Carbon Brief's UK election grid
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Brexit framingAfter we have left the European Union, we will form our energy policy based not on the way energy is generated but on the ends we desire – reliable and affordable energy, seizing the industrial opportunity that new technology presents and meeting our global commitments on climate change…we will improve our environment as we leave the European Union and take control of our environmental legislation again… Protections given to consumers and the environment by EU law will continue to be available in UK law at the point at which we leave the EU.The DUP’s decision to support leaving the European Union was based on principle and practicality. The DUP had opposed joining in the first place, had been consistent in its scepticism throughout our membership and fully supported the question of membership being put to the people of the United Kingdom. This was the demonstration of our commitment to principle.… During the negotiations the DUP wants to see a focus on the following priorities and objectives [3 of 30]: local input into new UK agriculture and fisheries policies which can offer sustainability and new growth opportunities; energy market stability; continued participation in funding programmes that have been proven to be of benefit and are open to non-EU members e.g. research funding.
Ensure that existing environmental laws are retained, or enhanced, no matter our future relationship with the European Union.Ensure there is no detrimental change to…environmental protections as a result of Brexit.The European Union has created the highest environmental standards in the world. We have a duty to future generations to protect our environment and tackle climate change. Liberal Democrats will ensure that everything is done to maintain those high standards in UK law, including the closest possible co-operation on climate and energy policy...When the terms of our future relationship with the EU have been negotiated...we will put that deal to a vote of the British people in a referendum, with the alternative option of staying in the EU on the ballot paper.We will ensure that we build upon the standards set by the EU which have protected our environment.
Internal energy marketNo mentionNo mentionNo mentionCurrently the UK buys and sells energy tariff free from Europe, an arrangement which saves families and businesses money and helps balance the power grid. As part of the Brexit negotiations Labour will prioritise maintaining access to the internal energy market.No mentionNo mention
EuratomNo mentionNo mentionNo mentionLabour will also retain access to Euratom, to allow continued trade of fissile material, with access and collaboration over research vital to our nuclear industry.We will maintain membership of Euratom, ensuring continued nuclear co-operation, research funding, and access to nuclear fuels.No mention
Foreign policyConservatives will deliver…global leadership on development, backed by spending 0.7 per cent of our national income with new rules to spend it more effectively.No mentionWe would clearly outline how the UK would meet our domestic and international obligations – ending the current policy uncertainty - whilst making climate change a major foreign policy priority.[The US-UK] special relationship is based on shared values. When the current Trump administration chooses to ignore them, whether by discriminating on the basis of religtion or breaking its climate change commitments, we will not be afraid to disagree.We will champion the rules-based international order, which provides a strong basis for multilateral action to address the world’s most pernicious problems, including...climate change... We will provide greater resources for international environmental co-operation, particularly on climate change and on actions to tackle illegal and unsustainable trade in timber, wildlife, ivory and fish. We wilI introduce Sustainable Development Goals audits of new trade, investment and development deals, reviewing the impact of the deal on people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership.No mention
International aidWe will maintain the commitment to spend 0.7 per cent of our gross national income on assistance to developing nations and international emergencies. We will continue to use our aid budget in alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals…[But] we do not believe that international definitions of development assistance always help in determining how money should be spent, on whom and for what purpose. So we will work with like-minded countries to change the rules so that they are updated and better reflect the breadth of our assistance around the world. If that does not work, we will change the law to allow us to use a better definition of development spending, while continuing to meet our 0.7 per cent target.No mentionLabour has a proud record on international development. We will continue to spend 0.7 per cent of gross national income on oɝcial development assistance, and develop a targeted development agenda based on the principles of redistribution, social justice, women’s rights and poverty reduction.We Will: Maintain our commitment to spend 0.7% of UK gross national income on overseas development assistance, in line with the OECD definition, which we legislated for in the last parliament…[Our priorities for the next parliament include] Spending 0.7% of gross national income on aid: reducing poverty, defending human rights, protecting the environment and preventing violent conflict worldwide.We will maintain the 0.7% of GDP commitment on international aid and fight for the Dubs amendment, allowing vulnerable refugee children into the UK, to be upheld.
