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Babylonians predicted weather from cloud patterns-650http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Sennacherib.jpg/640px-Sennacherib.jpgBy Dbachmann at en.wikipedia [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASennacherib.jpg">from Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Theophrastus was an ancient philosopher who produced a book on weather forecasting called the <em>Book of Signs</em>.
-371Theophrastus was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens at a young age and initially studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death, he attached himself to Aristotle.http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Theophrastus/De_signis*.htmlhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Teofrasto_Orto_botanico_detail.jpg/360px-Teofrasto_Orto_botanico_detail.jpgBy tato grasso (Own work (personal work)) [<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5">CC-BY-SA-2.5</a>], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATeofrasto_Orto_botanico_PA.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Aristotle described weather patterns in <em>Meteorologica</em>.-340 This was a treatise by Aristotle which contained theories about the earth sciences including theories relating to the formation of rain, clouds, hail, wind, thunder, lightning, and hurricanes.http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/meteorology.htmlhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/Aristotle_Altemps_Inv8575.jpg/359px-Aristotle_Altemps_Inv8575.jpgBy Copy of Lysippus (Jastrow (2006)) [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAristotle_Altemps_Inv8575.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Chinese weather predictions are thought to have taken place in historical times.-300 The Chinese developed a solar calendar based on weather patterns and also divided the year into 24 festivals, each festival associated with a different type of weather.
They were also thought to have had used animals in order to make some weather predictions (e.g. a chirping cricket at night would suggest the next day's weather would be pleasant).
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/20090529_Great_Wall_8185.jpg/640px-20090529_Great_Wall_8185.jpgBy Jakub Hałun (Own work) [<a href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html">GFDL</a> or <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0">CC-BY-SA-3.0</a>], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A20090529_Great_Wall_8185.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Iraqi scientist Ibn Wahshiyya translated <em>Nabatean Agriculture</em>, which used atmospheric changes, lunar phases and wind to predict rain.904
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Leonardo da Vinci built the first basic hygrometer to measure the humidity of air
1400http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Da_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpg/353px-Da_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpgLeonardo da Vinci [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADa_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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The well-known Italian physicist Galileo Galilei was the first to notice that the density of a liquid changes in proportion to its temperature.
1593 He invented a thermoscope to display a change in temperature. It was from Galileo’s work that the thermometer was later invented.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Justus_Sustermans_-_Portrait_of_Galileo_Galilei%2C_1636.jpg/378px-Justus_Sustermans_-_Portrait_of_Galileo_Galilei%2C_1636.jpgJustus Sustermans [Public domain or Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJustus_Sustermans_-_Portrait_of_Galileo_Galilei%2C_1636.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer to measure atmospheric pressure. 1643http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Evangelista_Torricelli_by_Lorenzo_Lippi_%28circa_1647%2C_Galleria_Silvano_Lodi_%26_Due%29.jpg/357px-Evangelista_Torricelli_by_Lorenzo_Lippi_%28circa_1647%2C_Galleria_Silvano_Lodi_%26_Due%29.jpg Lorenzo Lippi [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEvangelista_Torricelli_by_Lorenzo_Lippi_(circa_1647%2C_Galleria_Silvano_Lodi_%26_Due).jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Ole Christensen Rømer transformed the thermoscope into a thermometer by adding a temperature scale:
1701He invented the Rømer scale. The Rømer scale initially used 0 as the freezing point of brine and 60 degrees as the boiling point of water.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Ole_R%C3%B8mer_%28Coning_painting%29.jpgJacob Coning (circa 1647–1724) [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AOle_R%C3%B8mer_(Coning_painting).jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Francis Beaufort was a British-Irish hydrographer who became a member of the Royal Navy.1806 He introduced the Beaufort wind scale, which ranged from 0 (calm) to 12 (hurricane force). The scale was correlated with the amount of a sail a full-rigged ship required for the present wind conditions.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/FrancisBeaufort.jpg/382px-FrancisBeaufort.jpgStephen Pearce [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AFrancisBeaufort.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Invention of telegraph led to modern age of weather forecasting.1835 The telegraph allowed text information to be communicated over long distances without contact having to take place. Before this time it was very difficult for weather reports to be delivered and weather information to be received.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Morse_telegraph_Russia_XIX-XX.png/598px-Morse_telegraph_Russia_XIX-XX.pngBy Alexander Roumega (Own work) [<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0">CC-BY-SA-3.0</a>], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMorse_telegraph_Russia_XIX-XX.png">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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The state of weather forecasting at this time was stated quite bluntly by French scientist and Director of the Royal Observatory François Arago:1846“Whatever may be the progress of sciences, NEVER will observers who are trust-worthy, and careful of their reputation, venture to foretell the state of the weather.” <br/><br/>Weather forecasting was not considered as a science at this time and struggled for respectability.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Arago_Francois_portrait.jpgHenry Scheffer [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AArago_Francois_portrait.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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The Smithsonian Institution in the United States established an observation network by supplying weather instruments to telegraph companies. The Smithsonian collected the observations from 150 volunteers and created weather maps.1849
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In 1854, the Meteorological Department of the Board of Trade was first established, which is better known today as the Met Office.1854Robert Fitzroy, a member of the Royal Navy, was first appointed head of the board.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Robert_Fitzroy.jpgBy Hemus, Charles 1849?-1925 [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARobert_Fitzroy.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Robert Fitzroy organised for captains of ships to be provided with weather instruments in order to collect data and return it back for computation.1859 In 1859, a large storm caused the loss of the <em>Royal Charter</em>, influencing Fitzroy to develop weather charts to allow predictions to be made for ships. He called this <em>forecasting the weather</em> to distinguish it from predictions or prophesies. Thus, Fitzroy coined the term <em>weather forecast</em>.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/StateLibQld_1_186783_Royal_Charter_%28ship%29.jpgSee page for author [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AStateLibQld_1_186783_Royal_Charter_(ship).jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Fifteen land stations were established around the UK and transmitted daily weather reports at set times to Fitzroy.
