The Missing 400 and Beyond: the list of names below was originally compiled for “The Missing 400” project. Since its original publication in 2016, the list has grown to over 800 names and will continue to grow over time as a live document here:
*Note: The list of women is organized alphabetically by first name. Feel free to add or edit the information directly in the file. The moderators will consult the list from time to time to review information for formatting purposes and legibility. If you have any questions or comments, feel free to contact us by email:
Background: This list accompanies a multimedia project called “The Missing 400” that re-examines the institutional structures of sexism and historical roots of racism in architecture that have led to the systematic erasure of women from the design disciplines of the built environment. This multimedia project features a live diagram and booklet that maps out the names of over 800 women, whose lives—as designers, builders, writers, historians, photographers, philanthropists, and more—have shaped over 800 years of urban history.
Video link:
Online Booklet:
Printed copy of the booklet to be available on demand via
BirthDeathName (english)Name (Original Language)Place of BirthPlace of DeathKey MomentShort BioShort Descriptor
Source (other than Google/Wiki)
1936Ada Karmi-Melamedeעדה כרמי-מלמדTel Aviv, Israel1972She studied at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London from 1956 to 1959 and at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology from 1961 to 1962, being awarded her degree in 1963. She has taught extensively in the United States - first at Columbia and then subsequently at Yale and Penn. In 1986 she and her brother Ram Karmi won an international competition to design the Supreme Court of Israel compound, which opened in 1992. New York Times architecture critic Paul Goldberger wrote of the design, "the sharpness of the Mediterranean architectural tradition and the dignity of the law are here married with remarkable grace.architect
19212013Ada Louise Huxtable
New York NY, USA
New York NY, USA
1970First (female) architecture critic for The New York Times, a position she holds until 1982. She is lauded for redfining the role of the architecture critic and educating the public on architecture and urban environments. Pulitxer Prize winner architecture critic, historian
18151852Ada LovelaceLondon, EnglandLondon, England1842Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as the first computer programmer.Mathematician, Writer
1938Adèle Naudé SantosSouth Africa2009Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT, receives the AIA's Topaz Medallion. She is only the second woman to receive this award following Denise Scott Brown in 1996.architect, educator
1940Adriana HoffmannSantiago, ChileAdriana Hoffmann is a Chilean biologist and ecologist and the writer and co-author of several books on plants, medicinal plants and promoting native forests, together with identifying and classifying 106 new species of cactus. She founded the organization Defensores del Bosque Nativo (Defenders of the Native Forest). Hoffmann has served on the board of the Lahuen Foundation, a forest preservation organization that established El Cañi Sanctuary. She also played a leading role in the Chilean Science Society, Biology Society of Chile, Earth Foundation, International Union for Conservation of Nature, and the Association of Chilean Female Leaders. Hoffmann's efforts with Defensores del Bosque included developing environmental education programs for teachers. Hoffmann was appointed by President Ricardo Lagos to serve as Executive Secretary of the National Commission of the Environment (Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente, CONAMA, predecessor of the Ministry of the Environment) in March 2000. During her tenure she oversaw the creation of the national hiking trail network Sendero de Chile, improved the System of Environmental Impact Assessment (SEIA), and worked to implement environmental education programs and improve air quality in Santiago. During her tenure she encountered criticism from business interests for her environmentalist stances and from environmental groups for her perceived lack of influence within the administration. Following the controversial approval of petcoke for gas-fired generators over her objections, Hoffmann resigned in October 2001, stating that she no longer felt she was supported by Lagos or the Ministers. She returned to work with Defensores del Bosque and prepared for her eventual retirement to a beach home in Cachagua.
18991969Adrienne GórskaMoscow, RussiaFrance1924Was a Russian-born Polish architect who worked in the Modernist and Art Deco styles in Paris between the world wars. In 1919, Gorska emigrated together with her Polish family to Paris where she studied under Robert Mallet-Stevens at the École Spéciale d'Architecture in Montparnasse. Graduating in 1924, she became one of the few women of her times to have an architectural diploma. She designed an apartment and studio in Paris for her sister, the painter Tamara de Lempicka, which she fitted out with chrome-plated furniture. She then worked with a Madame Lipska on the well-received renovation of a farmhouse for the American Barbara Harrison. Gorska took up employment with the architectural firm Molinié et Nicod where she met Pierre de Montaut whom she married around 1934. They became known for the modern cinemas they designed for the Cinéac group. By 1932, Gorska was a full member of the influential French Union of Modern Artists. In 1937, she received a commission for the Polish pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne. After her sister Tamara left for the United States in the summer of 1939, Gorska and her husband left for Poland to design newsreel cinemas for Pathé Nathan but returned to France at the end of August just before the Nazi invasion of Poland.architect, industrial designer
18781966Agnes Magnell
Uddevalla, Sweden
Uppsala, Sweden
1894First woman accepted to the architecture program at the Royal Institute of Technology; was not allowed to graduate since she was accepted on exception; designed the water tower in Sala in 1903.architect
18981983Agnes Selkirk Clark
Janesville WI, USA
GuatemalaShe attended the Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture, 1915-1918, then worked in the Des Moines office of Pearse & Robinson as a drafter and planting supervisor, 1918-1919. In 1920 she moved to New York and worked for well-known landscape architect and teacher, Ellen Biddle Shipman for two years. After marrying architect Cameron Clark, she opened her own office at 101 Park Avenue in New York and continued her practice there until moving to Fairfield, Connecticut. Agnes was elected a fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 1952. Her work primarily includes residential commissions at estates in Santa Barbara, Phoenix, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. Of her documented commissions, 72% were executed in Fairfield or Greens Farms. In the 1960s, she and her husband retired and moved to the Caribbean and later, in 1969, to Guatemala, where she died in 1983.
