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First NameLast NameRegion(s)DatesDescriptionBias (old minus new)Seasonal EffectGradual TrendFrequency/LengthGenerak notes on effectReferences
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ManolaBrunetseveral latitudesOpen stands to stevenson screensclear radiative impact: summer values being mostly affected in high-latitudes and high mid-latitudes, all year around in low mid-latitudes and subtropical locations with its maximum bias magnitude in summer and weaker in winter Moberg A, Alexandersson H, Bergström H, Jones PD. 2003: Were Southern Swedish summer temperatures before 1860 as warm as measured? Int. J. Climatol. 23: 1495-1521
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Spainmostly 1900-1910, 1875-1940 Madrid March 1893, Cadiz 1875Shelter change: Montsouris and Glaisher stands to Stevenson screen
brunet_etal2011_pub.pdf (Brunet, M., Asin, J., Sigr´o, J., Ba˜non, M., Garc´ıa, F., Aguilar, E.,
Palenzuela, J. E., Peterson, T. C., and Jones, P.: The minimization
of the screen bias from ancient Western Mediterranean air
temperature records: an exploratory statistical analysis, Int. J.
Climatol., 31, 1879–1895, doi:10.1002/joc.2192, 2011.), WCDMP_Spain_case_study-cor_ver_6_March.pdf (Table IX), telecon-aguilar.pdf
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JoseGuijarroDuero River Basin, Spain1 changepoint found every 12.16 years ish20% of detected changepoints were short platform type changepoints,
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west Germany1986, 2001Change from local mean time Mannheim hours (MH) (T7+T14+2T21)/4 central European time (CET) +30' MH in 1986. Change from CET+30' MH to True Mean (sumT0-24)/24 in 2001.MH ~0.23 deg C higher than True Mean, Max/min ~0.67 deg C higher than True MeanH IEBL , J., I. AUER, R. B OHM, W. S CH ONER, M. M AUGERI, G. L ENTINI, J. S PINONI, T. NANNI, M. P. TADI C, Z. B IHARI, M. D OLINAR, G. M ULLER -W ESTERMEIER, 2009: A high-resolution 1961-1990 monthly temperature climatology for the greater Alpine region. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 18, 507–530.



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east Germany1961, 1966, 1991, 2001Change from local mean time Mannheim hours (MH) (T7+T14+2T21)/4 central European time (CET) MH in 1961. Change from CET MH to mean of 4/8 daily obs in 1966. Chnage from mean of 4/8 daily obs to MH with CET+30. Change from CET+30 to True Mean (sumT0-24)/24 in 2001.
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PiotrDjakowPolandJan 1st 1966Method for calculating daily mean temperature for synoptic stations: before jan 1st 1966 the method was:
(T06 + T12 + 2*T20) / 4 (GMT)
After jan 1st 1966 until today it's
(T00 + T03 + T06 + T09 + T12 + T15 + T18 + T21) / 8 (UTC)
WARM - would expect this to lead to cooler daily mean/monthly means AFTER 1966 ̈
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PolandStation moves: 1 march 2011 Slubice (12310), 1 april 2013 Elbląg (12160). Station height changed from 40m to 189m and mean temperatures in april 2013 was about 1.4 deg C lower than in old location.

Location of Zielona Gora station (12400) changed eight times.
http://www.zgora.pl/studiazielonogorskie/studia9/krassowski2.htm
However the temperature record from Zielona Gora station which can be found in german sources of globaldatabank in NOAA ftp is almost entirely correct (but unhomogenized) with one exception: april 1943 value is incorrect.

Measurements in Wroclaw (12424) was first conducted in "Alte Sternwarte" in city center. Location of this station was changed many times too. Full description of these changes with homogenization of monthly mean temperatures in Wroclaw can be found here:
http://www.kmk.umk.pl/images/BofGeo/N3/BGPGS-No3-121-171.pdf


Homogenization of Warsaw (12375) temperature series was made by Lorenc (2000), unfortunately not available online.

