List of Original Biomaterial Fossils
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List of Original Biomaterial Fossils (maintained)
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Articles Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals (supplemental material supporting papers at dinosaursofttissue.com)dinosaursofttissue.com
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Most references from Brian Thomas & the Institute for Creation Researchicr.org
icr.org/i/articles/news/dino-soft-tissue-web.jpg
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Other references from Bob Enyart and Real Science Radiorsr.orgrsr.org/dino-soft-tissue
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#YearDescriptionAgeAuthors, Publication, etc.LinkOther Notes
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622017Dinosaur eggshell color by protoporphyrin/biliverdin66MYWiemann, Yang, et al., PeerJ, Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid...peerj.com/articles/3706/
"Preserved dinosaur egg color... pushes the current limits of the vertebrate molecular and associated soft tissue fossil record..."
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612017Melanin in nodosaurus dino (and other biologicals)110MYBrown, Henderson, Vinther, Current Biology cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(17)30808-4
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602017Tick-related mammalian "red blood cells"20-45MYPoinar, George Jr, Oxford's Journal of Medical Entomologyacademic.oup.com/jme/article/3073510/Fossilized-Mammalian-Erythrocytes-Associated-With
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592017Reconfirmation of B. canadensis dinosaur collagen80MYSchroeter, Schweitzer, et al., J of Proteome Research, Expansion of sequencepubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00873
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582016Proteinaceous amide groups in chert1.88GYAlleon, Bernard, et al., Molecular preservation of 1.88 Ga... organic..., Naturenature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ncomms11977
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572016Early Triassic reptile blood vessels, etc.247MYSurmik, et al., PLOS ONE, ...Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile...journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151143icr.org/article/organic-residue-247-million-years-old/
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562016Psittacosaurus dinosaur skin now also has keratin130MYVinther, et al., Current Ciology, Camouflage in an Ornithischian dinosaurcell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(16)30706-0.pdfnews.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/dinosaur-camouflage-fossil-find/
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552016Beta-keratin in oviraptor dinosaur claw75MYMoyer, Zheng, Schweitzer, Microscopic... analysis of the claw of nesting dinorspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1842/20161997
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542015Hadrosaur "blood vessels from Brachylophosaurus"80MYCleland, TP, Zheng W, Zamdborg L, Schweitzer MH. blood vessel characterizpubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00675
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532015Dinosaur collagen and red blood cells75MYBertazzo, et al, Fibres and cellular structures..., Nature Communicationsnature.com/ncomms/2015/150609/ncomms8352/full/ncomms8352.html
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522015Dinosaur melanosomes and pigment150MYLindgren, et al., Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic feathersnature.com/articles/srep13520
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512015A pterosaur's orange claw material150MYHone, et al., PeerJ, A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue...peerj.com/articles/1191/
"The claw sheathes seen here do seem to be genuinely preserved soft tissues given their clear colour and texture differences to the surrounding matrix."