1860He produced the first daily weather forecast in <em>The Times</em> in 1860. He also launched the first gale warning system for ships around the UK in 1861, and the first weather maps were also produced this year in <em>The Times</em>.http://manunicast.seaes.manchester.ac.uk/how/images/timeline/metoffice-fitzroy-times-forecast.jpgSource: <a href="http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/" target="_blank">The Met Office</a>
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<em>Weather Book</em> was published by Fitzroy which advanced the scientific opinion of meteorology at the time.1863
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The United States established a national weather service within the Signal Service.1870This resolution required the Secretary of War
<em>to provide for taking meteorological observations
at the military stations in the interior of the continent
and at other points in the States and Territories...and
for giving notice on the northern (Great) Lakes and on
the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals,
of the approach and force of storms</em>.
http://www.nws.noaa.gov/pa/history/index.php
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The United States transferred weather observations and forecasting from the Signal Service
to the Department of Agriculture. The civilian-based U.S. Weather Bureau was born.
1890
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<em>International Cloud Atlas</em> was published by Hugo Hildebrand Hildebrandsson based on the classification scheme developed by Luke Howard in 1802. This book provided the universal vocabulary for describing clouds.
1896
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For meteorology to advance, it was necessary for a greater understanding of the state of the atmosphere and the laws of physics that could alter this state.
1901Both Cleveland Abbe (1901) (shown) and Vilhelm Bjerknes (1904) identified this issue and worked independently on plans to resolve this. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Cleveland_Abbe.jpg/220px-Cleveland_Abbe.jpgBy Mirth at ru.wikipedia (Transferred from ru.wikipedia) [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACleveland_Abbe.jpg">from Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Vilhelm Bjerknes (1904) worked toward a physically-based way to forecast the weather.
1904
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Bjerknes.jpgBy Pierre_cb (Vilhelm Bjerknes by NOAA) [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABjerknes.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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The Met Office began issuing its first marine weather forecasts via radio transmission in 1911, including gale and storm warnings around the UK. The service was ceased in 1914 due to World War I, but it resumed after the war ended.
1911
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The invention of the radiosonde was especially important to weather forecasting as it allowed measurements to be collected at high altitudes.1920 Radiosondes consist of a helium or hydrogen filled balloon which carries a small box containing weather instruments. Instruments can measure pressure, temperature and moisture, this data is then sent to a ground station where it was processed.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Launching_radiosonde_1943.jpg/346px-Launching_radiosonde_1943.jpgSee page for author [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALaunching_radiosonde_1943.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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Lewis Fry Richardson published his book <em>Weather Prediction by Numerical Process</em>.1922 Richardson performed the calculations for a forecast of the surface/sea-level pressure over central Europe. He estimated that it took him several months to perform the six-hour forecast. The forecast was a spectacular failure, but much was learned about how this could be done in practice.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Lewis_Fry_Richardson.png/220px-Lewis_Fry_Richardson.pngBy NOAA (NOAA presentation) [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALewis_Fry_Richardson.png">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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In the US, the first public radio forecast was produced by Edward B. Rideout in Boston.1925
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World’s first televised weather forecast including weather maps was shown on BBC.