Homogenization of monthly mean temperatures in Łódź (12465) can be found here:
http://nargeo.geo.uni.lodz.pl/~meteo/kf/publikacje_kf_PDF/r2004_ActaGeoLodz_89_p19_Wibig_etal.pdf
Some of these values was 'weird' and was changed using R tools (climatol).
T. NANNI, M. P. TADI C, Z. B IHARI, M. D OLINAR, G. M ULLER -W ESTERMEIER, 2009:
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LucieVincentCanada724 A high-resolution 1961-1990 monthly temperature climatology for the greater Alpine region.
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RenateAuchmannSwitzerland1st Jan 1971Time of observation change from 20:30 to 18:30, Method change for daily mean temperature calculation: (Tmorn + Tnoon + 2*Teve)/4 (Daily mean of relative humidity was calculated from 3 values) After that new calculation of T and RH using a correction factor for adapted to single sitesWARM - would expect this to lead to cooler daily mean/monthly means AFTER 1971725 – Meteorologische Zeitschrift 18, 507–530.
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SwitzerlandJan 1978 and December 1980Change to AWS (ANETZ) including change from LIG thermometer to thermo-hygrometer
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SwitzerlandJan 1981Use of 10-min measurements to calculate Tmean and ThourMay expect this to decrease variability slightly if values are now a mean over 10 minutes rather than an instantaneous value.
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Switzerland2003-2013ANETZ to SMN (SwissMetNet)Begert et al. (2005); MeteoSwiss reports
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FranzKuglitschSwitzerlandBreak detection of annual Swiss temperature series, FG Kuglitsch, R Auchmann, R Bleisch, S Brönnimann, O Martius, M Stewart, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) 117 (D13)) camparing statistically found break points with metadata for the entire Swiss temperature network. The Aux. Material gives detailed information about the station history from the archive of MeteoSwiss. All the information can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012JD017729/full#jgrd17980-sup-0000
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MichaelBegertSwitzerlandcountrywide_inhomog_Switzerland.docx
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Peter DomonkosScreen painting causing short-platformsEITHERScreen could be temporarily whiter = more reflective, or darker (less reflective)
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Blair TrewinAustraliaAcross recordWet season long grass vs dry season die back close to enclosure - increases roughness length reducing local winds and mixing - THIS IS NATURAL VARIABILITY BUT HOW DO WE WANT TO DEAL WITH IT???0.3 to 0.5 in both directions change in Tminshort-platforms, high grass during wet season reduces wind speed at night and therefore the mixing - allows lower Tmin
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AustraliaAcross recordshort platforms caused by some change i.e. new building, time lag realising something was amiss and then correcting for it.1-3yrs length, frequentshort-platforms
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Australia: Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australiaearly-mid 1890sShelter change: mixed to stevenson screenWARM Tmax change of -1 to -2 deg typical, more in summer, less in winterAshcroft et al., 2012 Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal: http://www.bom.gov.au/amoj/docs/2012/ashcroft.pdf Trewin, IJC, 2013? http://cawcr.gov.au/publications/technicalreports/CTR_049.pdf):
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Australia: New South Wales and Victoria1906-1908Shelter change: mixed to stevenson screenWARM Tmax change of -1 to -2 deg typical, more in summer, less in winter
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Australia1932-1963Observation time change: 9am-9am local time for Tmax and 3pm-9am for Tmin became midnight-midnight during 1932-1962 for major stations (~50). Now 9am-9am everywhere.Overall impact looks to be in the order of +0.05-0.10°C on Tmin at nationally averaged scale but up to 0.5°C at individual stations near the south coast, and with a particularly marked impact on the frequency of extreme high minima . No measurable impact on maxima.Melbourne had only one minimum above 25°C in the 32 years 1932-63 but has averaged about 0.6 per year since then). NOTES: very hot nights in southern coastal Australia typically occur on the last night of a heatwave, as a trough or cold front approaches and increasing winds prevent nocturnal inversions from occurring. (Southern Australia maximum temperature variability is in summer, because it is one of the few poleward-facing coasts in mid-latitudes so there is a strong hot land/cold ocean contrast in summer; in Melbourne there is nothing unusual about temperatures falling from near 40 C to the low 20s in 30 minutes if winds shift from N/NW to SW, even if there is no rain with the wind change). With a midnight-midnight day, these hot nights are usually 'lost' from the record because by the following midnight the front/trough has passed through.

