🕶 Airlines Study Guide
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1FARs( 16 ) If you are assigned higher alt. than the published MDA to intercept GS, where is the FAF?(16) Lowest Alt on the published approach and glide slope intercept(0) Glide slope intercept(0) Glide slope intercept at the intercept altitude
2FARs( 5 ) If you shoot the approach by doing Procedure turn where is FAP?(6) established inbound on the final approach course
3FARs*( 5 ) If the VOR, which is being used for missed approach segment, is inoperative, is the approach still legal?(4) Aeronautical Information Manual 5-4-21. Missed Approach. Some locations may have a preplanned alternate missed approach procedure for use in the event the primary NAVAID used for the missed approach procedure is unavailable. The alternate missed approach may be based on NAVAIDs not used in the approach procedure or the primary missed approach. When the alternate missed approach procedure is implemented by NOTAM, it becomes a mandatory part of the procedure. The NOTAM will specify both the textual instructions and any additional equipment requirements necessary to complete the procedure. Air traffic may also issue instructions for the alternate missed approach when necessary, such as when the primary missed approach NAVAID fails during the approach. Pilots may reject an ATC clearance for an alternate missed approach that requires equipment not necessary for the published approach procedure when the alternate missed approach is issued after beginning the approach. However, when the alternate missed approach is issued prior to beginning the approach the pilot must either accept the entire procedure (including the alternate missed approach), request a different approach procedure, or coordinate with ATC for alternative action to be taken, i.e., proceed to an alternate airport, etc.(0) no(0) Well, that depends on the title of the approach. If the approach was titled VOR or GPS, then you may legally execute the Missed using your approved database as a means to retrieve the way-points necessary to execute the missed.
4FARs( 15 ) Airspeed in Denver class B at 11,000 feet?(9) 250kts below 10,000 only(1) 250 kts indicated airspeed in class B
5FARs( 9 ) How high does class G go?(6) from surface up to 14500' MSL when shaded on enroute charts(2) Overlying E; 700' AGL or 1200'AGL or 14,500'MSL
6FARs( 7 ) How long a temporary airmen cert is good for?(10) 120 days is the correct answer, Part 61.17
7FARs( 8 ) What is VDP?(5) A defined point on the final approach course of a non-precision straight-in approach procedure from which normal descent from the MDA to the runway touchdown point may be commenced, provided the approach threshold of that runway, or approach lights, or other markings identifiable with the approach end of that runway are clearly visible to the pilot.(0) a defined point on the final approach coarse of a non-precision straight-in app. from which a normal descent from MDA to the touch down zone may commence.
8FARs( 5 ) How do you calculate VDP?(6) VDP by TIME & DME: TIME: Take 10%of the HAT(height above threshold)that will give you time(in seconds)from VDP(visual desent point) to the end of the runway or MAP(missed approach point). Example; If your HAT is 300' at minimums, 10% of 300 is 30,therefore you take 30sec. off of your time from the FAF(final app. fix) DME: Devide your HAT by 300. Ex; If your HAT is 360', 360/300=1.2 your VDP is 1.2 miles from the MAP. Back 1.2DME from your MAP and you're there. *It's all based on the 3:1 rule, you lose 300' per 1 N.M. *IMPORTANT* A VDP based on DME will get you to the MAP 'NOT' the begining of the runway.
9FARs( 6 ) How many flight attendants an aircraft would need if it has over 300 seats on it?(4) At least 7, 1FA/50pax (trick question: more than 300 seats = 301 or more, 6 FA's for 1st 300 pax, 7th FA for pax 301 thru 350, etc.)
10FARs( 5 ) Where is the bull-horn suppose to be stored?(5) As per Part 121: In aircraft capable of carrying 60-100 passengers the megaphone (bullhorn) will be in the most AFT compartment. The administrator may deviate from this if it is found more safe to have it in another location. Aft compartment is what they are looking for.(0) 99 seats or less - 1 in rear. More than 99 seats = 2 (1 rear/1 front).
11FARs( 3 ) What are the different types of hypoxia’s?(2) Stagnant - blood pooling, poor circulation. Hypoxic - Alttude related, less o2 for the blood to carry. Hypemic-Oygen deficiency in blood. Smoking is included with hypemic hypoxia, not histotoxic. Histotoxic-tissue poisoning from alcohol, cyanide etc.
