SMART Training Manual Glossary
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TermDefinitionExample(s)
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AgencyAn organization working within or supporting a SMART Conservation AreaForest Management Bureau, Wildlife Department, Marine Police, Parks Department, etc.
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AggregationThe total or sum of a number of collected dataAggregation of 'Number of Patrols' = Total Number of Patrols Conducted
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Area BoundaryThe spatial boundary of your SMART Conservation AreaProtected area border, reserve fence,
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AttributeA feature or characteristic used to describe somethingThe weight and height of an person could all be recorded as attributes to that individual
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BasemapThe main SMART map that provides a user with spatial context for their Conservation Area, including essential boundaries and other spatial data relevant to conservation efforts. Users can add relevant information to a basemap by overlaying other information on top of it.
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Configurable ModelThe version of the data model that is used with the handheld data collection deviceDifferent configurable models for different patrol mandates
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Conservation AreaThe focal area (e.g., protected area) the user works with within a single SMART database. SMART can manage multiple Conservation Areas in a single SMART database.
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CyberTrackerExternal software application used for collecting data using a handheld device (e.g., smartphones, tablets, etc.)
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Data ModelThe structure for collecting data at the site, including categories and attributes
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Data QueueAllows for external patrol, incident or mission data to be uploaded directly to the Connect Server, where the files will remain until a desktop user processes the files on their local machine. After the local processing, that user should then upload their changes back to the server, making the data available for other users.
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Entity
Any fixed or moving (transient) specific features or 'things' for which data are collected in SMART
People, animals, locations, organizations, and vehicles.
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Error LogAn automated log of SMART use and errors that should be generated by users along with bug reportsSee "Help" -> "View Error Log" in SMART
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EventSomething' that happens or takes place, often of importance which is recorded in SMARTA seizure of illegal wildlife products would be an 'event'
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Export a Conservation Area
Creating a zipped package of an existing Conservation Area in order to share it with another SMART user or back it up for secure storage
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Field SensorA data collection device, typically automated and unmannedCamera traps
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Import a Conservation Area
To bring a single, previously established SMART Conservation Area that a user has exported into your SMART database
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IncidentAn incident is a collection of observations that occur at the same point and same time (a Waypoint).A patrol encounters a poacher illegally entering a protected area with a shotgun, snares, and 1 monkey carcass. The data model design calls for specific data to be collected for 5 things all associated with this one encounter: the poacher, the illegal entry, the shotgun, the snares, and the monkey carcass. Each of these 5 things is an ‘observation’ that is associated with the single, overall ‘encounter’, allowing for only 1 waypoint to be stored for all observations.
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Independent IncidentA location where observations are made that are not generated from a patrolRecorded by a tour operator, tourist or visitor, member of the public
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InformantA person who provides informationA member of the community giving information to the Park Rangers on people commiting illegal acivities
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IntelligenceInformation derived from interpretations about a set of observations recorded Intelligence is usually created by an analyst working with a database
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MetadataA set of data which describes and gives information about other data
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MissionThe act of going out into the field to gather survey information within the SMART Ecological Records module. Generally involve a group visiting one or more sampling units and making a collection of observations
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NetworkA group of interconnected entities (people, things) and their relationshipsA network of SMART users is a group of individuals who all work with SMART software
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ObservationA single item observed and consists of exactly one category from the data model and all its associated attributesA patrol encounters a poacher illegally entering a protected area with a shotgun, snares, and 1 monkey carcass. The data model design calls for specific data to be collected for 5 things all associated with this one encounter: the poacher, the illegal entry, the shotgun, the snares, and the monkey carcass. Each of these 5 things is an ‘observation’ that is associated with the single, overall ‘encounter’, allowing for only 1 waypoint to be stored for all observations.
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ParametersA boundary or limit setting the range at which a process or activity is conductedDate parameters in SMART allow users to view information collected within a certain time period
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PatrolAn activity performed to collect data in the field, organized in teams
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Patrol MandateThe purpose for a patrol going to the fieldLaw Enforcement, Research and Monitoring, Surveillance, Intelligence
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Patrol PlanA defined set of targets that need to achieved within a set timeframe
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Patrol TeamA group of field staff who work together to conduct a patrolUsually with defined roles and responsibilitie
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Patrol TypeThe mode of transport for a patrolBoat, foot, vehicle, motorcycle
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PluginAn add-on to the core SMART application that facilitates specific tasks or functionsEntity Tracker, Profiles, Independent Incidents, Sensors, Cybertracker
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ProjectionThe means in which a numerical figure can be represented in relation to the earth's surfaceA GPS device uses different map projections to display a position on the earth e.g. latitude/longitudite, UTM grid reference, etc. Therefore projections within SMART software and handheld devices need to match in order to avoid incorrect waypoint locations.