An example of this occurred in January 2010 when Melbourne had its equal hottest 'overnight' (but not 24-hour) minimum. The lowest temperature between 1500 and 0900 was 30.6 C (following a day of 43.6 C); the 24-hour minimum for the 0900-0900 period was 25.5 (the temperature at 0900 the preceding day), but a front passed through at about 1400 and by midnight the temperature had fallen to 17.5.
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Australia - New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory.1972Introduction of daylight saving (+1hour October to April). No significant impact noted but can change actual reporting hours (HadISD - Melbourne)
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AustraliaSeptember 1972Metric conversion/Instrument change: Fahrenheit to celsius - new instruments issued across network.No clear evidence of shift in mean temperatures though difficult to assess due to lack of reference data, as well as shift from strong El Niño to strong La Niña in early 1973 producing strong natural variability signal at this time. Marked decline in incidence of rounding temperatures to nearest 1 or 0.5 degree after changeover which may affect occurrence of days over/under thresholds.
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Australia1990 onwards, esp. 1st Nov. 1996Manual to automatic/some site moves too. Change to automatic probe thermometer but no change to shelterNo evidence of systematic impact for sites that did not change location.
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Australiathroughout, esp. 1940s (WWII) and 1990s (automation)Station moves from in-town to out-of-town, mostly airports. 66% ACORN-SAT network in-town in 1930 to 20% in 2012WARM? 0.1-0.2°C difference at national scaleImpact of each move depends on local geography. Largest effect during dry season where changes from either watered lawns of towns to non-watered lawns of airports (warmer airports) or from non-irrigated to irrigated (cooler now) or from towns to agricultural areas (1 degree warmer summers/autumn and 1 degree cooler winter/spring - no change for annual average).
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Blair TrewinTropicsTmax - largest changes when change in insolation - shelter change or station move
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TropicsTmin - largest changes during the dry season when station moves lead to significant topographical change
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FiorellaAcquaottaPiedmont, northwest ItalyStation moves Complex, unique to each station.
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MicheleRienznerLombardy Plain, northern ItalyDaily temperatureGaussian distributed (mean 0.01°C, std 2.00°C) The lapses between the change-points are nearly log-normal: mean and std of the log10 transformed lapses are: 2.62 and 0.709. Mean number of years/steps = 3.27 years/step, for 12 series of 20yrs - daily) 8x48+/-22day 2.6deg+/-2.2, 5x183+/-85 1.7+/-0.7, 11x1492+/-813 1deg+/-0.9large proportion are short-platforms likely due to discovery-fixing process.
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PhilJonesCentral EuropeShelter change Böhm, R., Jones, P.D., Hiebl, J., Frank, D., Brunetti, M. and Maugeri, M., 2010: The early instrumental warm-bias: a solution for long Central European temperature series, 1760-2007. Climatic Change 101, 41-67
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Russiapre-1900sShelter change: north facing wall to screens
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PashaGroismanRussia~1900sShelter change: wild shelter to stevenson screenintercomparisons in Pavlovsk showed little systematic effect.
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Russia1936Observation frequency change: 3 times to 4 times daily, adding a midnight observation and shifting the morning and afternoon measurementsChange in daily means (lower with addition of midnight?) but studies in the 1960s did not find systematic nationwide differencesRoss Brown, J. Clim. 2000?
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Russia1966Change in standard time to UTC+3 = Moscow Standard TimeNo reported problems
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Russia1991 and onwardsSeperation of USSR leads to changes of standard time - Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic States and Russian Kaliningrad oblast' switched to Helsinki time
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GregorVertacnikSloveniaAround 90 % of breaks is smaller than 0.5 °C, the size on annual scale is even less. Distribution of break size is quite symmetric, centred near zero. Monthly means of mean daily, minimum and maximum temperature show around 1 break per 25 years on average, though there was sometimes a noticeable difference between some users. Breaks are unevely spaced in time.
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TheoBrandsmaNetherlands1906All operational stations used stevenson screens from this point onwards (except De Bilt - see below)
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1950De Bilt changed from Pagoda screen to Stevenson ScreenSummer Tmax mainly affected
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1990-1994Stevenson screens to round multi-plated screens, transition to AWS, transition to AWS was accompanied by a discontinuation of so-called climate stations. These stations were sometimes continued as an AWS but at another location. Negligible bias in Tmean. Connecting these discontinued climate series with new AWS stations without homogenization causes biases. Recent research at KNMI (not yet published) shows that the biases do not affect the trends for the Netherlands as a whole (by comparing the trends of the mean series for the homogenized and non-homogenized data)Brandsma, T. and J.P. van der Meulen, Thermometer Screen Intercomparison in De Bilt (the Netherlands), Part II: Description and modeling of mean temperature differences and extremes Int. J. Climatology, 1, 2008, 28, 3, 389-400, doi:10.1002/joc.1524., Meulen, J.P. van der and T. Brandsma, Thermometer Screen Intercomparison in De Bilt (the Netherlands), Part I: Understanding the weather-dependent temperature differences Int. J. Climatology, 1, 2008, 28, 3, 371-387, doi:10.1002/joc.1531.
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PaulClewsUKTemperature_StationsUK.xls
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AustriaAuer.pdf, regional_inhomogeneities.odt
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Auer IngeborgAustria1970/71change of observation hours from 9 pm to 7 pmnew rules for the caluculation of daily and monthly means