Climate change framingWe will continue to take a lead in global action against climate change, as the government demonstrated by ratifying the Paris Agreement…[The UK is] at the forefront of action against global climate change.With 2016 the hottest year on record, and a climate-denier in the White House, the need for bold and dynamic action on climate change has never been more urgent…Even if we cut global emissions to zero today, the effects of climate change will be felt for generations.We will reclaim Britain's leading role in tackling climate change, working hard to preserve the Paris Agreement and deliver on international commitments to reduce emissions while mitigating the impacts of climate change on developing countries.With the election of Donald Trump in the US and Britain’s vote to leave the EU, the tides of isolationism and populism could halt or even reverse the progress [on climate change] that has been made...To ensure [our policies] are implemented, and to put the protection of the environment at the heart of policies across all areas of government, we will establish a Cabinet Committee on Sustainability, chaired by a cabinet minister, establish an Office for Environmental Responsibility to scrutinise the government’s efforts to meet its environmental targets, and place a responsibility on every government agency to account for its contribution towards meeting climate targets in everything it does.
The British government is neglecting its international duty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, endangering our children’s future. As we leave the EU there is a risk that this threat will become greater.
Climate Change ActAn independent review into the Cost of Energy, which will be asked to make recommendations as to how we can ensure UK energy costs are as low as possible, while ensuring a reliable supply and allowing us to meet our 2050 carbon reduction objective…We were the first country to introduce a Climate Change Act, which Conservatives helped to frame, and we are halfway towards meeting our 2050 goal of reducing emissions by eighty per cent from 1990 levels.The Green Party will breathe life back into the Climate Change Act by investing in an energy system fit for the 21st century.A Labour Government will put us back on track to meet the targets in the Climate Change Act and the Paris Agreement.We will support the Paris agreement by ensuring the UK meets its own climate commitments and plays a leadership role in international efforts to combat climate change. We will pass five green laws: a Green Transport Act, a Zero-Carbon Britain Act, a Nature Act, a Green Buildings Act, and a Zero-Waste Act to incorporate existing EU environmental protections, maintain product standards such as for energy efficiency, and establish a framework for continual improvement.Plaid Cymru will introduce a new Climate Change Act, adopting ambitious but achievable greenhouse gas and pollution reduction targets for 2030 and 2050.
1.5C targetNo mentionWe will stand alongside those countries across the world fighting for climate justice, and push for concerted global action to limit warming to 1.5 degrees.No mentionNo mentionNo mention
Energy framingConservatives will deliver…Competitive and affordable energy costs following a new independent review into the cost of energy…We will ensure industry and businesses have access to reliable, cheap and clean power…We want to make sure that the cost of energy in Britain is internationally competitive, both for businesses and households…Our ambition is that the UK should have the lowest energy costs in Europe, both for households and businesses.Our energy system is broken and is not delivering what households and businesses need. Captured by corporate profit, ripping us off, and fuelled by dirty energy that belongs in the past, it is failing us both as customers and as citizens. We need to harness the dramatically falling costs of renewable energy and seize the opportunity to both tackle climate change and take back control of our energy system.The UK energy system is outdated, expensive and polluting. Privatisation has failed to deliver an energy system that delivers for people, businesses or our environment.Liberal Democrats will expand renewable energy, reducing carbon emissions, cutting dependence on fossil fuel imports and generating more jobs and prosperity.Our environment is being eroded whilst our natural resources are being used for the benefit of others. Our energy bills are needlessly high despite us being an exporter of electricity and our housing stock is outdated and inefficient. If we carry on with business as usual, none of this will change. Wales needs Plaid Cymru to make Wales greener.
Energy billsOur ambition is that the UK should have the lowest energy costs in Europe, both for households and businesses. We will therefore commission an independent review into the Cost of Energy, which will be asked to make recommendations as to how we can ensure UK energy costs are as low as possible, while ensuring a reliable supply and allowing us to meet our 2050 carbon reduction objective…We will introduce a safeguard tariff cap that will extend the price protection currently in place for some vulnerable customers to more customers on the poorest value tariffs.Introduce progressive energy tariffs so that small consumers pay less per unit than large ones, special needs are recognised, people are not cut off when they can’t afford to pay, and nobody is forced to have pre-payment meters.Introduce an immediate emergency price cap to ensure that the average dual fuel household energy bill remains below £1,000 per year, while we transition to a fairer system for bill payers.Liberal Democrats will reduce energy bills permanently by improving home insulation and encouraging small-scale, community and local-authority renewable schemes. We will withdraw eligibility for the Winter Fuel Payment from pensioners who pay tax at the higher rate (40%). We will create a Welsh energy company, to use profit from Welsh resources to cut the cost of energy for Welsh consumers and shifting to decentralised and distributed networks. ... We believe it is necessary to introduce a fuel duty regulator to stop rising fuel costs.