1956Áine Brazil
Galway, Republic of Ireland
2006Structural Engineer, Vice Chair"man" of Thornton Tomasetti. 2006 Woman of the Year by WX, New York Women Executives in Real Estate, and Crain’s New York Business has named her one of “New York’s 100 Most Influential Women in Business.”engineer
18941949Aino Marsio-AaltoHelsinki, FinlandHelsinki, Finland1935Aino Maria Marsio-Aalto was a Finnish architect and designer.industrial designer, interior architect
18991994Alberta PfeifferRed Bud IL, USA
East Haddam CT, USA
1923Pfeiffer was one of the first women to study architecture at the University of Illinois--Urbana/Champaign where she graduated first in her class (1923). She was the first woman to win the American Institute of Architects School Medal. She began her 55 year career as an architect at the Chicago firm Tallmadge and Watson. After a year she returned to the University of Illinois for graduate work. In 1925, she moved to New York City where she worked with the Harrie T. Lindberg architectural firm until she set up practice in Hadlyme with her husband, Homer F. Pfeiffer, in the early 1930s. At her retirement in 1977 she had designed and/or renovated over 250 projects. She was a lifetime member of the Connecticut Society of Architects.architect
18821949Aleksandra EksterАлександра Александровна Экстер
Białystok, Poland
Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
Under the avant-guard umbrella, Ekster has been noted to be a suprematist and constructivist painter as well as a major influencer of the Art Deco movement. While not confined within a particular movement, Exter was one of the most experimental women of the avant-garde. Ekster absorbed from many sources and cultures in order to develop her own original style.
1980sAleksandra JaeschkePoland2008Aleksandra Jaeschke is an architect and an Assistant Professor of Architecture and Sustainable Design at The University of Texas at Austin. Born and raised in Poland, she holds a Doctor of Design degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and an AA Diploma from the Architectural Association in London. Aleksandra holds a professional license in Italy where she practiced at AION, an architectural firm she co-founded and co-directed with Andrea Di Stefano until her move to the U.S. in 2013. Most of her research and professional work as partner of AION focused on the integrative approach to design of material organizations, performative potential of material systems, material form-finding, and the role of digital design tools in the integration of environmentally-driven agendas.Architect
1971Alessandra CianchettaItaly?Based in Paris, she is a founding partner and director of AWP Paris. Her achievements include a masterplan for developing an area of 161 hectares (400 acres) in Paris's La Défense business district.
?Alessandra PonteItaly?2009Alessandra Ponte is a professor at the École d’architecture, Université de Montréal, where she teaches history and theory of architecture and landscape. She has also taught at Pratt Institute, Princeton University, Cornell University, the Istituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia, and ETH (Zurich). Since 2009, she has been responsible for the conception and organization of the Phyllis Lambert Seminar, annual colloquia on contemporary architectural topics.educator, historian, architect
18951967Alexandra BiriukovaАлександра Бирюкова
Vladivostok, Russia
Toronto ON, Canada
1931Was a Canadian architect and nurse. She is known for being the first woman in the Ontario Association of Architects and for her design of Lawren Harris's residence. She was the second woman to register as an architect in Canada.architect
19122010Alexandra Paschalidou-MoretiΑλεξάνδρα Πασχαλίδου-ΜωρέττηIstanbul, TurkeyFilothei, Greece1939As a student, at Zappeio Girls School in Istanbul, she was influenced by an exceptionally fertile cultural environment with notable works of art which encouraged her to develop an aesthetic and artistic foundation. From a very early age Alexandra Paschalidou-Moreti began to paint and draw. When she moved to Athens she continued her studies at the First Girls Gymnasium. In 1932, she decided to attend university and began her studies in architecture at the National Technical University. In 1936 she became the seventh woman in Greece to succeed in becoming an architect. In 1938, Alexandra Paschalidou-Moreti organized the Greek Pavilion at the International Exhibition of Berlin. In 1939 she married her former fellow-student, Dimitris Moretis, who was a mathematician and poet apart from architect. In 1939, the Ministry of Press and Tourism assigned to Alexandra Paschalidou-Moreti and Dimitris Moretis the design of the Greek Pavilion for the New York World’s Fair. During the Axis Occupation of Greece Alexandra Paschalidou-Moreti took part in the National Greek Resistance. At the same time, she researched and wrote studies on the National and International Exhibitions using historical documents from the Ministry of National Economy. In 1951, she worked as an architect for the General Secretariat of Tourism to facilitate and organize the reconstruction of the devastated facilities of the National Exhibition Center of Thessaloniki. In the same capacity, she visited many places in Greece where she documented and photographed destruction from the War and the German occupation. In addition Paschalidou-Moreti and Dimitris Moretis undertook studies and designed touristic installations for a variety of purposes such as hotels, hostels, hiking stations, mountain huts and spa facilities. From 1937 to 1969, the Greek government asked Dimitris and Alexandra to organize, study and direct the construction of 135 Greek Pavilions for National and International exhibitions, on four continents, in 21 countries and in 40 cities around the world. In 1969, during the Junta Paschalidou-Moreti resigned. From 1970 to 1976 she designed and built churches, blocks of flats, athletic centers and shops. Furthermore, she completed urban planning studies for housing (Malesina). She showed particular interest in studying the architecture of the islands of Kefalonia, Siros, Tinos, Naxos and Paros. There are two volumes of this project, containing drawings, texts and photographs at the library of the Technical Chamber of Greece. In 1976 Paschalidou-Moreti retired.architect, photographer
?Alexia León AngellPeru?2014She won the first place for Peru's National Archeology Museum (MUNA) and is known for her Casa Vertical project which was selected for a MCHAP award.Architect
18901963Alice Charlotte Malhiot
Sault Ste. Marie ON, Canada
Edmonton AB, Canada
1910Unable to follow her father into frontier engineering because no program would admit a woman, Alice Charlotte Mailhot earned a diploma in architecture at the Rhode Island School of Design in 1910, becoming the first known Canadian woman to graduate with a degree in the profession. She worked as a draftsman for her father, who was laying out municipalities and irrigation ditches from a home base in Calgary. But it was after her husband died that Alice Ross fully exploited her architecture expertise. Already in her late 50s, she worked first with George Prudham, plotting lots and designing homes for Edmonton’s new Strathearn neighbourhood. Then she took another year of study at Rhode Island and returned to launch Ross Home Plans. Building on a then-novel concept discovered while away, she developed an array of home designs that clients could customize to suit their needs. She also worked with contractors on larger projects such as Miller Motors and a hall for the Windsor Park community.architect
18631930Alice Constance AustinChicago IL, USA1935She was an architect, city planner, radical feminist, socialist, and designer. Her most famous proposal at Llano del Rio, though never fully realized, greatly impacted later city designs and architectural planning. In 1935, Austin published her book The Next Step; How to Plan for Beauty, Comfort, and Peace with Great Savings Effected by the Reduction of Waste, discussing socialism, difficulties with the Llano del Rio project, and some of her other ideas on planning. Her feminist efforts in the history of city planning have gone so far as to influence the development of modern-day issues such as minimum wage, social security, low cost housing, welfare, and universal healthcare.architect, planner, theorist
18621936Alice E. Johnson
Fremont OH, USA
Fremont OH, USA
1912Was an architect from Ohio, one of the first women architects in that state. Trained by her father, she inherited his practice when he died in 1901 and ran it successfully for the next thirty years.architect
18641933Alice Hands (& Mary Gannon)1894Alice Hands and Mary Gannon formed the first female architectural partnership, taking head-on issues of social housing and social justice for women.architect
19112000Alice Recknagel Ireys
Brooklyn NY, USA
Brooklyn NY, USA
1947Was one of the most prominent landscape architectsof the second half of the 20th century, with more than 1,000 public and private projects to her name. Notable clients included the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the New York Botanical Garden, the Clark Botanic Garden, the Abigail Adams Smith Museum, and the Brooklyn Museum.landscape architect, author | Thaïsa Way, "Ch. 7 American Landscape Architecture at Mid-Century" in Women. Modernity and Landscape Architecure, ed. Sonja Duempelmann and John Beardsley
?Alison B. HirschAlison B. Hirsch, MS (Historic Preservation), MLA, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture + Urbanism at the University of Southern California. She is a landscape historian, theorist and designer whose written scholarship and design-research focus on the spatial politics and embodied dimensions of landscape architecture. She is co-founder of foreground design agency, a transdisciplinary practice operating between the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, urbanism, and the visual arts. Recipient of numerous recognitions, including prize-winners of the Pruitt Igoe Now competition, foreground provides Alison a platform to test her research in applied action.