Auer I, Böhm R, Schöner W. pp 125-152.  2001    Long Climatic Time Series from Austria. In History and Climate: Memories of the Future?, ed. by P.D. Jones, A.E.J., Ogilvie, T.D. Davies and K.R.Briffa. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New
York,Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.,

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before apprx. 1851systematioc decrease of thermometer installations + change to metal window screennegative bias of sunmmer temp and slight positve of old temp

Auer I, Böhm R, Schöner W. pp 125-152.  2001    Long Climatic Time Series from Austria. In History and Climate: Memories of the Future?, ed. by P.D. Jones, A.E.J., Ogilvie, T.D. Davies and K.R.Briffa. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New
York,Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.,

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before apprx. 1851systematic decrease of rain gauge installations (from roof to the ground)deficiency in old measuerements

Auer I, Böhm R, Schöner W. pp 125-152.  2001    Long Climatic Time Series from Austria. In History and Climate: Memories of the Future?, ed. by P.D. Jones, A.E.J., Ogilvie, T.D. Davies and K.R.Briffa. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New
York,Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.,

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MattMenneUSA1986-1991Replaced over half of liquid-in-glass maximum and minimum thermometers in wooden Cotton Region Shelters (CRSS) with thermistor-based Maximum-Minimum Temperature Systems (MMTSS) housed in smaller plastic shelters. MMTS stations show +0.3°C in Tmin, −0.4°C in Tmax, −0.1°C in Tmean, −0.7°C in DTRconcise-overview-of-us-inhomogeneities.docx
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Anna Athanassios ManolisMamara Argiriou AnadranistakisGreece1960-2004Tmean- largest changes when station moves from town to airport and when obseravtional hours changes from local to UTCThe majority of annual series were corrected with 0.2-0.5 °C (absolute values), while the 12% of annual series were corrected by more 1 °C (absolute values)The most pronounced changes in trends before and after homogenization are found in summer and winter. The size of seasonal and annual trends has been reduced after homogenization. In summer,a positive temperature trend after homogenization is noticeable in all climatic regions with the most intense warming occurring over northern Greece, the East Aegean islands and Attica. In winter, a warming trend after homogenization is observed only in northern and central Greece, whereas the remaining regions show a negative trend. The 85% of series are affected from inhomogeneities. The 43% of breaks are found within the period 1976-1986Mamara A, Argiriou AA and Anadranistakis M. 2013.Detection and Correction of Inhomogeneities in Greek Climate Temperature Series. International Journal of Climatology, accepted for publication. Mamara A, Argiriou AA and Anadranistakis M. 2012. Homogenization of mean monthly temperature series of Greece. International Journal of Climatology. DOI: 10.1002/joc.3614
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