SMART Training Manual Glossary
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ActiveIn SMART Field Sensors, refers to station/location that has a functioning sensor deployed within it. Also refers to assets themselves that are deployed and functioning at a location.
AgencyAn organization working within or supporting a SMART Conservation AreaForest Management Bureau, Wildlife Department, Marine Police, Parks Department, etc.
AggregationThe total or sum of a number of collected dataAggregation of 'Number of Patrols' = Total Number of Patrols Conducted
Area BoundaryThe spatial boundary of your SMART Conservation AreaProtected area border, reserve fence,
AssociationThe linkage formed between objects in a database.
AttributeA feature or characteristic used to describe somethingThe weight and height of an person could all be recorded as attributes to that individual
Attribute ValueA specific quantity or quality assigned to an attribute.
BasemapThe main SMART map that provides a user with spatial context for their Conservation Area, including essential boundaries and other spatial data relevant to conservation efforts. Users can add relevant information to a basemap by overlaying other information on top of it.
CardinalityRefers to the direction of a relationship between two objects in a database where the relationship is not equal.A person can be linked with a building as its owner, however a building cannot be the owner of a person, therefore the relationship is one way, as delineated by the source and target entities.
Configurable ModelThe version of the data model that is used with the handheld data collection deviceDifferent configurable models for different patrol mandates
Conservation AreaThe focal area (e.g., protected area) the user works with within a single SMART database. SMART can manage multiple Conservation Areas in a single SMART database.
Coordinate Reference System
Describes a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to uniquely locate geographical entities in relation to a specific point. It defines a specific map projection, as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems.
CyberTrackerExternal software application used for collecting data using a handheld device (e.g., smartphones, tablets, etc.)
Data ModelThe structure for collecting data at the site, including categories and attributes
Data OriginWhere an entity or record has been created automatically in SMART Profiles through the use of a Trigger, the database object will display a system generated attribute listing the source of the information and creating a navigable link in the database.
Data QueueAllows for external patrol, incident or mission data to be uploaded directly to the Connect Server, where the files will remain until a desktop user processes the files on their local machine. After the local processing, that user should then upload their changes back to the server, making the data available for other users.
Data Type - BooleanAttributes of this type accept a Boolean value, ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Boolean attribute fields can also be turned on or off using a checkbox if the user is unable to choose one of the two options.
Data Type - DateAttributes of this type accept a date value in the format YYYY-MM-DD. The value can be input manually or selected from a calendar picker by the user. Date fields can also be turned on or off using a checkbox if the user does not have this information.
Data Type - EmployeeAttributes of this type accept a selection from the list of employees that have been created for the current conservation area. The list includes all employees whether or not they have a SMART login.
Data Type - ListAttributes of this type accept a single or multiple selections from a list of values, which have been set in the data model.
Data Type - NumericAttribute of this type accept positive or negative number values up to fifteen significant digits. Larger values can be entered but are displayed using scientific notation (i.e. 3.23145E11 instead of 323145000000)
Data Type - PositionAttributes of this type accept accepts location coordinates based on the coordinate reference system in use by the SMART Conservation Area. Coordinates can be either geographic or projected and can be entered manually or selected from the map.
Data Type - TextAttributes of this type accept all character inputs (letters, numbers and symbols within the language selection for the attribute up to a maximum limit of 1024 characters.
DeploymentIn SMART Field Sensors, refers to a set period of time during which a sensor is deployed at a location within a station, whether active or inactive.
EntityAny fixed or moving (transient) specific features or 'things' for which data are collected in SMART People, animals, locations, organizations, and vehicles.
EnvironmentRefers to specific circumstances, defined by the combination of physical terrain, ecological systems, climatic conditions, human cultures and legal structures, and their interactions across space and time, which a site or organization is subject to when operating at a specific location.
Error LogAn automated log of SMART use and errors that should be generated by users along with bug reportsSee "Help" -> "View Error Log" in SMART
EventSomething' that happens or takes place, often of importance which is recorded in SMARTA seizure of illegal wildlife products would be an 'event'
Export a Conservation Area
Creating a zipped package of an existing Conservation Area in order to share it with another SMART user or back it up for secure storage
Field SensorA data collection device, typically automated and unmannedCamera traps
Fusion DatabaseRefers to a database that combines raw and processed data from multiple sources into a single repository, which can be used to create analytical products and inform decision-makers.SMART Profiles
Import a Conservation Area
To bring a single, previously established SMART Conservation Area that a user has exported into your SMART database
InactiveIn SMART Field Sensors, refers to station/location without a functioning sensor deployed within it. Also refers to assets themselves that are: 1. not deployed or 2. deployed but not functioning.