1962Alison Brooks
Toronto ON, Canada
2013principal of Alison Brooks Architects, receives the Architects' Journal Woman Architect of the Year Award.architect
19281993Alison Smithson
Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England
London, England1969along with her husband Peter, were major proponents of the New Brutalist movement. Their projects include the Huntstanton School and Robin Hood Gardens Housing.architect, theorist
?Alla G. VronskayaDoctor of Philosophy in the History, Theory and Criticism of Art and Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Architecture, 2014. Candidate of Arts and Sciences in Art History, State Institute of Art Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2007. Specialist in Philosophy, Moscow State University, Philosophy Department, 2004. Postdoctoral Fellow, Chair Prof. Philip Ursprung, ETH Zurich, September 2014-present. Research Fellow, Department of Classical Western Art, State Institute of Art Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2006 –present
?Allison Williams2010AECOM, Perkins + Will, SOMarchitect
18991944Alma Siedhoff-Buscher
Kreuztal, Germany
Buchschlag, Germany
Siedhoff-Buscher was one of the Bauhaus’s few women to switch from the weaving workshop to the male-dominated wood-sculpture department. There, she invented a number of successful toy and furniture designs, including her “small ship-building game,” which remains in production today. The game manifested Bauhaus’s central tenets: its 22 blocks, forged in primary colors, could be constructed into the shape of a boat, but could also be rearranged to allow for creative experimentation. The toy could also be easily reproduced. Siedhoff-Buscher also became known for the cut-out kits and coloring books she designed for publisher Verlag Otto Maier Ravensburg. But her most pioneering work proved to be the interior she designed for a children’s room at “Haus am Horn,” a home designed by Bauhaus members that exemplified the movement’s aesthetic. Siedhoff-Buscher filled it with modular, washable white furniture. She designed each piece to “grow” with the child: a puppet theater could be transformed into bookshelves, a changing table into a desk.Industrial and Graphic Designer
?Alpa NawreIndia?2011Alpa Nawre is Assistant Professor in the Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional & Community Planning at Kansas State University, and Partner at her design practice, Alpa Nawre Design. Issues pertinent to the design of urban water infrastructure, and resource challenges in the context of rapidly urbanizing developing countries inform her research, teaching and practice. Her writings have been published as books chapters and in journals such as Landscape Journal, Journal of Landscape Architecture, India and JoLA. Alpa is a licensed landscape architect in Kansas, a licensed architect in India, a LEED AP, and a recipient of the inaugural Mellon Fellowship in Urban Landscape Studies at Dumbarton Oaks.educator, urban planner
?Amale Andraosأمال اندراوسBeirut, Lebanon2014Appointed Dean of GSAPP 2014, WORKaceducator, architect
1944Amanda Burden
New York NY, USA
1983From 1983 until 1990, Burden was Vice President for Planning and Design of the Battery Park City Authority. She was extremely influential to New York City's current urban landscape as director of the New York City Department of City Planning and Chair of the City Planning Commission under Mayor Michael Bloomberg from 2002 to 2013.policy maker, urban planner
1955Amanda LeveteBridgend, Wales1989Future Systems, AL_Aarchitect, theorist
1897Amelia Earhart
Atchison KS, USA
1920Amelia Mary Earhart was an American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She received the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross for this record.