Energy efficiencyBecause for British companies, an energy-efficient business is a more competitive business, we will establish an industrial energy efficiency scheme to help large companies install measures to cut their energy use and their bills…We will help [individuals] to save energy. An energy efficient home is a more affordable and healthy home. We will improve the energy efficiency of existing homes, especially for the least well off, by committing to upgrading all fuel poor homes to EPC Band C by 2030.Embark upon a national programme of insulation and retrofitting to make every home warm – bringing two million people out of fuel poverty, insulating nine million homes, and creating hundreds of thousands of jobs across the UK.Labour will insulate four million homes as an infrastructure priority…This will cut emissions, improve health, save on bills and reduce fuel poverty and winter deaths. Homeowners will be offered interest-free loans to improve their property. For renters, Labour will improve on existing Landlord Energy Efficiency regulations and re-establish the Landlord Energy Saving Allowance to encourage the uptake of efficiency measures.We will make saving energy a top infrastructure priority, slashing energy bills and carbon emissions, creating thousands of jobs and helping end the fuel poverty crisis once and for all. We will pass a new Green Buildings Act to set new energy-efficiency targets, including a long-term ambition for every home in England to reach at least an energy rating of Band C by 2035; ensure that at least four million homes are made highly energy efficient (Band C) by 2022, with priority given to fuel-poor households...We will ensure that half a million affordable, energy-efficient homes are built by the end of the parliament.Plaid Cymru will roll out a nationwide scheme to make our housing stock more energy efficient. We will secure compensation for those who have suffered from badly installed, government- backed cavity wall insulation.
CoalShale is cleaner than coal.[We will] bring forward the coal phase-out date to 2023 (at the latest).No mentionNo mentionNo mention
FrackingThe discovery and extraction of shale gas in the United States has been a revolution. Gas prices have fallen, driving growth in the American economy and pushing down prices for consumers. The US has become less reliant on imported foreign energy and is more secure as a result. And because shale is cleaner than coal, it can also help reduce carbon emissions. We believe that shale energy has the potential to do the same thing in Britain, and could play a crucial role in rebalancing our economy. We will therefore develop the shale industry in Britain. We will only be able to do so if we maintain public confidence in the process, if we uphold our rigorous environmental protections, and if we ensure the proceeds of the wealth generated by shale energy are shared with the communities affected. We will legislate to change planning law for shale applications. Non-fracking drilling will be treated as permitted development, expert planning functions will be established to support local councils, and, when necessary, major shale planning decisions will be made the responsibility of the National Planning Regime. We will set up a new Shale Environmental Regulator, which will assume the relevant functions of the Health and Safety Executive, the Environment Agency and the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. This will provide clear governance and accountability, become a source of expertise, and allow decisions to be made fairly but swiftly. Finally, we will change the proposed Shale Wealth Fund so a greater percentage of the tax revenues from shale gas directly benefit the communities that host the extraction sites. Where communities decide that it is right for them, we will allow payments to be made directly to local people themselves. A significant share of the remaining tax revenues will be invested for the benefit of the country at large.We will introduce a ban on fracking.Labour will ban fracking because it would lock us into an energy infrastructure based on fossil fuels, long after the point in 2030 when the Committee on Climate Change says gas in the UK must sharply decline…[The Conservatives] have allowed fracking in national parks.We will oppose ‘fracking’ because of its adverse impact on climate change, the energy mix, and the local environment.No mention
NuclearWe have already strengthened ministerial scrutiny and control in respect of civil nuclear power.End the reckless gamble with nuclear power – we will cancel the contracts for Hinkley Point C (saving £37bn), and scrap plans for all new nuclear power stations.The UK has the world's oldest nuclear industry, and nuclear will continue to be part of the UK energy supply. We will support further nuclear projects and protect nuclear workers' jobs and pensions. There are considerable opportunities for nuclear power and decommissioning both internationally and domestically.We will accept that new nuclear power stations can play a role in electricity supply provided concerns about safety, disposal of waste and cost are adequately addressed, new technology is incorporated, and there is no public subsidy for new build.No mention
RenewablesWe want to see a diverse range of sources for Britain’s energy production, because a diverse energy economy is the best way to stimulate innovation, and also to ensure that we are getting the right generation in the right place. For instance, while we do not believe that more large-scale onshore wind power is right for England, we will maintain our position as a global leader in offshore wind and support the development of wind projects in the remote islands of Scotland, where they will directly benefit local communities…[We will] explore ways to harness Welsh natural resources for the generation of power.End the effective ban on onshore wind – the cheapest form of new electricity generation – and introducing new support for onshore wind and solar-photovoltaics; scaling up investment in offshore wind and marine renewables.Ensure that 60% of the UK's energy comes from zero-carbon or renewable sources by 2030…Take energy back into public ownership to deliver renewable energy…We will expand renewable energy, aiming to generate 60% of electricity from renewables by 2030, restoring government support for solar PV and onshore wind in appropriate locations (helping meet climate targets at least cost) and building more electricity interconnectors to underpin this higher reliance on renewables.Wales [can be] self-sufficient in electricity from renewables and powering ahead with world-leading tidal energy technology... Plaid Cymru MPs, along with representatives in the Welsh Assembly, have spearheaded campaigns for 100% of our electricity to be generated by renewables by 2035.
