur collagen and red blood cells75MYBertazzo, et al. Fibres and cellular structures..., Nature Communicationsnature.com/ncomms/2015/150609/ncomms8352/full/ncomms8352.htmlncomms8352
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842015Dinosaur melanosomes and pigment150MYLindgren et al. Molecular composition of Jurassic feathers, Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/srep13520srep13520
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832015A pterosaur's orange claw material150MYHone et al. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue, PeerJpeerj.com/articles/1191/
"The claw sheathes seen here do seem to be genuinely preserved soft tissues given their clear colour and texture differences to the surrounding matrix."
PeerJ 3:e1191
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822014Precambrian metazoans (multicellular animals)530MYMoczydłowska, et al. Biogeochemisty of Ediacaran Metozoa, J of Paleontologycambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/microstructure-and-biogeochemistry-of-the-organically-preserved-ediacaran-metazoan-sabellidites/2961F8F4A2E33EA7B8B6CE683896E27788(2):224-239
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812014Bird, marine reptile, mosasaur, icthyosaur pigments55-190MYEdwards et al. Pigments through time [survey], Pigment Cell Melanoma Res.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/pcmr.12271"...so far the data show that original chemical retention may be more common than previously believed."27(5):684-685
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802014Turtle, mosasaur, and icthyosaur eumelanin55-190MYLindren et al. Pigmentation... melanism in extinct marine reptiles, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7489/full/nature12899.html506(7489):484-488
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792014Gastropod egg capsule chitin200MYWysokowski et al. Chitin in 200-million-year-old egg capsules, Paleobiologycambridge.org/core/journals/paleobiology/article/identification-of-chitin-in-200millionyearold-gastropod-egg-capsules/425056844537EFF61EC3B68849653790What's an egg capsule? See Wikipedia for "Otheca" and shark cases at:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_case_(Chondrichthyes)40(4):529-540
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782014Extinct aquatic bird Gansus feather melanosomes~125MYMoyer, Schweitzer et al. Melanosomes or Microbes, Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/srep04233"have refined the age of the Xiagou Formation lacustrine beds to the early Aptian stage"srep04233
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772013Triceratops osteocytes; soft sheets of fibrillar bone 65MYArmitage, Anderson, Soft sheets of horn fibrillar bone, Acta Histochemicasciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065128113000020Published in Italy (Acta Histochemica)Hear interviews with the authors at:rsr.org/triceratops115(6):603-608
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762013Vauxia sea sponge chitin505MYEhrlich et al. 505-million-year old chitin in Vauxia gracilenta, Scientific Reportsnature.com/articles/srep03497srep03497
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752013Lufengosaurus embryo bone protein190MYReisz, Embryology of early Jurassic dino with evidence of organic... Naturenature.com/articles/nature11978nature.com/news/oldest-dinosaur-embryo-fossils-discovered-in-china-1.12779
False: Earliest 'known' organic remains of a terrestrial vertebrate. See 1966 below.
496(7444):210-214
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742013Signature of blood in mosquito gut46MYGreenwalt et al. Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins. Proc. Nat'l Acad of Scipnas.org/content/early/2013/10/08/1310885110.abstractsmithsonianscience.org/2013/10/blood-molecules-preserved-for-millions-of-years-in-abdomen-of-fossil-mosquito/?utm_medium=referral&utm_source=pulsenews10-14-2013
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732013Dino DNA & proteins actin, tubulin, PHEX, histone66-80MY
Schweitzer et al. Analyses of dino osteocytes support endogenous... Bone
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23085295"All of our assays require at least 4 or more bases to generate reactivity... each capitalizing on different aspects of the chemistry of DNA... [show] identical patterns..."52(1):414-23
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722013Biological material in crinoids350MYO'Malley et al. Taxon-specific organic molecules, Geologygeology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2013/01/17/G33792.1.abstract41(3):347-350
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712012Cuttlefish ink sac160MYGlass et al. Jurassic period eumelanin pigment, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/109/26/10218.abstract?sid=b46190e9-09ce-4c52-ac78-de00da96d75bweb.archive.org/web/20120525074302/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/05/120521-squid-cuttlefish-ink-sacs-fossils-melanin-science-simon/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+ng/News/News_Main+(National+Geographic+News+-+Main)&utm_content=Google+Reader109(26):10218-10223
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702012Archaeopteryx black melanin organosulpher residue150MYCarney et al. Color and nature of Archaeopteryx feather, Naturenature.com/articles/ncomms1642"not due to precipitation of the inorganic mineral"ncomms1642
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692012Jurassic turtle osteocytes145MYCadena, Schweitzer, Osteocytes preservation from the Jurassic, Bonethebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282%2812%2900865-4/abstract?refuid=S8756-3282%2812%2901318-X&refissn=8756-328251(3):614-620