1936http://www.telegraph.co.uk/topics/weather/10561393/In-pictures-Hurricanes-to-heatwaves-a-look-back-at-60-years-of-BBC-TV-weather..html
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Because men were pulled into World War II, the Weather Bureau employed more than 900 women as observers and forecasters.1945http://www.history.noaa.gov/images/women3.jpgBy NOAA. Source: <a href="http://www.history.noaa.gov/stories_tales/women6.html" target="_blank">NOAA History</a>
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United States Air Force forecasters issue the first tornado warnings at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma.1948http://www.airweaassn.org/archives/firsttndo.htmhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a5/Tinker_AFB_tornado_damage_3.jpg/640px-Tinker_AFB_tornado_damage_3.jpgBy US Government Employee (NOAA Photo Library) [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATinker_AFB_tornado_damage_3.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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The invention of computers in the late 1940’s made possible Richardson's dream of computing the weather forecast.1950Using the ENIAC computer at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, Jule Charney, Ragnar Fjørtoft, and John von Neumann performed the first weather forecast by computer in April 1950.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Eniac.jpg/628px-Eniac.jpgSee page for author [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEniac.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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George Cowling was the first presenter to present the weather forecast in front of a weather map.1954http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01675qjhttp://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/72169000/jpg/_72169287_forecastergeorgecowlingseenin1954.jpgSource: <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25665340" target="_blank">BBC News</a>
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Practical use of numerical weather prediction and the development of electronic programmable computers led to increased forecast capabilities.1955
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The polar-orbiting satellite <em>TIROS 1</em> (the first in the series of Television and Infrared Observation Satellites) was launched.1960 The satellite functioned for just 78 days however it produced pictures of the Earth and its cloud cover that scientists could use.http://www.raytheon.com/newsroom/technology/rtn13_natspace/http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/TIROS_VI_satellite_used_in_Parade_of_Progress_Show.jpg/220px-TIROS_VI_satellite_used_in_Parade_of_Progress_Show.jpgSource: <a href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/TIROS_VI_satellite_used_in_Parade_of_Progress_Show.jpg/220px-TIROS_VI_satellite_used_in_Parade_of_Progress_Show.jpg" target="_blank">Wikimedia</a>
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The United States National Meteorological Center developed a computer model of the atmosphere improving upon the predictions of sea-level pressure made by human forecasters. The era of operational numerical weather prediction by computers begins!1966
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The U.S. Weather Bureau changes its name to the National Weather Service.
1970
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The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts is founded.1975
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The first Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) was launched into orbit.1975http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d0/GOES_8_Spac0255.jpg/640px-GOES_8_Spac0255.jpgBy NOAA Photo Library (Image ID:spac0255, NOAA In Space Collection) [Public domain], <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AGOES_8_Spac0255.jpg">via Wikimedia Commons</a>
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The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts issues their first forecasts.1979
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The 24 hour cable network <em>The Weather Channel</em> began broadcasting in the United States.1982http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/The-Weather-Channel-Logo.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/The_Weather_Channel_original_logo.png"<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Weather_Channel_original_logo.png#mediaviewer/File:The_Weather_Channel_original_logo.png">The Weather Channel original logo</a>" by The Weather Channel - Unknown. Licensed under Public domain via <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/">Wikimedia Commons</a>.
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The Great Storm was an extratropical cyclone that hit the UK, France and the Channel Islands during 16–17 October 1987.1987 The Met Office was criticised greatly for not forecasting this event which lead to 22 fatalities and £4.76 billion in damages.
Michael Fish famously stated on live television that despite the public’s concern there was not going to be a storm.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19938165
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The U.S. embarks upon a $4.5 billion modernization of the National Weather Service.
1989The modernization includes automated surface observing stations, a nation-wide network of Doppler radars, new satellites, and a next generation computer system for forecasting.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/US-NationalWeatherService-Logo.svg/480px-US-NationalWeatherService-Logo.svg.png"<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US-NationalWeatherService-Logo.svg#mediaviewer/File:US-NationalWeatherService-Logo.svg">US-NationalWeatherService-Logo</a>" by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Converted from EPS version available <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/logos/">here</a> (direct EPS URL <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/logos/nwslogo.eps">[1]</a>).. Licensed under Public domain via <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/">Wikimedia Commons</a>.
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The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts produces their first ensemble forecasts.1992http://www.ecmwf.int/http://www.esa-da.org/sites/default/files/logos/ECMWF.jpg<a href="http://www.ecmwf.int/en/terms-use" target="_blank">ECMWF Logo Terms of Use</a>
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The U.S. network of Doppler radars is fully deployed.1997http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/LabNexrad.jpg"<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LabNexrad.jpg#mediaviewer/File:LabNexrad.jpg">LabNexrad</a>" by Original Photograph By: Andrew J Oldaker - <a class="external free" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:LabNexrad.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:LabNexrad.jpg</a>. Licensed under <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" title="Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0">CC BY-SA 3.0</a> via <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/">Wikimedia Commons</a>.
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Hurricane Katrina makes landfall in Lousiana, killing over 1800 people. 2005Although the forecasts were excellent, the huge loss of life indicated that an emphasis on social science of communicating forecasts and getting people to act on them is necessary.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a4/Hurricane_Katrina_August_28_2005_NASA.jpg/372px-Hurricane_Katrina_August_28_2005_NASA.jpg"<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hurricane_Katrina_August_28_2005_NASA.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Hurricane_Katrina_August_28_2005_NASA.jpg">Hurricane Katrina August 28 2005 NASA</a>" by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC - <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=7938">http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=7938</a>. Licensed under Public domain via <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/">Wikimedia Commons</a>.
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ManUniCast started running forecasts in April. By November, ManUniCast had officially launched. A mobile app for iPhone became available in August 2014.
2013http://www.manunicast.comhttp://manunicast.com/images/template/logo.png
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