List of Original Biomaterial Fossils
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List of Original Biomaterial Fossils (maintained)
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Articles Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals (supplemental material supporting papers at dinosaursofttissue.com)dinosaursofttissue.com
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Most references from Brian Thomas & the Institute for Creation Researchicr.org
icr.org/i/articles/news/dino-soft-tissue-web.jpg
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Other references from Bob Enyart and Real Science Radiorsr.orgrsr.org/dino-soft-tissue
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#YearDescriptionAgePublicationLinkOther Notes
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592017Tick-related mammalian "red blood cells"20-45MY+Poinar, George Jr, Oxford's Journal of Medical Entomologyacademic.oup.com/jme/article/3073510/Fossilized-Mammalian-Erythrocytes-Associated-With
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582017Reconfirmation of B. canadensis collagen80MYSchroeter, Schweitzer, et al., J of Proteome Research, Expansion of sequencepubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00873
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572016Proteinaceous amide groups in chert1.88GYAlleon, Bernard, et al., Molecular preservation of 1.88 Ga Gunflint organic...nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ncomms11977
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562016Triassic blood vessels, etc.247MYSurmik, et al., PLOS ONE, ...Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile...journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151143icr.org/article/organic-residue-247-million-years-old/
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552016Psittacosaurus skin now also has keratin130MYVinther, et al., Current Ciology, Camouflage in an Ornithischian dinosaurcell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(16)30706-0.pdfnews.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/dinosaur-camouflage-fossil-find/
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542016Beta-keratin in orviraptor claw75MYMoyer, Zheng, Schweitzer, Microscopic... analysis of the claw of nesting dinorspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1842/20161997
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532015Hadrosaur blood vessels80MYCleland, TP, Zheng W, Zamdborg L, Schweitzer MH. Molecular characterizascholars.northwestern.edu/en/publications/mass-spectrometry-and-antibody-based-characterization-of-blood-ve
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522015Dinosaur collagen and red blood cells75MYBertazzo, et al, Fibres and cellular structures..., Nature Communicationsnature.com/ncomms/2015/150609/ncomms8352/full/ncomms8352.html
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512015Dinosaur melanosomes and pigment150MYLindren, et al., Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic feathersnature.com/articles/srep13520
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502015Not "vessel-like" but "dino blood vessels"80MYCleland, Schweitzer, et al., ...Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus...pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00675
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492015"Orange" Pterosaur claw material150MYHone, et al., PeerJ, A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue...peerj.com/articles/1191/
"The claw sheathes seen here do seem to be genuinely preserved soft tissues given their clear colour and texture differences to the surrounding matrix."
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482014Precambrian Metazoans530MY Moczydłowska, M., et al, Ediacaran Metozoa, J of Paleontology 88(2):224+bioone.org/doi/citedby/10.1666/13-003
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472014Turtle, mosasaur & icthyosaur eumelaninvariesIf you have reviewed this paper, feel free to send cmts to Bob@rsr.orgnature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7489/full/nature12899.html
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462013Signature of blood in mosquito gut46MYGreenwalt, D., et al, Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins. PNAS Oct. 14pnas.org/content/early/2013/10/08/1310885110.abstractsmithsonianscience.org/2013/10/blood-molecules-preserved-for-millions-of-years-in-abdomen-of-fossil-mosquito/?utm_medium=referral&utm_source=pulsenews
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452013Biological material in crinoids350MY
O'Malley, et al, Taxon-specific organic molecules, Geology 41(3):347-350
geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2013/01/17/G33792.1.abstract
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442012Cuttlefish ink sac160MYGlass, Wilby, Simon, et al, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/109/26/10218.abstract?sid=b46190e9-09ce-4c52-ac78-de00da96d75bweb.archive.org/web/20120525074302/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/05/120521-squid-cuttlefish-ink-sacs-fossils-melanin-science-simon/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+ng/News/News_Main+(National+Geographic+News+-+Main)&utm_content=Google+Reader
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432012Jurassic turtle osteocytes145MY+Cadena E., Schweitzer MH. Bone, Osteocytes preservation from the Jurassicthebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282%2812%2900865-4/abstract?refuid=S8756-3282%2812%2901318-X&refissn=8756-3282
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422011Chitin and chitin-associated protein417MYCody, G.D. et al, Geology, 39(3):255-258geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/39/3/255.abstract
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412011Lizard tail skin breakdown products40MYEdwards, N. P. et al, Proc Royal Soc B, onlinerspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/03/12/rspb.2011.0135.full
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402011Type l Collagen, T.rex and hadrosaur68MYSan Antonio, J.D. et al, PLoS ONE, 6(6):e20381plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020381
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392011Bird feather pigment120MYWogelius, R.A. et al, Science, onlinesciencemag.org/content/333/6049/1622
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382010Sinosauropteryx melanosomes125MYZhang, F. et al, Nature, 463:1075-1078nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/nature08740.html
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372010Psittacosaurus skin color125MYLingham-Soliar, T.G. and Plodowski, Naturwissenschaften, 97:479-486springerlink.com/content/3wnn717728x963n2/(Psittacosaurus sample analyzed also in Proc. Royal Soc. B, 275:775-780)rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/775.abstract
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352010Mammal hair in amber100MYVullo, R., Naturwissenschaften, 97(7):683-687adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NW.....97..683V
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342010Archaeopteryx original elements150MYBergmann, U., PNAS, 107(20):9060-9065pnas.org/content/107/20/9060
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332010Fossilized penguin melanosomes36MYClarke, J.A. 35 al, Science, 330:954-957sciencemag.org/content/330/6006/954.abstract
While the archaeopteryx melanomes (Nature, 2012) were accompanied by biomarkers, etc., these penguin organelles are not likewise reported and, while astounding, may be fully permineralized.