IncidentAn incident is a collection of observations that occur at the same point and same time (a Waypoint).A patrol encounters a poacher illegally entering a protected area with a shotgun, snares, and 1 monkey carcass. The data model design calls for specific data to be collected for 5 things all associated with this one encounter: the poacher, the illegal entry, the shotgun, the snares, and the monkey carcass. Each of these 5 things is an ‘observation’ that is associated with the single, overall ‘encounter’, allowing for only 1 waypoint to be stored for all observations.
Incident CutoffTime threshold for which multiple images being uploaded at once from the same source are identified as an independent incident and assigned a common Incident Group.
Independent IncidentA location where observations are made that are not generated from a patrolRecorded by a tour operator, tourist or visitor, member of the public
IndicatorsRefers to discrete data points, which suggest the existence of a larger process operating within the environment. Indicators, when combined with knowledge of the relevant process, help to predict intentions and outcomes.
InformantA person who provides informationA member of the community giving information to the Park Rangers on people commiting illegal acivities
Information FusionRefers to the process of combining data from multiple sources into a single repository to obtain more complex, reliable, and accurate information.
Information RequirementsRefers to the set of data points that must be collected and processing steps that must be carried out to answer questions that support decision-makers.
Information WorkflowRefers to the processes that an individual data point, or collection of data points is subjected to in order to turn raw data into an intermediary or completed data product.
IntelligenceInformation derived from interpretations about a set of observations recorded Intelligence is usually created by an analyst working with a database
LocationIn SMART Field Sensors, the specific point coordinates where a sensor is deployed. Locations also have a defined radius, delineating the area of sensor coverage. Several locations may be present within one station. Location is interchangeable with the term “unit location”.
MetadataA set of data which describes and gives information about other data
MissionThe act of going out into the field to gather survey information within the SMART Ecological Records module. Generally involve a group visiting one or more sampling units and making a collection of observations
Multi-value AttributesRefers to a special characteristic of List Attributes in SMART Profiles records that allows for the selection of multiple values within the attribute.
NetworkA group of interconnected entities (people, things) and their relationshipsA network of SMART users is a group of individuals who all work with SMART software
ObjectA conceptual representation of a real world entity, event, or relationship within an object oriented database.
Object TypeA class of objects formed through the creation of a template specifying attributes, their structure and any behaviours affecting the attributes.A 'Digital Media' record or a 'Vehicle' entity
ObservationA single item observed and consists of exactly one category from the data model and all its associated attributesA patrol encounters a poacher illegally entering a protected area with a shotgun, snares, and 1 monkey carcass. The data model design calls for specific data to be collected for 5 things all associated with this one encounter: the poacher, the illegal entry, the shotgun, the snares, and the monkey carcass. Each of these 5 things is an ‘observation’ that is associated with the single, overall ‘encounter’, allowing for only 1 waypoint to be stored for all observations.
OrdinalityDescribes whether a relationship is mandatory or optional within a data model design.
ParametersA boundary or limit setting the range at which a process or activity is conductedDate parameters in SMART allow users to view information collected within a certain time period
PatrolAn activity performed to collect data in the field, organized in teams
Patrol MandateThe purpose for a patrol going to the fieldLaw Enforcement, Research and Monitoring, Surveillance, Intelligence
Patrol PlanA defined set of targets that need to achieved within a set timeframe
Patrol TeamA group of field staff who work together to conduct a patrolUsually with defined roles and responsibilitie
Patrol TypeThe mode of transport for a patrolBoat, foot, vehicle, motorcycle
PluginAn add-on to the core SMART application that facilitates specific tasks or functionsEntity Tracker, Profiles, Independent Incidents, Sensors, Cybertracker
ProjectionThe means in which a numerical figure can be represented in relation to the earth's surfaceA GPS device uses different map projections to display a position on the earth e.g. latitude/longitudite, UTM grid reference, etc. Therefore projections within SMART software and handheld devices need to match in order to avoid incorrect waypoint locations.
Queries - GriddedResults are displayed in a user specified grid (raster) format with aggregated results based on the defined grid size. Results are displayed in tables or on a map. Values computed can be either patrol related values (total distance, total number), data model related values (total number of observation, average age etc), or encounter rates (any of the above per distance, number of days etc.).A query for patrol effort per square kilometer in a protected area.
Queries - IncidentsUsed to display details of patrol incidents (waypoints). These queries display the incident records which meet the requirements of the filters. No summarizing takes place (ie. no totals, amounts, aggregations, etc.). The resulting table includes all the patrol attributes associated with the incident as well as the incident location and time details. Observation details (data model categories and attributes) are not included in the results. Results can be viewed in a table or on a map.A query for the number of incidents of human activity in a protected area.