18081886Amelia Guppy
Hertfordshire, England
1854Amelia Elizabeth Guppy grew up in Herefordshire, England and studied under the painter and writer David Cox. Amelia eloped with Robert Guppy, a lawyer, and they lived for a period in Trinidad, where she first began to practice photography. The English collector, Sir Thomas Phillipps later approached Guppy about photographing items in his vast collection.Photographer, Painter, Explorer
1966Ana Elvira VélezColombia1992Colombian architect practicing in Medellin. Consultant for the Housing Company of Antioquia VIVA. Winner of the Germán Samper Gnecco award for project La Playa apartments at the XIX Colombian Biennial in 2004.architect
?Ana María DuránEcuador2002Ana Maria Durán is an Ecuadorian architect, researcher, educator and writer. She co-founded the design firm Estudio A0 in 2002 with her partner Jaskran (Jazz) Singh Kalirai in Quito, Ecuador, after receiving a masters in architecture degree from PennDesign at the University of Pennsylvania, and a liberal arts degree from Universidad San Francisco de Quito. Since its inception, Estudio A0 has developed significant projects in Ecuador, some awarded through public competitions.theorist, urban designer
1970Ananya Royअनन्या रॉयKolkata, India2008Ananya Roy is a scholar of international development and global urbanism. Born in Calcutta, India, Roy is Professor and Meyer and Renee Luskin Chair in Inequality and Democracy at the UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs.educator
19492013Anca Petrescu
Sighișoara, Romania
Iași, Romania2004She graduated from the Ion Mincu Institute of Architecture in Bucharest in 1973. She was a member of Parliament from the Greater Romania Party (PRM) between 2004 and 2008. She was the leading architect of the world's second largest civilian administrative building (behind the Pentagon), the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest, Romania on the orders of Romanian President Nicolae Ceauşescu in 1986. She was involved in many of the 1970s and 1980s so-called era of "systematization" redevelopment projects for Bucharest, which included the relocation of residents for the demolishing of old and poor neighborhoods, and replacing them with modern buildings with all the necessities under one roof.architect
?Andrea CochranUSA?2010Is an American landscape architect. She founded Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture, based in San Francisco, in 1998; the firm was the recipient of the 2014 National Design Award for landscape architecture. Cochran graduated from the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1979. She is one of seven designer women featured in the 2012 documentary Women in the Dirt.landscape architect
?Andrea Hansen2015Andrea Hansen is the Head of Product at Stae, a startup that provides cities with tools to monitor and track trends in the urban environment by compiling data from sensors, smart devices, and apps such as Uber and AirBnB. She is also the Founding Principal of Fluxscape, which focuses on data visualization, mapping, and web applications for community and urban projects. Outside her professional practice, Andrea is the editor of Visualizing Systems, an online catalog that investigates how we map data to understand complex networks. Andrea was selected as a Code for America Fellow in 2014, where she worked on innovative web-based mapping and infrastructure projects with the City of Atlanta. In 2012 she was named to Next City’s Vanguard class, a “40 under 40” selection of young leaders working on urban issues.landscape architect, urban designer, graphic designer
?Andrea LeersMiami FL, USA2000Together with Jane Weinzapfel, Leers created the Boston-based architecture firm Leers Weinzapfel Associates which was the first woman-owned firm to win the American Institute of Architects Architecture Firm Award in 2007. In 1991, she was elected to the American Institute of Architects College of Fellows. Leers is former Director of the Master in Urban Design Program at the Harvard Graduate School of Design where she was Adjunct Professor of Architecture and Urban Design from 2001 to 2011. Her academic career includes teaching positions at Yale University's School of Architecture (1981-1988), the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Fine Arts (1990, 1998-1999), the Tokyo Institute of Technology (1991) and the University of Virginia School of Architecture (1995). In 1982 she spent a year in Japan as a NEA/ Japan U.S. Friendship Commission Design Arts Fellow. Leers was a Visiting Artist at the American Academy of Rome (1997), invoted to be Chaire des Ameriques at the Sorbonne (Universite de Paris) (2007), and was Chair Professor at the National Chiao Tung University (2011-2014).urban designer, educator
?Angela Brady
Dublin, Republic of Ireland
2002Is an Irish born architect and has lived in London for over 25 years. In 2011 she was elected president of the UK's Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) for a two-year term. She is a past chairperson of the Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland (RIAI) London Forum.architect
1944Angela Davis
Birmingham AL, USA
1970Angela Yvonne Davis is an American political activist, academic scholar, and author. She emerged as a prominent counterculture activist and radical in the 1960s as a leader of the Communist Party USA, and had close relations with the Black Panther Party through her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement. Her interests include prisoner rights; she co-founded Critical Resistance, an organization working to abolish the prison-industrial complex. She was a professor (now retired) at the University of California, Santa Cruz, in its History of Consciousness Department and a former director of the university's Feminist Studies department. Davis was prosecuted for conspiracy involving the 1970 armed take-over of a Marin County, California, courtroom, in which four persons were killed. She was acquitted in a federal trial. Her research interests are feminism, African-American studies, critical theory, Marxism, popular music, social consciousness, and the philosophy and history of punishment and prisons. Her membership in the Communist Party led to Ronald Reagan's request in 1969 to have her barred from teaching at any university in the State of California. She was twice a candidate for Vice President on the Communist Party USA ticket during the 1980s.Political Activist, Educator, Writer
1954Angela Merkel
Hamburg, Germany
Angela Dorothea Merkel is a German stateswoman and former research scientist. Merkel has been the Chancellor of Germany since 2005, and the leader of the Christian Democratic Union since 2000.
?2002?Angela Schweitzer LopeteguiValdivia, Chile?1960sArchitect from Universidad de Chile (1952), where he later taught studio. She actively participated in the reconstruction of Valdivia after the 1960 earthquake, where she designed the city hall, built in 1965.architect |
1957Anita Berrizbeitia
Caracas, Venezuela
2010GSD Chair of Landscape Architectureeducator, landscape architect, theorist
18891964Anita Malfatti
São Paulo SP, Brazil
São Paulo SP, Brazil
Is heralded as the first Brazilian artist to introduce European and American forms of Modernism to Brazil. Her solo exhibition in Sao Paulo, from 1917–1918, was quite controversial at the time, and her expressionist style and subject were revolutionary for the rather complacently old-fashioned art expectations of Brazilians who were searching for a national identity in art, but who were not prepared for the influences Malfatti would bring to the country. Malfatti's presence was also highly felt during the Week of Modern Art (Semana de Arte Moderna) in 1922, where she and the Group of Five made huge revolutionary changes in the structure and response to modern art in Brazil.