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322009Hadrosaur blood vessels80MYSchweitzer, M. et al, Science, 324(5927):626-631sciencemag.org/content/324/5927/626.abstract
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312009Purple Messel feather nanostructure40MYVinther, J.et al, Biology Letters, 6(1):128-131jakobvinther.com/Biol.%20Lett.-2010-Vinther-128-31.pdf
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302009Hadrosaur skin cell structures66MYManning, P. et al, Proc. Royal Soc. B, 276:3429-3437rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1672/3429.full
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292009Salamander muscle, whole18MYMcNamara, M. et al, Proc. Royal Soc. B, 277(1680):423-427rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1680/423.full
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282008Feather melanocytes100MYVinther, J. et al, Biology Letters, 6(1):128-131jakobvinther.com/Biol.%20Lett.-2010-Vinther-128-31.pdf
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272008Osteocyte (bone cells)5MYBell LS, et al, Mineralized osteocyte: a living fossil. Am J Phys 137:449-56ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615594
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262007T. rex collagen68MYSchweitzer, et al., Science, 316(5822):277-280sciencemag.org/content/316/5822/277.short
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252006Frog bone marrow10MYMcNamara, et al., Geology, 34(8):641-644geology.gsapubs.org/content/34/8/641?ijkey=c5a35e6b7bf0fd6f515be330120599b4321e122e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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242005T. rex soft tissue68MYSchweitzer, et al., Science, 307(5717):1952-1955sciencemag.org/content/307/5717/1952.abstract
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232004Isolated non-spore-forming bacteria living in amber 120MYGreenblatt, et al., Microbial Ecology, 48(1):120-127digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bio_fac/355/
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222003Skin fibers130MYE. Frey et al., Paleobiology of Pterosaurs. UK: Geological Society Pub. 217geolsoc.org.uk/SP217
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212002Metasequoia cellulose (with no O18)34-56MYJahren & Sternberg, Johns Hopkins & U of Miami, Geological Soc of Americageosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/12/1/pdf/i1052-5173-12-1-4.pdf
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202001T. rex collagen SEM scans65MYArmitage, Creation Research Society Quarterly, 38(2):61-66creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/38/38_2/Trex.htm
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191999Live bacteria from halite [salt] deposit250MYVreeland, et al., Amer. Soc. For Microbiology, 99th General Mtg.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16127644
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181999Live bacteria from separate rock salts250MYStan-Lotter, et al., Microbiology, 145(12):3565-3574mic.sgmjournals.org/content/145/12/3565
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171999Keratin in Madagascar Cretaceous bird65MYSchweitzer, et al., Jour. Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(4):712-722tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.1999.10011183
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161997Heme (iron compound) in T. rex bone67MYSchweitzer, et al., PNAS, 94(12):6291-6296pnas.org/content/94/12/6291.abstract
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151995Live bacteria spores from amber25-40MYCano and Borucki, Science, 268(5213):1060-1064sciencemag.org/content/268/5213/1060.abstract
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141994Unaltered amino acids in amber insects130MYBada, et al., Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta, 58(14):3131-3135sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703794901856
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131993Organic material in dinosaur specimens65MY+Ostrom, P.H. et al, Geology, Assessment of tropic structure of Creataceous...geology.gsapubs.org/content/21/6/491.abstract
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121993Chloroplast tree gene partly sequenced35-40MYPoinar, H.N. et al, Nature correspondence, 363(6431):677nature.com/nature/journal/v363/n6431/abs/363677a0.html
Dominican amber, extinct Hymenaea protera Poinar, 346-base-pair segment
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111992Osteocalcin in a seismosaur bone150MYMuyzer, et al., Geology, 20:871-874bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1994-January/000854.html
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101987Seven hadrosaurs' unfossilized bones80MYDavies K. Duck-billed dinosaurs from the north slope of Alaska, J of Paleont.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.toriah.org%2Farticles%2FDavies-1987.PDF&ei=YRO8UJWCKerB2QXzqYGQBA&usg=AFQjCNHTYmfYUc8c_10tOUoZBzvLbPcqIw&sig2=ixQ-LPvYwjbb-mUQvXGNBA&cad=rja
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91985Metabolic pathways of dinosaur bones80MYPawlicki R. Metabolic pathways of fossils. Part V. Histochem Cytochemncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4065383See previous parts also, especially Parts 3 & 4.