Queries - ObservationsUsed to display details of patrol observations. These queries display the observation records which meet the requirements of the query filters. No summarizing takes place (ie. no totals, amounts, aggregations, etc.). The resulting table includes all the patrol attributes as well as all the data model category and attribute information associated with the observation. Results can be viewed in a table or on a map.A query for the number of observations of human activity in a protected area.
Queries - SummaryA summary summarizes the raw data and allows for grouping into different categories. Summaries results can only be viewed in tables. Items that can be summarized include total patrol attributes (number of patrols, the total distance travelled, etc), and data model categories (total number of snare observations), and data model numeric attributes (total number of guns). In addition rate encounters can be computed (how many X per km, man-hours, time). Multiple values can be computed in a single query. The above values can be grouped by patrol attribute (team, station, mandate etc), time (year, month, etc), areas (management sectors, administrative areas), data model categories and list or tree data model attributes. Multiple group-bys can be selected for a single query.
QueryA query displays raw records that are selected using filters. No summarizing (totals, etc.) is done. This allows users to view the raw patrol and observation data. Queries can be viewed in tables or on a map.Show me all waypoints where human activity was observed
RankA position in the hierarchy of the agencies/organizations operating in a Conservation AreaRanger, Data Manager, Data Analyst, Warden, Ranger Supervisor, Conservator
RelationshipThe way that two or more entities are associated (linked, related, etc.) to one another and captures specific information about that association.4 fisherman (Jon, Steve, Julio, Andrew) all communally own a fishing boat and they all fish together in a fishery. Each of the 4 fishermen have a relationship (or 'link') to each other and to the boat they own together.
ReportAn account given of data from a SMART Conservation Area, typically of things that rangers have observed, heard, done, or investigated, and generated at regular intervals (e.g., weekly, monthly, annually). SMART reports are highly configurable and allow for a wide range of standardized reporting. The information on the reports can be dynamically generated based on the results of SMART queries and summaries. A major component of SMART is its mapping ability, and SMART reports allow maps to be included and customized to suit the report.Annual report of all patrol effort within a protected area
Sampling UnitA transect or plot where observations are made one or more times within the SMART Ecological Records pluginLine transects, vegetation plots, etc.
ServerA computer or computer system which centralizes a service or resource SMART Connect software uses servers to upload and download Conservation Areas and associated data between computers using the internet
ShapefileA type of file containing geographical and spatial information usually displayed as a polygon, points or linesA polygon shapefile is imported into SMART to show the boundaries of a Conservation Area and to build maps
SMART ProfilesA SMART plugin that provides users with secure storage, management, and analysis of information that is not typical of core SMART. It contains a suite of functionality to broaden the use of SMART itself: it was built to track individual entities in time and space, and to capture the relationships between entities.
SourceRefers to a person from whom, or a thing from which, information can be obtained.
Source ReportingRefers to the raw unprocessed data that justifies the creation, alteration, or removal of structured data in the database.News article, camera trap image, patrol debriefing, hotline tip
StationA place from which a patrol starts and/ or endsRanger station, headquarters, picket or other infrastructure
SurveyA collection of survey missions in the SMART Ecological Records plugin that represent a single complete set of survey data (visiting all sampling units, making required observations)A survey design is developed for a comprehensive ecological monitoring effort across the Congo Basin. As part of this effort, "Surveys" are conducted across Gabon annually.
Survey Design The template for survey data collection in the SMART Ecological Records plugin, including the survey properties, mission properties, and sampling unit definition, but not any dataAn overarching survey methodology that will applied for a comprehensive ecological monitoring effort across the Congo Basin.
Tracking EntityAn entity created in instances where information about a single event may be contained in many different reports. This allows multiple records to be collated into a single location, overcoming current limitations in the functionality of the software.
TriggerAutomatic process that occurs when a specific set of conditions are met, resulting in a specific action.
Upgrade/Restore a Backup
Includes the survey properties, mission properties, and sampling unit definition, but not any data.
Ecological Records PluginA tool for the capture, management, mapping and analysis of ecological monitoring data for conservation in protected areas
De-briefTo question or gain information from someone or a team of people that has just completed a mission/patrol.A team of rangers that have gone out on patrol give feedback or are de-briefed by the Administrator of the Conservation Area
ValidationThe action of checking or proving the accuracy of something's validty.The administrator will check the data collected and make sure that it is reality is accurately represented in the data.
Web Map Server
A computer program that produces spatially referenced data on maps, dynamically.
A map layer showing the past 24 hours of fire data in a map layer that is updated as long as there is internet conenctivity.
Wep Map Server Tiles CacheA cached map service is like a regular map service but is enhanced to be downloaded and served as a static image. The tiles provide detail on different scale levels.A cached satellite imagery of a specific area that is then used as a map layer in offline/poor internet connected environments.