Energy investmentOur ambition is that the UK should have the lowest energy costs in Europe, both for households and businesses. So as we upgrade our energy infrastructure, we will do it in an affordable way, consistent with that ambition.We will ensure that all new investment in energy is directed towards clean, renewable energy, and a smarter, networked grid, with battery-storage, demand-side measures, and interconnection. This would be detailed in a comprehensive Clean Energy Plan.Invest £250bn over ten years in upgrading our economy…We will transform our energy systems, investing in new, state-of-the-art low-carbon gas and renewable electricity production.Liberal Democrats will...commit to a responsible and realistic £100bn package of additional infrastructure investment. This will prioritise...additional funding to bring more private investment into renewable energy... We will support investment in cutting-edge technologies including energy storage, smart grid technology, hydrogen technologies, offshore wind, and tidal power (including giving the go-ahead for the Swansea Bay tidal lagoon), and investing heavily in research and development.[...] transfer responsibility over Welsh energy generation and natural resources to the National Assembly.
Community energyNo mention We will require grid operators to give priority access to community energy projects, and pioneer a new Community Energy Tool Kit to empower local communities to create energy and municipal heating projects in every town and city.Supporting the creation of publicly owned, locally accountable energy companies and co-operatives to rival existing private energy suppliers, with at least one if every region.We will expand community energy schemes, encourage councils to develop community energy-saving projects and local electricity generation, and promote city-scale demonstration projects in electric vehicles and clean energy.We will create a Welsh energy company, to use profit from Welsh resources to cut the cost of energy for Welsh consumers and shifting to decentralised and distributed networks.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS)No mentionNo mentionEmerging technologies such as carbon capture and storage will help to smooth the transition to cleaner fuels and will help to protect existing jobs as part of the future energy mix.We will support an ambitious carbon capture and storage programme, which is essential for delivering clean industrial growth.No mention
HeatingNo mentionA comprehensive plan to decarbonise heat, including pilot residential and commercial projects.[40% of UK heat to be zero-carbon or renewable by 2030]No mentionNo mention
Zero-carbon homesWe will…review [energy efficiency] requirements on new homes.We will ensure that all new homes are built to zero-carbon standards by 2020.We will consult on …modern standards for building 'zero carbon homes'.We will restore the zero-carbon standard for new homes which was set by Liberal Democrats in government and since abandoned by the Conservatives, increasing the standard steadily and extending it to non-domestic buildings by 2022...We will pass a Zero-Carbon Britain Act to set new legally binding targets to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2040 and to zero by 2050...We will create at least 10 new garden cities in England, providing tens of thousands of high-quality, zero-carbon homes, with gardens and shared green space, jobs, schools and public transport.No mention
Fossil fuelsWe will continue to support the [North Sea oil and gas] industry and build on the unprecedented support already provided to the oil and gas sector…There are very significant reserves still in the North Sea.Keep fossil fuels where they belong: in the ground.Fracking…would lock us into an energy infrastructure based on fossil fuels.We will provide assistance to areas heavily dependent on fossil fuel industries, such as the north-east of Scotland, to diversify away from these industries.We are far too reliant on fossil fuels, that are becoming scarcer, guaranteeing rising energy bills for households.