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81974Dinosaur proteins and polysaccharides70MYDeJong, E. W., et al, Nature, Differentiation of lacunae and canaliculi...nature.com/nature/journal/v252/n5478/abs/252063a0.html
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71973????Westbroek, P., et al, Calcified Tissue Research, 12:227–238springerlink.com/content/v6305k8k5g324668/
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61972The biochemistry of animal fossils??Wyckoff, R. W. G., Scientechnica Ltd, Bristolworldcat.org/title/biochemistry-of-animal-fossils/oclc/473555965
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51972Biological material in saltwater clam shell??Crenshaw, M. A., Biomineralization Research Reports, 6:6–11books.google.com/books?id=DFTyAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&dq=%22Biomineralization+research+reports%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nyp_UfTGFubp2QWA7IHoCA&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQTitle: "The soluble matrix of Mercenaria mercenaria shell"trove.nla.gov.au/work/11289249?versionId=13234046
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41968Collagen from Megalosaurus egg shell166MYVoss-Foucart, Paleoproteins, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiologysciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010406X68909547
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31968Intact proteins from half of many bones 150MYMiller & Wyckoff, Proteins in Dinosaur Bones, Proc. Nat'l Acad. of Sciencespnas.org/content/60/1/176.full.pdf
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21966Collagen & vessels in dinosaur bone200MYPawlicki R., et al, Cells, collagen fibrils and vessels in dinosaur bone, Naturenature.com/nature/journal/v211/n5049/abs/211655a0.html
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11964????Kabat, E. A. et al, Experimental Immunochemistry 2nd ed., pp. 85–90books.google.com/books?id=FcWOMgEACAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=editions:UOM39015003223339
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* Terminology: In the age of sequencing endogenous dinosaur proteins, etc., the customary use of "soft tissue" without further clarification to
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describe permineralized remains should be discontinued. As of 2016, the unqualified phrase "soft tissue" should refer to actual biological material
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with "permineralized soft tissue" or its equivalent being used when no endogenous material is being indicated.
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* For ICR's Original 2011 List: of soft tissue fossils, click on the second tab below.
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* Bill Nye and Neil deGrasse Tyson: both claimed recently that creationism makes no predictions. But see two of our RSR dino predictions, alreadyrsr.org/creation-science-predictions#soft
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confirmed, at rsr.org/predictions#soft, by allegedly 530 million-year-old Precambrian soft tissue and sost tissue found in 6 of 8 dino bones!
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* Corrections: Please email suggested additions, corrections, fill-in-the-blanks, clarifications, and opinion on reconsiderations to Bob@rsr.org.
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* Reconsideration: The 2010 penguin feathers paper reports fossilized 'organelles' (for definition, listen to rsr.org/organelles). Comment: Bob@rsr.org.
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* Apparently Discredited Claims: (list begun 20150729)Claimed as discredited, for example, in:
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1993Sequenced weevil DNA130MYCano, et al, Amplification and sequencing of DNA, Naturehttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v363/n6429/abs/363536a0.htmlhttp://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/06/16/scrappy-fossils-yield-possible-dinosaur-blood-cells/
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Preliminary Reports Published Elsewhere
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398/10/2009Live yeast in amber45MYWired Sciencewired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/17-08/ff_primordial_yeast?currentPage=all
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409/27/2010Lobster shell"millions"Keighley Newskeighleynews.co.uk/news/8409907.Fossil_find_rocks_museum___s_boffins/
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'93-'16Original dinosaur biological material65-150MYScience, J Vert Pal, J Ap Genet, Proc R Soc, PLoS One, PNAS, Nature, etc.DinosaurSoftTissue.com#research
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Note: In 2017 RSR plans to integrate each of the dinosaur soft tissue papers into the above list.
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Original Fossil Biomaterial Lit
ICR's 2011 List