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502014Precambrian metazoans (multicellular animals)530MY Moczydłowska, M., et al, Ediacaran Metozoa, J of Paleontology 88(2):224+bioone.org/doi/citedby/10.1666/13-003
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492014Turtle, mosasaur, and icthyosaur eumelaninvariesIf you have reviewed this paper, feel free to send cmts to Bob@rsr.orgnature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7489/full/nature12899.html
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482013Triceratops osteocytes; soft sheets of fibrillar bone 65MYArmitage, Anderson, Acta Histochemica, Soft sheets of fibrillar bone from hornsciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065128113000020Hear interviews with the authors at:rsr.org/triceratops
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472013Signature of blood in mosquito gut46MYGreenwalt, D., et al, Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins. PNAS Oct. 14pnas.org/content/early/2013/10/08/1310885110.abstractsmithsonianscience.org/2013/10/blood-molecules-preserved-for-millions-of-years-in-abdomen-of-fossil-mosquito/?utm_medium=referral&utm_source=pulsenews
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462013Biological material in crinoids350MY
O'Malley, et al, Taxon-specific organic molecules, Geology 41(3):347-350
geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2013/01/17/G33792.1.abstract
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452012Cuttlefish ink sac160MYGlass, Wilby, Simon, et al, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/109/26/10218.abstract?sid=b46190e9-09ce-4c52-ac78-de00da96d75bweb.archive.org/web/20120525074302/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/05/120521-squid-cuttlefish-ink-sacs-fossils-melanin-science-simon/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+ng/News/News_Main+(National+Geographic+News+-+Main)&utm_content=Google+Reader
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442012Jurassic turtle osteocytes145MYCadena E., Schweitzer MH. Bone, Osteocytes preservation from the Jurassicthebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282%2812%2900865-4/abstract?refuid=S8756-3282%2812%2901318-X&refissn=8756-3282
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432011Chitin and chitin-associated protein417MYCody, G.D. et al, Geology, 39(3):255-258geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/39/3/255.abstract
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422011Lizard tail skin breakdown products40MYEdwards, N. P. et al, Proc Royal Soc B, onlinerspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/03/12/rspb.2011.0135.full
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412011Type l collagen from T.rex and hadrosaur dinosaurs68MYSan Antonio, J.D. et al, PLoS ONE, 6(6):e20381plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020381
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402011Bird feather pigment120MYWogelius, R.A. et al, Science, onlinesciencemag.org/content/333/6049/1622
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392010Sinosauropteryx compsognathid dino melanosomes125MYZhang, F. et al, Nature, 463:1075-1078nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/nature08740.html
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382010Psittacosaurus dinosaur skin color125MYLingham-Soliar, T.G. and Plodowski, Naturwissenschaften, 97:479-486springerlink.com/content/3wnn717728x963n2/(Psittacosaurus sample analyzed also in Proc. Royal Soc. B, 275:775-780)rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/775.abstract
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362010Mammal hair in amber100MYVullo, R., Naturwissenschaften, 97(7):683-687adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NW.....97..683V
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352010Archaeopteryx original elements150MYBergmann, U., PNAS, 107(20):9060-9065pnas.org/content/107/20/9060
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342010Fossilized penguin melanosomes36MYClarke, J.A. 35 al, Science, 330:954-957sciencemag.org/content/330/6006/954.abstract
While the archaeopteryx melanomes (Nature, 2012) were accompanied by biomarkers, etc., these penguin organelles are not likewise reported and, while astounding, may be fully permineralized.
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332009Hadrosaur blood vessels80MYSchweitzer, M. et al, Science, 324(5927):626-631sciencemag.org/content/324/5927/626.abstract
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322009Purple Messel feather nanostructure40MYVinther, J.et al, Biology Letters, 6(1):128-131jakobvinther.com/Biol.%20Lett.-2010-Vinther-128-31.pdf
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312009Hadrosaur skin cell structures66MYManning, P. et al, Proc. Royal Soc. B, 276:3429-3437rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1672/3429.full
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302009Salamander muscle, whole18MYMcNamara, M. et al, Proc. Royal Soc. B, 277(1680):423-427rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1680/423.full