Zeuler R. M. de A. Lima, "Ch. 10 Beyond Roberto Burle Marx" in Women. Modernity and Landscape Architecure, ed. Sonja Duempelmann and John Beardsley
1950Ann Beha
New York NY, USA
1982Ann Beha’s projects have expanded the dialogue between tradition and innovation. Marked by strong historical, cultural, and educational content, her work advocates for innovative contemporary design within historic settings and for the sustainable renewal of existing buildings. Clients include the University of Chicago; Princeton University; MIT; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the US Department of State; and the Smithsonian Institution. Ann Beha is a graduate of Wellesley College, received a Master of Architecture degree from MIT and a Loeb Fellowship at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. A past Distinguished Visiting Professor of Architecture at the City College of New York, Ann has been a Trustee and past President of Historic New England, served on Visiting Committees at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and is a member of Harvard University’s Design Advisory Panel. Ann has been honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award from the New England Chapter of the Victorian Society in America, an Anniversary Award from the Massachusetts Historical Commission, the Alumnae Achievement Award from Wellesley College, and the Women in Design Award of Excellence from the Boston Society of Architects.architect!ann_beha
?Ann Chaintreuil1998Founding partner of the firm with offices in Rochester and Buffalo New York. Chaintreuil Jensen and Stark Architects specializes in complex institutional projects including the Eastman Theater Addition and Restoration, The Strong Museum, projects for Hobart and William Smith College, Rochester Institute of Technology, and the University of Rochester. First women president of NCARB (1998)architect
?Ann ForsythUSA?2000Trained in planning and architecture, Ann Forsyth works mainly on the social aspects of physical planning and urban development. The big issue behind her research and practice is how to make more sustainable and healthy cities. Forsyth's contributions have been to analyze the success of planned alternatives to sprawl, particularly exploring the tensions between social and ecological values in urban design.urban planner
18951983Anna BranzellBergen, Norway1929Was a Norwegian-born Swedish architect. She was the first woman to earn a degree in architecture in Sweden, graduating from the Royal Institute of Technology in 1919. Thereafter she became an intern with three of Sweden's most notable architects: Gunnar Asplund, Sigurd Lewerentz and Hakon Ahlberg, before continuing her studies in the United States. In 1923, she returned to Bergen where she married the Swedish architect Sten Branzell. Anna Branzell herself became increasingly interested in social housing, parks, playgrounds and the place of children in society. In 1932, she designed an orphanage on Uddevallagatan, now the offices of an electronics firm.architect
1920Anna HalprinWinnetka IL, USA1964Helped pioneer the experimental art form known as postmodern dance and referred to herself as the breaker of modern dance. Halprin, along with her contemporaries such as Trisha Brown, Simone Forti, Yvonne Rainer, John Cage, and Robert Morris, collaborated and built a community based around the fundamentals of post-modern dance. In the 1950s, she established the San Francisco Dancers’ Workshop to give artists like her a place to practice their art. Being able to freely explore the capabilities of her own body, she created a systematic way of moving using kinesthetic awareness. Many of her works since have been based on scores, including Planetary Dance, 1987, and Myths in the 1960s which gave a score to the audience, making them performers as well.dancer, theorist
1977Anna Heringer
Rosenheim, Germany
2005Designed and built the METI Hansdmade Schools in Bangladesh. Through her projects, Heringer has sought to give local craftsmen and the local community confidence in their use of traditional building methods. She also strives to maintain ecological balance, avoiding the detrimental effects of modern architectural methods.architect
1943Anna Maria IndrioMeina, Italy1991Indrio first studied architecture in Rome (1962–65) and later at the Danish Academy's School of Architecture (1966–71) under Johan Otto von Spreckelsen. From 1979 to 1989, she shared a design studio with her husband Poul Jensen, participating in the design of Nørrevang Church in Slagelse (1989) which combines regional and Postmodern stylistic trends. In 1991, she became a partner in C. F. Møller's firm where she was the leading architect for the extension of Statens Museum for Kunst (1995–98) and for that of the Arken Museum of Modern Art in Ishøj (2007). She also designed an extension for London's Natural History Museum (2001) and the conversion of the Certosa di San Martino in Naples (2004) Indrio is a member of several cultural organisations and has served on the boards of the Danish Building Research Institute (1996-2002) and the Federation of Danish Architects (1980–94). She is also a member of the Royal Danish Academy and has taught at the Aarhus School of Architecture.architect
18741915Anna Pendleton Schenck
Brooklyn NY, USA
New York NY, USA
1914Was an architect. She was the business partner of Marcia Mead (1879-1967) and they established the first female architectural firm in New York City in 1914.architect
Thaïsa Way, "Ch. 7 American Landscape Architecture at Mid-Century" in Women. Modernity and Landscape Architecure, ed. Sonja Duempelmann and John Beardsley
1895Anna Plischke Lang1920sShe designed gardens and landscapes for houses designed by her architect husband, Ernst Plischke, in Wellington.Garden Designer, Horticulturalist
Ulrike Krippner and Iris Meder, "Ch. 4 Anna Plischke and Helene Wolf" in Women. Modernity and Landscape Architecure, ed. Sonja Duempelmann and John Beardsley
18891943Anna Wagner Keichline
Bellefonte PA, USA
Bellefonte PA, USA
1927An American architect, designs and patents the K-brick.architect, engineer
1949Anna WintourLondon, EnglandThe most influential woman in fashion, Anna Wintour has been on the campaign trail this year. In May, she cohosted a fundraiser in L.A. for presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, one of several that she has helped to organize since Clinton announced her candidacy. The longtime Vogue editor-in-chief is no stranger to fundraising: Under her watch, the Metropolitan Museum's annual Met Gala, which Wintour has hosted since 1999, has raised more than $145 million, and she was also a top bundler and fundraiser for President Obama in the 2008 and 2012 elections.
1974Anna-Theres Marie PhilippGermany?2002Studies at the College of Technology in Stuttgart and the ETH/ Swiss University of Technology, Zurich. Managing director of Philipp Architekten. Lecturer at the Hochschule für Technik, Stuttgart, Germany.
?Annabelle Selldorf
Cologne, Germany
2007Principal of Selldorf Archtiects (f. 1988), lauded for their attention to detail and material and elegant design work primarily within the art world. In 2014, she was the recipient of the American Academy of Arts and Letters’ Award in Architecture.architect
1954Anne Fairfax2004Has designed many new buildings in traditional styles, restored numerous historic houses in diverse locations as New York, Barbados, Virginia and Honolulu, the city where she spent her childhood and maintained an architectural practice before moving to New York in 1991. Ms. Fairfax serves on the Board of the Institute of Classical Architecture & Classical America, the Royal Oak Foundation and the Merchant's House Museum. She has taught at the Prince’s Foundation American Summer School and was the Harrison Visiting Scholar at Georgia Institute of Technology in 2004. Today she is serves as the Managing Director of the firm.