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682011Chitin arthropod (scorpion) and eurypterid proteins417MYCody et al. Molecular signature of Paleozoic chitin-protein complex, Geologygeology.geoscienceworld.org/content/39/3/255.abstract39(3):255-258
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672011Type 1 collagen in Cretaceous mosasaur humerus~70MYLindgren et al. Microspectroscopic evidence of bone proteins, PLoS ONEjournals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.00194456(4): e19445
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662011Endogenous Mississaepia cuttlebone chitin sheets34MYWeaver et al. Late Eocene cuttlefish B-chitin consistent organics, PLoS ONEdx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195pone.0028195
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652011Lizard tail skin breakdown products50MYEdwards et al. Tissue preservation in 50MY-old reptile skin, Proc Royal Soc Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/03/12/rspb.2011.0135.fullrspb.2011.0135
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642011Type l collagen in T. rex and hadrosaur dinosaurs68MYSan Antonio, et al, Dinosaur peptides... mech of protein survival, PLoS ONEplosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020381pone.0020381
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632011Bird feather pigment from Confuciusornis sanctus120MYWogelius et al. Biomarkers for eumelanin pigment in fossil record, Sciencescience.sciencemag.org/content/333/6049/1622333(6049):1622-1626
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622010Stegosaurus plate keratin~150MYChristiansen et al. Stegosaur impressions, Swiss Journal of Geosciencesresearchgate.net/publication/226416413_Exceptional_stegosaur_integument_impressions_from_the_Upper_Jurassic_Morrison_Formation_of_Wyoming103(2):163-171
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612010Messel feather highly reflective nanostructure40MYVinther et al. Structural coloration in a fossil feather, Roy Soc Biology Lettersncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2817243/
Published online Aug. 26, 2009. "The keratin... has degraded... the preserved layer of melanosomes is apparently highly reflective."
6(1):128-131
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602010Archaeopteryx feather shaft original chem remains150MYBergmann et al. Archaeopteryx feathers & bone chemistry, Proc Nat Acad Scincbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2889062/?tool=pmcentrez107(20):9060-9065
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592010Sinosauropteryx compsognathid dino melanosomes125MYZhang et al. Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of dinos & birds, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/nature08740.html463:1075-1078
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582010Hadrosaur biomolecules, collagen & other proteins80MYPeterson et al. Microbial biofilms [&] soft tissue in archosaurs, PLoS Onejournals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0013334"compelling evidence countering the argument that these structures are simply microbial biofilm."pone.0013334
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572010Psittacosaurus dinosaur skin color125MYLingham-Soliar et al. Integument & color of a ceratopsian, Science of Naturespringerlink.com/content/3wnn717728x963n2/Published in Germany (Naturwissenschaften)rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/775.abstractPsittacosaurus sample used in PRSB 275:775-780.97:479-486
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552010Mammal hair in amber100MYVullo et al. Mammalian hairs in early Cretaceous amber, Science of Natureadsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NW.....97..683V97(7):683-687
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542009Hadrosaur vessel proteins, sequenced collagen80MYSchweitzer et al. Biomolecular... protein sequences of hadrosaur, Sciencesciencemag.org/content/324/5927/626.abstract324(5927):626-631
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532009Hadrosaur skin cell structures/macromolecules66MYManning et al. Chemistry in a mummified hadrosaur, Proc. Royal Society Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1672/3429.fullRelated: Hadrosaur their teeth were more advanced than today's grazers. rsr.org/soft#teeth276:3429-3437
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522009Salamander muscle, whole18MYMcNamara et al. Organic... fossil musculature with ultracellular detail, P RS Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1680/423.full277(1680):423-427
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512008Feather melanocytes100MYVinther et al. The color of fossil feathers, Royal Society Biology Lettersrsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/5/5224(5):522-525
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502008Psittacosaurus skin fibers~125MYLingham-Soliar, Psittacosaurus complex fibre architecture, Proc Royal Soc Bncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2596897/275(1636):775-780
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492008T. rex amino acid sequences68MYSchweitzer et al. Molecular methods examining..., Comptes Rendus Palevolsciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631068308000250researchgate.net/publication/222219084_Microscopic_chemical_and_molecular_methods_for_examining_fossil_preservation7(2-3):159-184
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482008Osteocyte (bone cells)5MYBell et al, Mineralized osteocyte: a living fossil, American Journal of Physicsncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615594137:449-456