12FARs( 10 ) What you can do if you only have the approach lights in sight but not the runway?(4) Per 91.175, you can continue the approach if you have one of the following: approach lighting system (VERY IMPORTANT CAVEAT: you cannot go below 100' above TDZE unless you have the red side bars or red terminating bars of the ALS1/2); threshold; threshold lighting; threshold markings; runway; runway markings; runway lights; touchdown zone; touchdown zone markings; touchdown zone lights; VASIs; REILs. So in this case, you can continue the approach as long as you can see the red side row bars or red terminating bars
13FARs( 5 ) How long is the touchdown zone?(4) First 3000 ft from the threshold(0) Or first half of the runway, if runway length is less than 6,000'
14FARs( 8 ) What is a MOCA?(3) Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude. The minimum altitude to get navaid reception and obstacle clearance within 25SM or 22NM(0) Obstacle clearance is for the entire route. Nav signal coverage is within 22NM
15Jeppesen( 3 ) Q-routes are at what altitudes?(3) 18,000ft-FL450 inclusiveQ-routes (high) are available for use by RNAV equipped aircraft between 18,000 feet MSL and FL 450 inclusive. Q-routes are depicted on Enroute High Altitude Charts.
16FARs( 3 ) What is the maximum speed in a Procedure Turn?(3) 200 KIAS
17FARs( 4 ) What color are rwy centerline lights?(2) Runway centerline lights are white until the last 3,000 feet of the runway. Of that 3,000 feet, the first 2,000 feet alternate red and white and the last 1,000 feet of are red. This is to let you know how much runway is left before the end. Of course you will see the REL's (Runway End Lights) at the end of the runway as well.
18FARs( 7 ) How can we tell the visibility or rvr from the cockpit?(3) By use of the approach lighting length, the number of runway lights seen (12 lights = 1/2 a mile), and using the known distances of TDZ markings.
19FARs( 4 ) What color are the Rwy edge lights?(2) Typically white. On a precision runway, they will be white until the last 2,000 feet at which time they turn Amber(yellow) to signify you only have 2,000 feet of runway left.
20FARs( 5 ) How much does jet fuel weigh?(2) 6.7 I lbs / gal
21FARs( 1 ) Draw an instrument runway with applicable markings and runway lighting.
22FARs( 5 ) If a VOR is required for navigation on a route, above what altitude is DME required?(2) FL240
23FARs( 5 ) Where does RVSM airspace start?(2) FL290
24FARs( 8 ) What are the alternate rules for Part 91?(1) (c) IFR alternate airport weather minima. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may include an alternate airport in an IFR flight plan unless appropriate weather reports or weather forecasts, or a combination of them, indicate that, at the estimated time of arrival at the alternate airport, the ceiling and visibility at that airport will be at or above the following weather minima: (1) If an instrument approach procedure has been published in part 97 of this chapter, or a special instrument approach procedure has been issued by the Administrator to the operator, for that airport, the following minima: (i) For aircraft other than helicopters: The alternate airport minima specified in that procedure, or if none are specified the following standard approach minima: (A) For a precision approach procedure. Ceiling 600 feet and visibility 2 statute miles. (B) For a non-precision approach procedure. Ceiling 800 feet and visibility 2 statute miles.
25FARs( 5 ) What is exemption 3585?(1) For Part 121 - In other words, if there is a conditional or temporary weather condition that is below minimums at the destination or the alternate airport at the flight's ETA1,2, where the flight could not normally be released, they can depart under the 3585 exemption as long as a second alternate that is above required minimums3 is filed in the flight plan and enough fuel is carried to reach the furthest alternate plus the required 45 minute reserve. There are a few other requirements too (training, manual and OpSpec revisions, etc.) but you can take a look at the letter to see them.
26FARs( 8 ) Can you write out 91.175 reg?(3) Takeoff and landing under IFR.
27FARs( 5 ) What will you do if you lost communication?(3) Assigned (Your last assigned heading) Vectored (If nothing is assigned fly your last vector) Expected (If no vector fly what was expected in your clearance) Filed (Finally fly what you filed) For altitude we use the MEA portion of our acronym Fly the HIGHEST of the following Minimum en-route altitude Expected altitude Assigned altitude(0) MEA AVEF
28FARs( 9 ) What is the Holding speed above 14000ft?(3) Holding Speeds 0-6000' = 200 knots 6,001' - 14,000' = 230 knots 14,001 and above= 265 knots(0) 265
29FARs( 8 ) What is the max speed in B airspace at 11000ft?(3) No max above 10,000Careful here. The key words are "in class B airspace". KDEN class B goes to 12,000. Max speed in class B is 250. (February 04, 2016 - Unknown)Above 10,000MSl: No speed restriction If operating in Class Bravo; 250kts (March 01, 2016 - Chris P.)