1955Anne Fougeron
Amsterdam, Netherlands
1990Fougeron has a varied body of works, including commercial, civic, residential and multi-family housing. The Princeton Architectural Press described her style as "embrac[ing] architectural opportunities found in opposition, creating buildings that redefine program, reinvent historical building types, and reinvigorate civic centers. Each project is a careful consideration of context, light and structure." She is known for taking on difficult projects "without sacrificing aesthetics."architect
19202011Anne Griswold TyngJiangxi, China
Greenbrae CA, USA
1959American architect (w/ Louis Kahn), theorist, professor UPennarchitect, theorist, educator
1955Anne Lacaton
Saint-Pardoux-la-Rivière en Dordogne, France
1987forms Lacaton Vassal. architect
1947Anne Whiston Spirn
Waterbury CT, USA
1965MIT urban planning, applying ecological principles to urban setting: The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design (1965), The Language of Landscape (1998) educator, landscape architect, historian
18871946Annette Hoyt Flanders
Milwaukee WI, USA
Flanders earned a B.A. in Botany from Smith College in 1914 and a B.S.L.A. from the University of Illinois in 1918. In 1920, she went to work for Vitale, Brinckerhoff and Geiffert in New York City. After two years, she opened her own practice, employing Helen Swift Jones and, later, Helen Elise Bullard. Flanders closed the New York office in 1942 and opened an office in Milwaukee the following year. Flanders worked primarily in the Eastern and Midwestern United States. Her work included estates, subdivisions, and model gardens, both formal and informal, using native trees and shrubs. Her commissions included the Phipps Estate, the Morven Farm Gardens, and the McCann Estate French Gardens, which received the Architectural League of New York’s Medal of Honor in Landscape Architecture in 1932. She lectured on a variety of landscape topics, promoting simple, livable, and economical garden design. Flanders wrote for magazines including House and Garden and House Beautiful and worked as Good Housekeeping’s consultant garden editor from 1933 to 1934, publishing a four-part series on suburban garden design. She was recognized in Home & Garden’s Hall of Fame in 1930 and elected as an ASLA Fellow in 1942. Flanders continued to design and publish until her death. | Thaïsa Way, "Ch. 7 American Landscape Architecture at Mid-Century" in Women. Modernity and Landscape Architecure, ed. Sonja Duempelmann and John Beardsley
18991994Anni AlbersBerlin, GermanyOrange CT, USA1931Albers arrived at the Bauhaus in 1922, with the hope of continuing the painting studies that she had begun at the School of Arts and Crafts in Hamburg. By 1923, however, she was spending most of her time in the school’s weaving workshop, where she became a quick master of the loom. Influenced by Paul Klee and “what he did with a line, a point or a stroke of the paintbrush,” Albers used weaving to develop a signature visual vocabulary of hard-edged patterns. Her early tapestries would go on to have a considerable impact on the development of geometric abstraction in the visual arts, along with the work of several of her Bauhaus peers, including her husband, Josef Albers, who she met at the school. Albers explored the functional possibilities of textiles with focus and passion; in 1930, she designed a cotton and cellophane curtain that simultaneously absorbed sound and reflected light. In 1931, she was appointed to helm the weaving workshop and became one of the first women at the Bauhaus to assume a leadership role. Several years after immigrating to the U.S. in 1933, she began to teach at the influential Black Mountain College in North Carolina. Albers became famous for the fabrics she crafted for large-scale companies like Knoll. She was also the first female textile artist to have a solo exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, in 1949.Painter, Textile Designer
18661954Annie Rockfellow
Mount Morris NY, USA
Santa Barbara CA, USA
1887She studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology receiving a special certificate in 1887. By 1916, she had moved to Tucson and worked for the firm of architect Henry O. Jaastad from 1916 to 1938 as chief designer. She was a faculty member at the University of Arizona from 1895–1897 and a member of numerous Tucson civic clubs including: American Pen Women, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, Tucson Natural History Society and the Tucson Fine Arts Association. She visited the San Diego California-Panama-Pacific International Exposition which affected her design style. Her buildings relied and were inspired by regional styles including Pueblo Revival, and Spanish Mission Revival. She created some of Tucson’s most prominent buildings including the El Conquistador Hotel and Safford School.architect
?Antje Stokman2010Antje Stokman is a landscape architect and has been a professor of Landscape Planning and Ecology at the University of Stuttgart since 2010. After graduating from Leibniz University Hanover in 2000, she worked on several international projects with Rainer Schmidt Landschaftsarchitekten and has been a member of the German Chamber of Architects since 2004. In 2005, she became an Associate Professor of Ecosystem Design and Watershed Management at Leibniz University Hanover, as well as member of the STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN, an interdisciplinary research, practice and teaching platform on the topic of urban landscapes. Since 2010, she is the director of the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology at Stuttgart University and co-founder of the international Masters Programme “Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design” (IUSD). Her work focusses on strategies to develop infrastructural and ecological systems as a basis for sustainable urban form and design of urban and rural landscapes. She was awarded the Topos Landscape Award in 2011 and the Lower Saxony Science Prize in 2009. She has been serving as a member of the German national advisory council on spatial planning from 2010-2014 and the sustainability council of the province Baden-Württemberg since 2012.landscape architect, educator
?Antonia LehmannChile?2004Luis Izquierdo Wachholtz and Antonia Lehmann Scassi-Buffa are architects graduated from the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in 1980 y 1981, respectively. In 1984 they established Izquierdo, Lehmann Arquitectos in Santiago, Chile. Since then they have personally developed projects on different scales and programs. They have built housing, educational, commercial and office buildings, more than 100 single houses, interior architecture, furniture, objects and construction sisters. Many of these works have been published around the world in specialised magazines and books, and presented in biennals in Santiago, Buenos Aires and Quito, in Madrid, in Harvard University GSD, in Sao Paulo, New York, Cartagena, and in the Museum of Modern Art, New York. They have been professors at the Universidad Católica de Chile and Universidad Andrés Bello. Their work has been distinguished with several prizes, among them, the National Prize for Architecture (2004).architect
1967Anupama Kundooअनुपम कुंडूPune, India1990Dr. Anupama Kundoo's architectural practice, started in 1990. It demonstrates a strong focus on material research to achieve architecture of low environmental impact, and development of building technologies that are socio-economically beneficial. The practice is supported by extensive research and experimentation.architect
?Anuradha Mathurअनुराधा माथुरIndia?2006Anuradha Mathur is Professor in the Landscape Architecture Department at PennDesign. She has focused her artistic and design expertise on cultural and ecological issues of contentious landscapes. Her work underlies a concern for how water is visualized and engaged in ways that lead to conditions of its excess and scarcity, but also the opportunities that its fluidity offers for new visualizations of terrain, design imagination, and design practice. She holds a B.Arch from the Ahmedabad School of Architecture (1986) and an MLA from the University of Pennsylvania (1991).educator, landscape architect, theorist
?Anya Van der MerweVan Der Merwe Miszewski Architects was founded in 1991 in Cape Town, South Africa by directors Anya Van der Merwe and Macio Miszewski. Anya Van der Merwe completed the Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) with Distinction in 1984 before moving to London, United Kingdom, to further her studies at the Architectural Association, from which she graduated with an Architectural Association Graduate Diploma in History and Theory (AAGradDip)in 1987.