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Queries - GriddedResults are displayed in a user specified grid (raster) format with aggregated results based on the defined grid size. Results are displayed in tables or on a map. Values computed can be either patrol related values (total distance, total number), data model related values (total number of observation, average age etc), or encounter rates (any of the above per distance, number of days etc.).A query for patrol effort per square kilometer in a protected area.
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Queries - IncidentsUsed to display details of patrol incidents (waypoints). These queries display the incident records which meet the requirements of the filters. No summarizing takes place (ie. no totals, amounts, aggregations, etc.). The resulting table includes all the patrol attributes associated with the incident as well as the incident location and time details. Observation details (data model categories and attributes) are not included in the results. Results can be viewed in a table or on a map.A query for the number of incidents of human activity in a protected area.
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Queries - ObservationsUsed to display details of patrol observations. These queries display the observation records which meet the requirements of the query filters. No summarizing takes place (ie. no totals, amounts, aggregations, etc.). The resulting table includes all the patrol attributes as well as all the data model category and attribute information associated with the observation. Results can be viewed in a table or on a map.A query for the number of observations of human activity in a protected area.
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Queries - SummaryA summary summarizes the raw data and allows for grouping into different categories. Summaries results can only be viewed in tables. Items that can be summarized include total patrol attributes (number of patrols, the total distance travelled, etc), and data model categories (total number of snare observations), and data model numeric attributes (total number of guns). In addition rate encounters can be computed (how many X per km, man-hours, time). Multiple values can be computed in a single query. The above values can be grouped by patrol attribute (team, station, mandate etc), time (year, month, etc), areas (management sectors, administrative areas), data model categories and list or tree data model attributes. Multiple group-bys can be selected for a single query.
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QueryA query displays raw records that are selected using filters. No summarizing (totals, etc.) is done. This allows users to view the raw patrol and observation data. Queries can be viewed in tables or on a map.Show me all waypoints where human activity was observed
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RankA position in the hierarchy of the agencies/organizations operating in a Conservation AreaRanger, Data Manager, Data Analyst, Warden, Ranger Supervisor, Conservator
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RelationshipThe way that two or more entities are associated (linked, related, etc.) to one another and captures specific information about that association.4 fisherman (Jon, Steve, Julio, Andrew) all communally own a fishing boat and they all fish together in a fishery. Each of the 4 fishermen have a relationship (or 'link') to each other and to the boat they own together.
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ReportAn account given of data from a SMART Conservation Area, typically of things that rangers have observed, heard, done, or investigated, and generated at regular intervals (e.g., weekly, monthly, annually). SMART reports are highly configurable and allow for a wide range of standardized reporting. The information on the reports can be dynamically generated based on the results of SMART queries and summaries. A major component of SMART is its mapping ability, and SMART reports allow maps to be included and customized to suit the report.Annual report of all patrol effort within a protected area
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Sampling UnitA transect or plot where observations are made one or more times within the SMART Ecological Records pluginLine transects, vegetation plots, etc.
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ServerA computer or computer system which centralizes a service or resource SMART Connect software uses servers to upload and download Conservation Areas and associated data between computers using the internet
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ShapefileA type of file containing geographical and spatial information usually displayed as a polygon, points or linesA polygon shapefile is imported into SMART to show the boundaries of a Conservation Area and to build maps
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SMART ProfilesA SMART plugin that provides users with secure storage, management, and analysis of information that is not typical of core SMART. It contains a suite of functionality to broaden the use of SMART itself: it was built to track individual entities in time and space, and to capture the relationships between entities.
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StationA place from which a patrol starts and/ or endsRanger station, headquarters or other infrastructure
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SurveyA collection of survey missions in the SMART Ecological Records plugin that represent a single complete set of survey data (visiting all sampling units, making required observations)A survey design is developed for a comprehensive ecological monitoring effort across the Congo Basin. As part of this effort, "Surveys" are conducted across Gabon annually.
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Survey Design The template for survey data collection in the SMART Ecological Records plugin, including the survey properties, mission properties, and sampling unit definition, but not any dataAn overarching survey methodology that will applied for a comprehensive ecological monitoring effort across the Congo Basin.
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Upgrade/Restore a Backup
Includes the survey properties, mission properties, and sampling unit definition, but not any data.
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Ecological Records PluginA tool for the capture, management, mapping and analysis of ecological monitoring data for conservation in protected areas
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Trigger
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Perspectives
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Profiles
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Summary
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