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472007Tyrannosaurus rex collagen68MYSchweitzer et al. T. rex soft tissue suggests the presence of protein, Sciencesciencemag.org/content/316/5822/277.short316(5822):277-280
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462007Triceratops blood vessels, osteocytes66MYSchweitzer, Horner et al. Cellular preservation from Cretaceous, Proc RS Brspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1607/183See Table 1274(1607):183-197
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452007T. rex proteins sequenced68MYAsara, Schweitzer et al. Mastodon & T. rex protein sequences, Sciencescience.sciencemag.org/content/316/5822/280316(5822):280-285
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442007T. rex proteinaceous materials, sequenced collagen40-150MYSmejkal, Schweitzer, Will tech. enable dino proteomics, Exp Rev Proteomicstandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1586/14789450.4.6.695?scroll=top&needAccess=true4(6):695-699
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432006Frog bone marrow10MYMcNamara et al. Organic preservation of amphibian bone marrow, Geologygeology.gsapubs.org/content/34/8/641?ijkey=c5a35e6b7bf0fd6f515be330120599b4321e122e&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaIn 2006 also, Schweitzer's Dangerous Discovery, dinos smell like cadaversdiscovermagazine.com/2006/apr/dinosaur-dna34(8):641-644
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422005Sauropod egg shell ovalbumin protein~75MYSchweitzer et al. Molecular preservation in dinosaur eggshells, P Roy Soc Bresearchgate.net/publication/7853645_Molecular_preservation_in_Late_Cretaceous_sauropod_dinosaur_eggshells272(1565):775-784
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412005Avian bone collagen implying "molecular integrity"~75MYAvci, Schweitzer et al. Bone collagen from late Cretaceous, Langmuirncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15807605
"No appreciable differences in collagen pull-off properties were measured between fossil and extant bone samples under physiological conditions."
21(8):3584-3590
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402005Dinosaurian cellular and sub-cellular preservation~68MYWittmeyer, Schweitzer, Dino vessels and cells in fossils, J Vert. Paleontologyjstor.org/stable/4524499?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents25(3) 65th Ann. Mtg
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392005T. rex vessels, cells, soft flexible connective tissue68MYSchweitzer, Horner et al. T. rex soft-tissue vessels, cellular preserv., Sciencesciencemag.org/content/307/5717/1952.abstract307(5717):1952-1955
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382004Isolated non-spore-forming bacteria living in amber 120MYGreenblatt et al. Micrococcus luteus - Survival in Amber, Microbial Ecologydigitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bio_fac/355/48(1):120-127
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372003Skin fibers130MYE. Frey et al., Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs, Geological Society Pubicationcatalog.princeton.edu/catalog/7809219No. 217
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362003Algal and bacterial organic molecules2.5GYBrocks et al. Biological diversity in molecular fossils, Geoch Cosmochem Actasciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016703703002096?via%3Dihub67(22):4321-4335
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352003Iguanodon dinosaur osteocalcin protein120MYEmbery et al. Proteinaceous material in Iguanodon bone, Connective Tissue Rtandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03008200390152070Full paper:researchgate.net/publication/10586201_Identification_of_Proteinaceous_Material_in_the_Bone_of_the_Dinosaur_Iguanodon44(1):41-46
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342002Metasequoia cellulose (with no O18)34-56MYJahren, Sternberg, Oxygen isootopes in Arctic fossil wood, GSA Todaygeosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/12/1/pdf/i1052-5173-12-1-4.pdf1/2002:4-9
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332001Tyrannosaur rex collagen SEM scans65MYArmitage, Mummified collagen fibers in fossil T. rex bone, CRS Quarterlycrsq.org/scanning-electron-microscope-study-mummified-collagen-fibers-fossil-tyrannosaurus-rex-bone38(2):61-66
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322000Live bacteria from halite [salt] deposit250MYVreeland et al. Isolation of halotolerant bacterium from salt crystal, Naturenature.com/articles/35038060Relevant protocol paper:journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0020683#pone.0020683-Vreeland1407:897-900
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312000Non-collagen dinosaur proteinaceous extracts125MYEmbery et al. Non-collagenous proteins from dinosaur Iguanodon, Conn Tis Rtandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03008200009005293?journalCode=icts20"guanidinium chloride extractable protein [with the] levels of glycine, aspartate and serine tentatively suggest the presence of phosphoproteins."41(3):249-259
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301999Alvarezsaurus dinosaur β-keratin protein ~100MYSchweitzer et al. Beta-keratin immunological reactivity, J Exper. Zoologyncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10440726285(2):146-157
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291999Similar live bacteria strains from separate rock salts250MYStan-Lotter et al. Halococcus in Permo-Triassic salt deposits, Microbiologymic.sgmjournals.org/content/145/12/3565145:3565-3574