30FARs( 8 ) What is the 1, 2, 3 rule?(3) If within 1 hour before or after the intended time of arrival the ceilings are forecast to be less than 2000 feet or visibility less than 3 statute miles an alternate is required.
31FARs( 6 ) When you can proceed down past the DA(H) ?(3) Refer to 91.175 1) Normal descent and normal maneuvers to make a safe landing in the touchdown zone 2) Visibility as prescribed on approach plate or better 3) Must see one of the following to land: - Approach Lights in sight (Once you have 1 and 2, then if you see the approach lights, then you can descend to 100' above touchdown zone until you see the Red Side Row Bars or Red Terminating Bars. Once you see those you can land.) - Touchdown zone markings - Touchdown Zone Lights - Touchdown Zone - Threshold Markings - Threshold Lights - Threshold - Runway Markings - Runway Lights - Runway - VASI - REIL
32FARs( 3 ) They asked about alternate filing requirements.
33FARs( 1 ) V1 decision speed and your action if emergency happens exactly at V1?Takeoff decision speed - At or above V1 continue the takeoff roll and rotate at the calculated VR speed. Once the aircraft is airborne, maintain V2 - takeoff safety speed.
34FARs( 6 ) What is the reg. if reported vis. is less than app. minimums before FAF and after FAF.(2) If visibility is reported below mins before the FAF, the approach cannot be continued. If vis drops below mins once inside the FAF, the approach may be continued
35FARs( 5 ) When do you call out FAF on ILS approach?(4) Glide slope intercept
36FARs( 6 ) When do you choose an alternate?(1) 1,2,3 rule
37FARs( 3 ) Service Volumes of a high altitude VOR?(1) 1000 - 14500 40NM 14501 - 18000 100NM 18001 - 45000 130NM 45001 - 60000 100 NM
38FARs( 1 ) Do you need a takeoff alternate?
39FARs( 1 ) If you need a takeoff alternate, where must it be?
40FARs( 1 ) Are you legal to start the approach?
41FARs( 2 ) Can you continue a descent if you were advised that flight visibility had dropped below minimums after the FAF or GS intercept.(1) After the FAF you may. Before you may not.
42FARs( 5 ) Calculate time/ distance in a procedure turn if travelling at 210 knots and if we would remain within the 10 NM radius before rejoining the LOC inbound.
43FARs( 3 ) What are the colors of the approach light system?(2) White and Red
44FARs( 3 ) Can you continue an approach to land with only the REILs visible?(3) yes
45FARs( 4 ) Can you be dispatched at a certain time if forecast visibilities were lower than prescribed for the approach to be used.(1) Yes(0) No I would not.
46FARs( 4 ) I was asked if we could be dispatched based on a given time issued and the forecast.(1) I will first check the forecast at given time to see if it is with minima.
47FARs( 3 ) Can you join the glide slope from further out than the published glide slope intercept altitude?(1) Yes
48Turbine&Aerodynamics( 2 ) What is the difference between axial flow and centrifugal flow?
49FARs( 4 ) What approach lighting has red terminating bars?(1) ALSF-1
50FARs( 2 ) You are at 10,000ft you need to descend to 1,000ft. When do you begin your descent?10,000-1,000=9000 - 9*3=27NM
51FARs( 1 ) Weather is below mins, can you depart?
52FARs( 1 ) Weather is below mins can you shoot the approach?
53FARs( 1 ) Weather is below mins, can you shoot the approach after the FAF?
54FARs( 3 ) Runaway lights: What do they mean when alternating white and red?(1) you have 3000 of runway remaining
55FARs( 2 ) Runaway lights: what do they mean when all red?(1) you have 1000 feet or runway remaining
56FARs( 1 ) What determines the FAF on an ILS?
57FARs( 2 ) What was my previous company's procedure on wind shear alerts?(1) Go around.