2011Architect Barbie
El Segundo CA, USA
2011Architect Barbie, part of Matel's Barabie I Can Be series, makes her debut at the AIA New Orleans Convention. Her existence is due to the perseverane of UBuffalo professors Despina Stratigakos and Kelly Hayes-Mcaloniearchitect, fictional figure
19442006Arlene RavenBaltimore, MDBrooklyn, NY1973Was a feminist art historian, author, critic, educator, and curator. Raven was a co-founder of numerous feminist art organizations in Los Angeles in the 1970sArt Historian
?Arlette SchneidersLuxembourg1989Is a Luxembourg architect who in 1989 was the first female architect in Luxembourg to establish her own practice. Inspired by the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, Schneiders studied architecture at the Institut Saint-Luc in Brussels, graduating when she was just 25. She embarked on her career at Théo Worré's practice in Luxembourg. Two years later, she decided to continue her studies in Rome where she spent four years studying the restoration of old buildings. On her return to Luxembourg, she decided to work with Claude Schmitz but was frustrated by the difficulty she had in completing her projects. She decided to set up her own business becoming the first women in Luxembourg to run a practice free of male influence. After a number of fairly small assignments, she was successful in winning a social housing competition which in turn encouraged her to participate in a European competition in 1997. The selection committee awarded her first prize with a commission to carry out renovation work at the Fish Market in Luxembourg City. Her success in adding modern features to a group of old houses led to her winning the Luxembourg Architecture Prize in 2004. She went on to design a number of administrative buildings including the Plaza in the city centre, the E-Building in Munsbach, and two large buildings on Kirchberg, the Unico (12,000 m2) and the Axento (18,500 m2). In 2011, she won a competition for designing an even larger building in the same areaarchitect
1956Arundhati Bhattacharyaअरुंधति भट्टाचार्यCalcutta, IndiaAs Chair-Managing director of the State Bank of India, she is facing her most challenging test yet with the bank, the country's biggest. Mounting bad loans, which stood at $11 billion in December, caused net profit to plunge more than 60% to $190 million in a recent quarter. "The days of promoters gaming the banking system are over," she warned in February, before urging the arrest of liquor baron Vijay Mallya, whose defunct Kingfisher Airlines owes more than $1.3 billion to state-run banks.
?Arza ChurchmanCanada?1994Altman, Irwin, and Arza Churchman, eds. Women and the Environment. New York: Plenum, 1994.psychologist, urban planner, educator
19292008Astra Zarina Riga, Latvia
Civita di Bagnoregio, Italy
1960Astra Zarina was a distinguished Professor Emerita of the University of Washington, College of Architecture and Urban Planning (CAUP), founder of the UW Italian Studies programs and of the UW Rome Center. Professor Zarina was also a practicing architect. Along with her husband, Anthony Costa Heywood, and others, she co-founded the Northwest Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in Italy (NIAUSI), a private, nonprofit organization based in Seattle.educator, architect
19341992Audre LordeHarlem NY, USA
Christiansted, US Virgin Islands
1972A self-described “black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet,” Audre Lorde dedicated both her life and her creative talent to confronting and addressing injustices of racism, sexism, classism, and homophobia. Lorde was born in New York City to West Indian immigrant parents. She attended Catholic school and published her first poem in Seventeen magazine while still in high school. Of her poetic beginnings Lorde commented in Black Women Writers: “I used to speak in poetry. I would read poems, and I would memorize them. People would say, well what do you think, Audre. What happened to you yesterday? And I would recite a poem and somewhere in that poem would be a line or a feeling I would be sharing. In other words, I literally communicated through poetry. And when I couldn’t find the poems to express the things I was feeling, that’s what started me writing poetry, and that was when I was twelve or thirteen.”poet, writer
1945Aung San Suu Kyiအောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်
Yangon, Myanmar
Loyal to her country despite spending 15 years under house arrest, Myanmar's iconic new leader was once given with a choice: remain imprisoned by the military regime, or leave her country forever. The Nobel Peace Laureate chose to stay, and this year, her allegiance has been repaid in spades. Her party's landslide victory in the country's first elections in 25 years, held in November 2015, has earned her the role as State Counselor -- analogous in power to Prime Minister, a title her father held before his assassination in 1947. Her leadership raises new hope for a country that has long been controlled by the military.
19051982Ayn RandАли́са Зино́вьевна Розенба́ум
Saint Petersburg, Russia
New York NY, USA
1943Ayn Rand was a Russian-born American novelist, philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism.writer
?Aziza Chaouni عزيزة شعونيMorocco?2014Aziza Chaouni is founding principal of Aziza Chaouni Projects and assistant professor at the John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, where she leds Designing Ecological Tourism (DET) — a collaborative research platform that investigates the challenges faced by ecotourism in the developing world. Chaouni was formerly principal and co-founder of Bureau E.A.S.T. She holds a Master of Architecture with distinction from the Harvard Graduate School of Design and a Bachelor of Science with Honors in Civil Engineering from Columbia University.architect, educator
1945Barbara Adam1990Social and socio-economic time, Timewatchsociologist
1931Barbara BieleckaChełm, Poland1985Is a Polish Functionalist architect and a member of the Faculty of Architecture at the Gdańsk University of Technology. She designed the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lichen, Poland's largest church, the sixth largest by area in the world. It was constructed between 1994 and 2004. In May 1985, she joined the Commission of Urban Planning and Architecture at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków.architect, educator
18991980Barbara BrukalskaBrzeźce, PolandWarsaw, Poland1926Was a Polish architect, an architectural theorist, a prominent exponent of Functionalism, a member of the Praesens group, and a professor at Warsaw Polytechnic. She was also the wife of architect Stanisław Brukalski. Brukalska's early work was with her husband, Stanisław Brukalski. Like other members of the avant-garde Praesens group (founded in 1926), influenced by Le Corbusier's idea of the "machine for living," they advocated for inexpensive, residential housing that emphasized pure, simple functionality. Stanisław Brukalski was interned in a German P.O.W. camp from 1939-1944. After World War II Brukalska and her husband worked more independently, mostly in Warsaw, although both turned away from the strictures of Functionalist style and toward more organic forms inspired by historical precedent. Brukalska designed, among other things, a housing development in Okęcie and the Matysiak Retirement Home. They were also both appointed to the faculty of Warsaw Polytechnic.architect, theorist, educatpr