Industrial strategyWe will develop our ambitious modern industrial strategy to get the economy working for everyone, across the whole of our nation…We will spend more on research and development, to turn brilliant discoveries into practical products and transform the world’s industries – such as the batteries that will power a new generation of clean, efficient, electric vehicles…A successful industrial strategy requires competitive and affordable energy costs.No mentionLabour will bring forward an integrated trade and industrial strategy that boosts exports, investment and decent jobs in Britain…Labour will position the UK at the forefront of the development, manufacture and use of ultra low emission vehicles, supporting the creation of clean modes of transport through investment in low emission vehicles.We will build on the Coalition’s industrial strategy, working with sectors which are critical to Britain’s ability to trade internationally, creating more ‘catapult’ innovation and technology centres and backing private investment in particular in green innovation.No mention
Green economyWe will spend more on research and development, to turn brilliant discoveries into practical products and transform the world’s industries – such as the batteries that will power a new generation of clean, efficient, electric vehicles.The UK must lead the world in building a green economy and investing in a viable future - one that respects and nurtures the natural systems on which we depend.Building a clean economy of the future is the most important thing we must do for our children, our grandchildren and future generations…Renewable energy projects…can help create manufacturing and energy jobs.We will work to support growth now and put in place a sustainable economy that will create growth for the future – an economy that works for the long term: prosperous, green, open and fair…We will reform fiduciary duty and company purpose rules to ensure that other considerations, such as…environmental standards…can be fully included in decisions made by directors and fund managers...We will reform the Regulatory Policy Committee to remove unnecessary regulation, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and support new markets and investment, particularly in low-carbon and resource-efficient innovation...We will develop a national skills strategy for key sectors, including low-carbon technologies, to help match skills and people.No mention
North SeaOther industries, like the oil and gas sector, are transforming. The North Sea has provided more than £300 billion in tax revenue to the UK economy and supports thousands of highly-skilled jobs across Britain. We will ensure that the sector continues to play a critical role in our economy and domestic energy supply, supporting further investment in the UK’s natural resources. We will continue to support the industry and build on the unprecedented support already provided to the oil and gas sector. While there are very significant reserves still in the North Sea, it is expected to be the first major oil and gas basin in the world to decommission fully, and we will take advantage of that to support the development of a world-leading decommissioning industry. We will work with the industry to create a multi-use yard and the UK’s first ultra-deep water port to support this industry.[We will] phase-out the £6bn-a-year fossil fuel subsidies…divest public funds from the fossil fuel industry, and ensure a just transition for those communities dependent on fossil fuel jobs.To safeguard the offshore oil and gas industry, we will provide a strategy focused on protecting vital North Sea assets, and the jobs and skills that depend on them.We will provide assistance to areas heavily dependent on fossil fuel industries, such as the north-east of Scotland, to diversify away from these industries.No mention
Investment BankWhen we leave the European Union, we will fund the British Business Bank with the repatriated funds from the European Investment Fund.Create a new Green Investment and Innovation Centre with borrowing powers to help create and finance the transition to a zero-carbon economy. This would replace the UK Green Investment Bank – a victim of reckless Conservative ideology – and create a government owned hub for innovation and investment in our low-carbon economy.The National Investment Bank will fill existing gaps in lending by private banks…[Its 'missions' will include a target to] ensure that 60% of the UK's energy comes from zero-carbon or renewable sources by 2030.The Conservatives seem determined to take Britain back to the 1980s, when the UK was the ‘dirty man of Europe’. They have cut support for renewable energy and home insulation, sold off the Green Investment Bank and failed to control air pollution...We will set up a British Housing and Infrastructure Development Bank to mobilise investment into the low-carbon and sustainable infrastructure the UK needs to remain competitive.No mention
TransportOur ambition is for Britain to lead the world in electric vehicle technology and use. We want almost every car and van to be zero-emission by 2050 – and will invest £600 million by 2020 to help achieve it. We will invest in more low-emission buses, as well as supporting audio-visual displays for bus passengers and community minibuses for rural areas poorly served by public transport…We will focus on creating extra capacity on the railways…We will continue to support local authorities to expand cycle networks and upgrade facilities for cyclists at railway stations.Significant investment in vehicle electrification and charging infrastructure…Promote cycling and walking through a £2bn programme of investment in healthy, active transport.Labour will invest in a modern, integrated, accessible transport system that is reliable and affordable…Our plans…will encourage and enable people to get out of their cars, for better health and a cleaner environment…We reaffirm the commitments in the Cycling and Walking Investment Strategy.The Liberal Democrats will pass a Green Transport Act...and support the manufacture of low-emission and electric vehicles, generating jobs and exports...We will also reform vehicle taxation to encourage sales of electric and low-emission vehicles and develop electric vehicle infrastructure including universal charging points. We will...promote city-scale demonstration projects in electric vehicles and clean energy...We will pursue the electrification of the rail network, improve stations, reopen smaller stations...We will shift more freight from road to rail...We will design towns and cities as safe and attractive walking spaces and implement the recommendations of the Get Britain Cycling report.Establish a national electric vehicle charging network...Our public transport system is not fit for purpose...We will introduce a £7.5 billion investment programme to fund vital infrastructure projects throughout Wales...Plaid Cymru wants to see a real Wales-wide transport system...We will also ensure that walking and cycling is integrated with bus and rail services.