58FARs( 1 ) Performance when entering or exiting a microburst You clear the runway and you're talking to ground and cleaning up the airplane with your head down in the cockpit and look up and the captain has stopped and there are green lights under you. Where are you?
59FARs( 1 ) What color are runway lights?
60FARs( 1 ) What color are runway edge lights?
61FARs( 1 ) What color are taxi way lights?
62FARs( 2 ) What is an ILS hold short line? What's it protecting? Glide slope or localizer?
63FARs*( 2 ) Approaching 16R in Reno and one of the fixes on the approach says you should be at X altitude? Your indicating x 200'? What do you do?
64FARs( 1 ) What does a RAT provide?RAT - Bam Air Iemperature is normally interchangeable with TAT. It is the temperature that the ram air temperature probe senses. Think of it as "ram rise" and TAT. Ram rise occurs to a small degree at all airspeeds but it really only starts becoming a factor above 200 knots. At typical jet speeds, RAT may be 15°C to 30°C higher than the actual Qutside Air Iemperature.
65FARs( 2 ) Speeds in and around class B, C, and D.Below 10,000 ft......................................................... 250 KIAS ; Class B ..................................................................... 250 KIAS below 10,000 ft ; BeneathClassB.......................................................200KIAS ; Procedure Turn......................................................... 200 KIAS ; Class C or D (below 2,500 AGL within 4NM of the airport) .... 200 (unless a higher speed is specifically approved by ATC) ; Class E or G Airport Traffic Pattern ............ .......... .... 200 KIAS (recommended)
66FARs( 1 ) What does MEA give you?1. MEA - Minimum Enroute Altitude -assures navigational coverage & 1,000 feet obstacle clearance over flat terrain - 2,000 feet obstacle clearance over mountainous terrain. ; 2. MEA Gap - Nav signal weak. "Gap" in signal coverage. ; 3. MOCA - Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude - Assures navigational coverage and obstacle clearance when within 22 1\11\11 of a navaid. ; 4. MAA -Maximum Authorized Altitude. ; 5. MCA -Minimum Crossing Altitude - Altitude you must be at before crossing a navaid or intersection. ; 6. MRA - Minimum Reception Altitude - Minimum altitude at which off-airway navigational information
can be received (e.g. a cross-radial from another VOR). ; 7. OROCA - Off-Boute Qbstruction - Provides obstruction clearance of 1,000 feet in
non-mountainous areas or 2,000 feet in mountainous areas (within 4 NM of course being flown).
67FARs( 1 ) Looking at the TAF if we go to DEN and our ETA 2030 do we need an alternate?
68FARs( 1 ) If we didn’t have DME how would we determine how far we have gone out bound?
69Turbine&Aerodynamics( 2 ) What is a coffin corner?
70Turbine&Aerodynamics( 2 ) What to do if you find yourself getting closer to coffin corner?
71FARs( 1 ) Know the AIMs definition of Mountainous Terrain.(ICAO) An area of changing terrain profile where the changes of terrain elevation exceed 3000ft within a distance of 10NM.
72FARs( 1 ) When is a take-off alternate needed?
73FARs( 3 ) When do you need to hold short of an ILS critical area?When weather conditions are below 800 ft ceiling and/or visibility below 2 miles visibility - Taxiing
aircraft (or vehicles) are not authorized past the Localizer / Glide Slope / ILS Critical Area signs when
an aircraft is between the ILS final approach fix and the airport (due to possible signal distortion).
74FARs( 8 ) Where to look for notam affecting change of an app minimum?(7) FDC (Flight Data Center) Notams(0) FAA web-site
75FARs( 5 ) You're in the lateral boundaries of LAX Class B airspace, but under the actual airspace. What is the max airspeed you can fly?(2) 200 knots
76FARs( 6 ) What are class C cloud clearance requirements?(0) 3sm, 500 feet below. 1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal
77Weather( 9 ) What are the different stages of a TS?(7) cumulus mature dissipating
78Weather( 10 ) What altitude does the tropopause start?(5) 20,000' near the poles, 65,000' near the equator. Approximately 36,000' over the US(0) 40,000 ft(0) 25,000(0) 30,000' at the poles to 56000' at the equator
79Weather( 1 ) As a pilot how can you visually tell which stage the thunderstorm is in?