19032000Barbara Fealy
Salt Lake City UT, USA
Beaverton OR, USA
1930sWas a landscape architect who practiced in the Pacific Northwest from 1930s to 1990s. Her firm Barbara Fealy Landscape Architect was located in Portland OR. landscape architect | Thaïsa Way, "Ch. 7 American Landscape Architecture at Mid-Century" in Women. Modernity and Landscape Architecure, ed. Sonja Duempelmann and John Beardsley
?Barbara Kuit
Rotterdam, Netherland
2007Barbara Kuit is a Dutch architect. In 1998, together with her partner Mark Hemel, Kuit founded Information Based Architecture (IBA). IBA has won some of the most prestigious international competitions among which the competition for the world’s tallest TV tower, the Canton Tower, formerly known as the Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower in Guangzhou, China (completed in 2010).architect
19222010Barbara Matynia-ŁyżwińskaPoland?1953Matynia-Łyżwińska graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at Warsaw University of Technology. Her specialty was projects related to railway infrastructure. For many years she was a designer at the Central Railway Project Office. She was also a teacher, teaching at the Technical Railway School in the Szczęśliwicka district of Warsaw. She belonged to the Association of Polish Architects from 1953. Barbara Matynia-Łyżwińska was awarded the Gold Medal of the SARP.urban planner, educator
?Barbara Neski1952Trailblazing modernist Barbara Neski became one of the first women to graduate from the GSD when she received a degree in architecture in 1952. She went on to work with Jose Luis Sert on urban plans for Bogotá and Havana and then became an associate in Marcel Breuer’s office. In 1959, she collaborated on the American National Exhibition in Moscow with an American design team that included Peter Blake, Buckminster Fuller, Charles and Ray Eames. She went on to design many projects on the east coast, including a series of small, innovative vacation houses on the beaches of eastern Long Island that became landmarks in weekend living.Architect
Women in Design Weekly Digest March 24 2017
1947Barbara Schock-Werner
Ludwigsburg, Germany
Is a German architect, and was until her retirement end of August 2012 the master builder at Cologne Cathedral with overall responsibility for conservation and restoration work. With the official title of Dombaumeisterin (cathedral master builder), she was the first and only woman to hold the position in the cathedral's 800 years history.
?Barbara Ward, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth1970Influential figure in post 1970s rise of environmentalism, companion of Fuller and Doxiadis in Ekistics cruise ship meetingseconomist, environmentalist
18931990Beatrice May Hutton
Lakes Creek, Queensland, Australia
1916Beatrice Hutton did not undertake any formal architectural education, but began her training in Rockhampton firstly, in her father’s surveying office, and later, as an articled pupil in Hocking and Palmer, the architectural office of Edwin Morton Hockings. She became the firm's chief draftsperson during Hockings' war service. Hutton became the first woman admitted to an architectural institute in Australia, when she was accepted as a member of the Queensland Institute of Architects on 30 October 1916. Her career progressed following her move to Sydney in late 1916, where her work focussed mainly on residential projects, as well as the New South Wales Masonic Club building (1927) and Sirius House in Macquarie Place.architect
18721959Beatrix Farrand
New York NY, USA
Mount Desert Island ME, USA1922Peggy Rockerfeller Rose Garden (1916), Charter member of ASLA, Reef Point Garden 1935, Dumbarton Oaks (1922-1940)landscape architect
1952Beatriz ColominaMadrid, Spain1994Privacy and Publicity: Modern Architecture as Mass Media (1994), Sexuality and Space (1992), founded Program in Media and Modernity at Princetoneducator, historian, theorist
1952Beatriz del CuetoHavana, Cuba1986Beatriz del Cueto López-Hidalgo was born in 1952 in Havana, Cuba and moved with her family to the United States in 1960. She studied architecture at the University of Florida in Gainesville graduating in 1974. She then went on to further her studies at the Preservation Institute of Nantucket, specializing in historical preservation and architectural conservation. In 1976, she obtained a Master's in Architecture with a focus on preservation from the University of Florida and then moved to Puerto Rico. In 1977, she began working for Henry Klumb and after three years left his office to work at the State Historic Preservation Office. In 1984, she moved to Rome, Italy and studied with her husband Agamemnon Pantel at the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM). Between 1984 and 1986 Cueto worked at the College of Architects of Puerto Rico, leaving to establish a private practice in 1986. In 1990, she joined with her husband in the firm of Pantel del Cueto & Associates which focuses on facilitating a better understanding of traditional architecture in the Caribbean region. Their conservation projects have gained recognition both inside and outside of Puerto Rico. In addition to managing a practice in San Juan, del Cueto founded the Architectural Conservation Laboratory at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico where she provides courses in the theory of conservation and the scientific analysis of building materials. In 2011, del Cueto was awarded the Rome Prize by the American Academy in Rome and utilized her research prize to investigate concrete and its historic use in buildings.[3] In 2012 she received Puerto Rico's most important architecture prize, the Henry Klumb Award, for her teaching and significant contribution to the restoration and preservation of the island's historic landmarksarchitect, conservationist
19532007Benazir Bhuttoبينظير ڀُٽو
Karachi, Pakistan
Rawalpindi, Pakistan
She was the first woman democratically elected as head of a majority Islamic nation. Noted for charismatic authority and political astuteness, Bhutto drove economic and national security initiatives, and implemented capitalist policies for industrial development and growth. Bhutto's popularity waned amid recession, corruption allegations and high unemployment. Eventually conservative President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed her government. Bhutto was elected for a second term in the 1993 parliamentary elections. She survived an attempted coup d'état in 1995. Her hard line against the trade unions and tough rhetorical opposition to her domestic political rivals and to neighbouring India earned her the nickname "Iron Lady." In 1996 more charges of corruption led to the another dismissal of her government by President Farooq Leghari. Bhutto conceded her defeat in the 1997 Parliamentary elections and went into exile in Dubai in 1998. Nine years later, in 2007, she reached an understanding with President Pervez Musharraf, and returned to Pakistan. He granted her amnesty and withdrew all corruption charges against her. Bhutto was assassinated in a bombing on 27 December 2007, after leaving a PPP rally in Rawalpindi two weeks before the scheduled 2008 general election. She was the leading candidate, and projected winner.