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281999Keratin in Madagascar bird65MYSchweitzer et al. Immunoreactivity in Cretaceous bird, J. of Vert. Paleontologytandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.1999.1001118319(4):712-722
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271998Tarbosaurus (T. rex) blood vessels80MYPawlicki et al. Blood vessels and red blood cells in dinosaur, Annals Anatomyncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9488909Published in Germany (Anatomischer Anzeiger)180(1):73-77
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261997T. rex peptides and proteins; likely type 1 collagen~68MYSchweitzer et al. Biomolecules in Cancellous Bone, J. of Vert. Paleontologyjstor.org/stable/4523811?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents17(2):349-359
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251997Fossil diatom chitin24MYStankiewicz et al. Preservation of chitin in 25-million-year-old fossils, Scienceacademia.edu/1557518/Preservation_of_chitin_in_25-million-year-old_fossilsSee also:science.sciencemag.org/content/276/5318/1473.11276(5318):1541-1543
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241997Heme in Tyrannosaurus rex bone67MYSchweitzer et al. Heme compounds in dinosaur trabecular bone, PNASpnas.org/content/94/12/6291.abstract94(12):6291-6296
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231995Live bacteria spores from a bee encased in amber25-40MYCano and Borucki, Revival of bacterial spores in Dominican amber, Sciencesciencemag.org/content/268/5213/1060.abstractCano didn't clone but "revived" this bacteria, in 1991worldandischool.com/public/1996/january/school-resource14683.asp268(5213):1060-1064
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221994Unaltered amino acids in amber insects130MYBada et al. Insect in amber racemization, Geochemica Cosmochemica Actasciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001670379490185658(14):3131-3135
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211994Cretaceous DNA for mitoochondrial cytochrome b 80MYWooodward et al. DNA sequence from Cretaceous bone fragments, Sciencencbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7973705Related paper: Half-life of DNA is 521 yearsrspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/10/05/rspb.2012.1745DNA should degrade to single bases in < 7M years266(5188):1229-1232
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201993Chloroplast tree gene partly sequenced (346 pairs)35-40MYPoinar et al. DNA from an extinct plant, Scientific Correspondencenature.com/nature/journal/v363/n6431/abs/363677a0.html
Dominican amber, extinct Hymenaea protera Poinar, 346-base-pair segment
Related paper: Half-life of papyrus DNA is 24 yearsncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11920366363(6431):677
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191993Organic material in T. rex and theropod dinosaurs65MY+Ostrom et al. Trophic structure of Creataceous communities, Geologygeology.gsapubs.org/content/21/6/491.abstractIn 1993 also: Dino DNA: The Hunt and the Hypescience.sciencemag.org/content/261/5118/16021(6):491-494
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181992Termite nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences25-30MYDeSalle et al. Oligo-miocene amber termite DNA sequences, Sciencencbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1411508"mitochondrial [16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)] and nuclear (18S rDNA) genes were amplified"257(5078):1933-1936
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171992Osteocalcin in a seismosaur dinosaur bone150MYMuyzer et al. Preservation of bone protein osteocalcin in dinosaurs, Geologypubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/20/10/871/205605/preservation-of-the-bone-protein-osteocalcin-in?redirectedFrom=fulltext20:871-874
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161991Seismosaurus [now, Diplodocus] vertebra proteins150MYGurley et al. Proteins in bone of Seismosaurus, Journal of Protein Chemistryncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2054066smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/whatever-happened-to-seismosaurus-78770907/Smithsonian's dino guy Brian Switek has been a ST denier:rsr.org/STDs10(1):75-90
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151990Magnolia leaf chloroplast 820-base DNA sequence17-20MYGolenberg et al. Chloroplast DNA sequence from Miocene Magnolia, Naturenature.com/articles/344656a0This paper has been challenged. Please send info/insights you may have on it to Bob@rsr.org. Thank you!344(6267):656-658
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141990Tyrannosaurus tooth hydroxyproline~80MYOstrom et al. High molecular weight material, Adv. in Organic Geochemistrysciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014663809090149TText available at:s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/40454295/Geochemical_characterization_of_high_mol20151128-16148-ir5hvj.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1522106676&Signature=5%2FsA23fXjRdyGVQVsE5W2bofOcQ%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DGeochemical_characterization_of_high_mol.pdf16(4-6):1139-1144
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131987Seven hadrosaurs unfossilized bones80MYDavies, Duck-billed dinosaurs from the north slope of Alaska, J of Paleont.jstor.org/stable/1305145?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents"preservation is remarkable. The bones... display little permineralization..."61(1):198-200
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