80Weather( 1 ) Which stage would you most likely encounter a downdraft?dissipating
81Weather( 1 ) What stage would you most likely encounter the anvil top?Mature
82Weather( 2 ) Why does the thunderstorm flatten at the top?Inversion of temperature in mid-troposphere makes the clouds spread
out under the inversion
83Weather( 1 ) How long is a TAF valid for?24-hour FORECAST
84Weather( 1 ) What would you do if you found yourself in a thunderstorm?P.207
85Weather( 6 ) What is virga?(1) Virga is the phenomenon when rain starts from a cloud and evaporates before it touches the ground. Usually associated with downdrafts and turbulence. Very common in dry western states(0) Variable Intensity Rain Gradient Aloft.
86Weather( 4 ) What does the jet stream do in the winter?wind speed in the jet stream averages considerably stronger in winter than in summer because of greater temperature differences. Also the jet shifts farther south in winter than in summer.(2) Moves south in the northern hemisphere and increases in intensity(0) Moves to the south in the northern hemisphere
87Weather( 2 ) What is a Kelvin-Helmholtz cloud formation?form when two different layers of air in our atmosphere are moving at different speeds(1) Though it looks like someone painted the sky with breaking ocean waves, there's a very good atmospheric explanation for what is really happening. The rolling, wave-like cloud formations are called Kelvin-Helmoltz clouds. Sometimes they are also called billows. They are named for scientists Lord Kelvin and Hermann von Helmholtz, who discovered the process by which they form. Severe Weather Expert Dr. Greg Forbes of The Weather Channel says, "They are the atmospheric equivalent of those great breaking waves that you sometimes see on the ocean." These breaking atmospheric waves occur in an environment with a large amount of vertical wind shear and stable air. Wind shear is a change in the speed and direction of winds as you go higher in the atmosphere. In this case, winds at the top of the cloud layer are moving faster than the base of that same layer. This causes the top to crash downwards in a curling manner after it hits the stable layer above. The rolling motion created by this type of wind shear also causes turbulence for aircraft. However, the rolling clouds motions are often masked by a large amount of cloud cover. Other times, there are no clouds around to illustrate the wave pattern.
88Weather( 1 ) If you see a thunderstorm with a big anvil? Which way to divert?
89Weather( 1 ) How to differentiate hail from rain on radar.
90Weather( 1 ) You just departed Dallas, there's a T-Storm directly in front of you. What direction do you go around it?
91Weather( 3 ) TAF TEMPO meaning and what does it mean to us.(2) Temporary time period
92Weather( 4 ) Decode a METAR and TAFP.219
93Weather( 2 ) If it is 5C at altitude could we get ice on wings?VISIBLE MOISTURE between +5° & -20°C or colder - but usually between +2° & -10°C(1) Yes! icing can accumulate when there is visible moisture at temps between 5C - (-20C)
94Weather( 3 ) Explain 3 stages of thunderstorms.
95Weather( 1 ) Microburst what is it and which stage of Thunderstorm?The typical Microburst is a downdraft that may emerge from a cloud (or no cloud) as high as 15,000 ft: Dissipates from 10 to 20 minutes after ground contact, Can have horizontal wind speed differences (head wind-tail wind) of 50 to 100 knots, Can have vertical speeds in excess of 3,000 feet per minute
96Weather( 5 ) How often winds aloft are published?Forecasts are made twice daily based on OOZ and 12Z data for use during specific time intervals(2) every 6 hoursEvery 6 hours and generally available approximately 2 hours after the model is run (run at 0000,0600,1200,1800) - https://aviationweather.gov/products/nws/info (January 13, 2016 - Unknown)(0) 6 hrs is correct Ref: https://www.aviationweather.gov/products/nws/info
97Weather( 6 ) How many times/day does the TAF come out?(2) 4times 00z 06z 12z 18z
98Weather( 6 ) How often do winds and temperature aloft forecasts come out?Forecasts are made twice daily based on OOZ and 12Z data for use during specific time intervals(2) 4X P.D. @ 0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 Z.
99Weather( 6 ) Mountain waves can extend how far from mountains?Mountain wave CAT may extend from the mountain crests to as high as 5,000 feet above the tropopause, and can range 100 miles or more downstream from the mountains(4) AIM 7-5-6 Mountain flying "Satellite photos of the Rockies have shown mountain waves extending as far as 700 miles downwind of the range" "Appalachian chain have picked up the mountain wave phenomenon over a hundred miles eastward."(0) 100 Miles