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292008Feather melanocytes100MYVinther, J. et al, Biology Letters, 6(1):128-131jakobvinther.com/Biol.%20Lett.-2010-Vinther-128-31.pdf
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282008Osteocyte (bone cells)5MYBell LS, et al, Mineralized osteocyte: a living fossil. Am J Phys 137:449-56ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615594
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272007T. rex collagen68MYSchweitzer, et al., Science, 316(5822):277-280sciencemag.org/content/316/5822/277.short
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262006Frog bone marrow10MYMcNamara, et al., Geology, 34(8):641-644geology.gsapubs.org/content/34/8/641?ijkey=c5a35e6b7bf0fd6f515be330120599b4321e122e&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaIn 2006 also, Schweitzer's Dangerous Discovery, dinos smell like cadaversdiscovermagazine.com/2006/apr/dinosaur-dna
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252005T. rex soft tissue68MYSchweitzer, et al., Science, 307(5717):1952-1955sciencemag.org/content/307/5717/1952.abstract
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242004Isolated non-spore-forming bacteria living in amber 120MYGreenblatt, et al., Microbial Ecology, 48(1):120-127digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bio_fac/355/
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232003Skin fibers130MYE. Frey et al., Paleobiology of Pterosaurs. UK: Geological Society Pub. 217geolsoc.org.uk/SP217
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222003Iguanodon dinosaur osteocalcin protein120MYEmbery, G, et al, Connective Tissue, Proteinaceous Material in Bone of Dino...tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03008200390152070Full paper:
researchgate.net/publication/10586201_Identification_of_Proteinaceous_Material_in_the_Bone_of_the_Dinosaur_Iguanodon
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212002Metasequoia cellulose (with no O18)34-56MYJahren & Sternberg, Johns Hopkins & U of Miami, Geological Soc of Americageosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/12/1/pdf/i1052-5173-12-1-4.pdf
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202001T. rex collagen SEM scans65MYArmitage, Creation Research Society Quarterly, 38(2):61-66creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/38/38_2/Trex.htm
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191999Live bacteria from halite [salt] deposit250MYVreeland, et al., Amer. Soc. for Microbiology, 99th General Mtg.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16127644
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181999Live bacteria from separate rock salts250MYStan-Lotter, et al., Microbiology, 145(12):3565-3574mic.sgmjournals.org/content/145/12/3565
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171999Keratin in Madagascar Cretaceous bird65MYSchweitzer, et al., Jour. Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(4):712-722tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.1999.10011183
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161997Heme (iron compound) in T. rex bone67MYSchweitzer, et al., PNAS, 94(12):6291-6296pnas.org/content/94/12/6291.abstract
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151995Live bacteria spores from a bee encased in amber25-40MYCano and Borucki, Science, 268(5213):1060-1064sciencemag.org/content/268/5213/1060.abstractCano didn't clone but "revived" this bacteria, in 1991worldandischool.com/public/1996/january/school-resource14683.asp
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141994Unaltered amino acids in amber insects130MYBada, et al., Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta, 58(14):3131-3135sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703794901856
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131993Organic material in dinosaur specimens65MY+Ostrom, P.H. et al, Geology, Assessment of tropic structure of Creataceous...geology.gsapubs.org/content/21/6/491.abstractIn 1993 also: Dino DNA: The Hunt and the Hypescience.sciencemag.org/content/261/5118/160
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121993Chloroplast tree gene partly sequenced35-40MYPoinar, H.N. et al, Nature correspondence, 363(6431):677nature.com/nature/journal/v363/n6431/abs/363677a0.html
Dominican amber, extinct Hymenaea protera Poinar, 346-base-pair segment
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111992Osteocalcin in a seismosaur dinosaur bone150MYMuyzer, et al., Geology, 20:871-874bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1994-January/000854.html
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101987Seven hadrosaurs' unfossilized bones80MYDavies K. Duck-billed dinosaurs from the north slope of Alaska, J of Paleont.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.toriah.org%2Farticles%2FDavies-1987.PDF&ei=YRO8UJWCKerB2QXzqYGQBA&usg=AFQjCNHTYmfYUc8c_10tOUoZBzvLbPcqIw&sig2=ixQ-LPvYwjbb-mUQvXGNBA&cad=rja
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91985Metabolic pathways of dinosaur bones80MYPawlicki R. Metabolic pathways of fossils. Part V. Histochem Cytochemncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4065383Folia Histochemica et Cytobiolgica (an int'l English language journal)See previous parts also, especially Parts 3 & 4.