HeathrowWe will continue our programme of strategic national investments, including High Speed 2, Northern Powerhouse Rail and the expansion of Heathrow Airport.No mentionLabour recognises the need for additional airport capacity in the South East. We welcome the work done by the Airports Commission, and we will guarantee that any airport expansion adheres to our tests that require noise issues to be addressed, air quality to be protected, the UK’s climate change obligations met and growth across the country supported.We will develop a strategic airports policy for the whole of the UK, taking full account of the impacts on climate change and local pollution. We remain opposed to any expansion of Heathrow, Stansted or Gatwick and any new airport in the Thames Estuary and will focus instead on improving existing regional airports such as Birmingham and Manchester. We will ensure no net increase in runways across the UK.No mention
Diesel vehiclesNo mentionRemove diesel cars from our roads – including an increase in Vehicle Excise Duty on new diesel vehicles, and a scrappage scheme.We will retrofit thousands of diesel buses in areas with the most severe air quality problems to Euro 6 standards.[The Liberal Democrat Air Quality Plan plan] will include a diesel scrappage scheme, and a ban on the sale of diesel cars and small vans in the UK by 2025; extending ultra-low-emission zones to 10 more towns and cities; all private hire vehicles and diesel buses licensed to operate in urban areas to run on ultra-low-emission or zero-emission fuels within five years.No mention
Electricity gridSmart grids will make the most efficient use of our electricity infrastructure and electric vehicles…We will ensure that smart meters will be offered to every household and business by
the end of 2020, giving people control over their energy bills that they have not had before.
No mentionRegain control of energy supply networks through the alteration of operator license conditions, and transition to a publicly owned, decentralised energy system…Legislating to permit publicly owned local companies to purchase the regional grid infrastructure, and to ensure that national and regional grid infrastructure is brought into public ownership over time.[Will build] more electricity interconnectors to underpin [a] higher reliance on renewables…We will support investment in cutting-edge technologies including energy storage [and] smart grid technology.Plaid Cymru will oppose the construction and use of pylons through National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, advocating underground or undersea cabling where possible.
AdaptationWe will deliver on our commitment to improve natural flood management, such as improving the quality of water courses to protect against soil erosion and damage to vulnerable habitats and communities…We will continue our £2.5 billion flood defence programme that will put in place protection for 300,000 existing homes by 2021.We would invest in a climate-proof future – for example, by building flood defences, investing in natural flood management, including restoring uplands, to make every community safe.Labour's national investment plans include coastal protections [and] better flood management.We will establish a £2bn flood-prevention fund focused on providing support for small community and council-led schemes to reduce upstream flooding, and the knock-on effects in downstream and coastal areas, in addition to improving flood defences, and introducing high standards for flood resilience for buildings and infrastructure in flood-risk areas.No mention
Tidal energy[We will] explore ways to harness Welsh natural resources for the generation of power.No mentionWe are committed to renewable energy projects, including tidal lagoons, which can help create manufacturing and energy jobs as well as contributing to climate change commitements. We will give the immediate go-ahead to the Swansea Bay tidal lagoon project.Increase energy generation from renewables including delivering tidal lagoons in Swansea Bay, Cardiff and Colwyn Bay. Wales [can be] self-sufficient in electricity from renewables and powering ahead with world-leading tidal energy technology.
BiomassNo mentionNo mentionNo mentionNo mentionNo mention