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81974Dinosaur proteins and polysaccharides70MYDeJong, E. W., et al, Nature, Differentiation of lacunae and canaliculi...nature.com/nature/journal/v252/n5478/abs/252063a0.html
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71973????Westbroek, P., et al, Calcified Tissue Research, 12:227–238springerlink.com/content/v6305k8k5g324668/
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61972The biochemistry of animal fossils??Wyckoff, R. W. G., Scientechnica Ltd, Bristolworldcat.org/title/biochemistry-of-animal-fossils/oclc/473555965
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51972Biological material in saltwater clam shell??Crenshaw, M. A., Biomineralization Research Reports, 6:6–11books.google.com/books?id=DFTyAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&dq=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nyp_UfTGFubp2QWA7IHoCA&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQTitle: "The soluble matrix of Mercenaria mercenaria shell"trove.nla.gov.au/work/11289249?versionId=13234046
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41968Collagen from Megalosaurus dinosaur egg shell166MYVoss-Foucart, Paleoproteins, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiologysciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010406X68909547
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31968Intact proteins from half of many bones 150MYMiller & Wyckoff, Proteins in Dinosaur Bones, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/60/1/176.full.pdf
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21966Collagen & vessels in dinosaur bone200MYPawlicki R., et al, Cells, collagen fibrils and vessels in dinosaur bone, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v211/n5049/abs/211655a0.html
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11964????Kabat, E. A. et al, Experimental Immunochemistry 2nd ed., pp. 85–90books.google.com/books?id=FcWOMgEACAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=editions:UOM39015003223339
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* Terminology: In the age of sequencing endogenous dinosaur proteins, etc., the customary use of "soft tissue" without further clarification to describe permineralized remains should be discontinued. As of 2018, the unqualified phrase "soft tissue" should refer to actual biological material with "permineralized soft tissue" or its equivalent being used when no endogenous material is being indicated. Further, most likely, the best general term to refer to a dinosaur (or other creature) that has endogenous still-biological material is to call it a "biomaterial fossil". Hear this terminology matter discussed on the radio, along with an example of the confusion caused by the ambiguity, over at rsr.org...
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rsr.org/the-need-to-clarify-soft-tissue-biomaterial-fossil-terminology
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* Papers to Consider: for relationship to our list above
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9/2016: Protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep timeelifesciences.org/articles/17092
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* For ICR's Original 2011 List: of soft tissue fossils, click on the second tab below.
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* Bill Nye and Neil deGrasse Tyson: both claimed recently that creationism makes no predictions. But see two of our RSR dino predictions, alreadyrsr.org/creation-science-predictions#soft
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confirmed, at rsr.org/predictions#soft, by allegedly 530 million-year-old Precambrian soft tissue and sost tissue found in 6 of 8 dino bones!
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* Corrections: Please email suggested additions, corrections, fill-in-the-blanks, clarifications, and opinion on reconsiderations to Bob@rsr.org.
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* Reconsideration: The 2010 penguin feathers paper reports fossilized 'organelles' (for definition, listen to rsr.org/organelles). Comment: Bob@rsr.org.
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* Apparently Discredited Claims: (list begun 20150729)Claimed as discredited, for example, in:
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1993Sequenced weevil DNA130MYCano, et al, Amplification and sequencing of DNA, Naturehttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v363/n6429/abs/363536a0.htmlhttp://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/06/16/scrappy-fossils-yield-possible-dinosaur-blood-cells/
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* Preliminary Reports
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11/15/17Amino acids in Antarctica fossil forest280MYLive Sciencelivescience.com/60944-ancient-fossil-forest-discovered-in-antarctica.html
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9/27/10Lobster shell"millions"Keighley Newskeighleynews.co.uk/news/8409907.Fossil_find_rocks_museum___s_boffins/
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8/10/09Live yeast in amber45MYWired Sciencewired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/17-08/ff_primordial_yeast?currentPage=all
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'93-'16Original dinosaur biological material65-150MYScience, J Vert Pal, J Ap Genet, Proc R Soc, PLoS One, PNAS, Nature, etc.DinosaurSoftTissue.com#research
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Note: In 2017 RSR plans to integrate each of the dinosaur soft tissue papers into the above list.
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Original Fossil Biomaterial Lit
ICR's 2011 List