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Pubmed ID1st authorYearJournalTitleBehavior examinedNeurogenesis manipulationNeurogenesis associated withspeciesAbstract
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20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictionaddiction - cocaine self administrationirradiationdecreased drug seekingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
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20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictionaddiction - extinction of cocaine self administration, remoteirradiation (post-CSA)decreased drug seekingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
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20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictionaddiction - extinction of cocaine self administration, remoteirradiation (pre-CSA)nothingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
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20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictionaddiction - reinstatement of cocaine self administration, remoteirradiation (post-CSA)decreased drug seekingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
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20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictionaddiction - reinstatement of cocaine self administration, remoteirradiation (pre-CSA)nothingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
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18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - coat stateirradiationnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
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18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - coat stateirradiation + UCMS + AVP antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
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18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - coat stateirradiation + UCMS + CRF antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
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18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - coat stateirradiation + UCMSnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
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18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - coat stateirradiation + UCMS + flxreduced depr / anxietymouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
12
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - coat stateirradiation + UCMS + imireduced depr / anxietymouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
13
12907793Santarelli2003ScienceRequirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants.depr / anxiety - coat state (after UCMS)irradiationnothingmouseVarious chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the neurogenic and behavioral effects of fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. X-irradiation of a restricted region of mouse brain containing the hippocampus prevented the neurogenic and behavioral effects of two classes of antidepressants. These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
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12907793Santarelli2003ScienceRequirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants.depr / anxiety - coat state (after UCMS)irradiation + flxreduced depr / anxietymouseVarious chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the neurogenic and behavioral effects of fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. X-irradiation of a restricted region of mouse brain containing the hippocampus prevented the neurogenic and behavioral effects of two classes of antidepressants. These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
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12440573Shors2002HippocampusNeurogenesis may relate to some but not all types of hippocampal-dependent learning.depr / anxiety - elevated plus mazeexog. MAMnothingratThe hippocampal formation generates new neurons throughout adulthood. Recent studies indicate that these cells possess the morphology and physiological properties of more established neurons. However, the function of adult generated neurons is still a matter of debate. We previously demonstrated that certain forms of associative learning can enhance the survival of new neurons and a reduction in neurogenesis coincides with impaired learning of the hippocampal-dependent task of trace eyeblink conditioning. Using the toxin methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) for proliferating cells, we tested whether reduction of neurogenesis affected learning and performance associated with different hippocampal dependent tasks: spatial navigation learning in a Morris water maze, fear responses to context and an explicit cue after training with a trace fear paradigm. We also examined exploratory behavior in an elevated plus maze. Rats were injected with MAM (7 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days, concurrent with BrdU, to label new neurons on days 10, 12, and 14. After treatment, groups of rats were tested in the various tasks. A significant reduction in new neurons in the adult hippocampus was associated with impaired performance in some tasks, but not with others. Specifically, treatment with the antimitotic agent reduced the amount of fear acquired after exposure to a trace fear conditioning paradigm but did not affect contextual fear conditioning or spatial navigation learning in the Morris water maze. Nor did MAM treatment affect exploration in the elevated plus maze. These results combined with previous ones suggest that neurogenesis may be associated with the formation of some but not all types of hippocampal-dependent memories.
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17088541Saxe2006Proc Natl Acad Sci U S AAblation of hippocampal neurogenesis impairs contextual fear conditioning and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus.depr / anxiety - elevated plus mazeirradiationnothingmouseAlthough hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in many adult mammals, the functional impact of this process on physiology and behavior remains unclear. In the present study, we used two independent methods to ablate hippocampal neurogenesis and found that each procedure caused a limited behavioral deficit and a loss of synaptic plasticity within the dentate gyrus. Specifically, focal X irradiation of the hippocampus or genetic ablation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive neural progenitor cells impaired contextual fear conditioning but not cued conditioning. Hippocampal-dependent spatial learning tasks such as the Morris water maze and Y maze were unaffected. These findings show that adult-born neurons make a distinct contribution to some but not all hippocampal functions. In a parallel set of experiments, we show that long-term potentiation elicited in the dentate gyrus in the absence of GABA blockers requires the presence of new neurons, as it is eliminated by each of our ablation procedures. These data show that new hippocampal neurons can be preferentially recruited over mature granule cells in vitro and may provide a framework for how this small cell population can influence behavior.
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19553382Jaholkowski2009Learn MemNew hippocampal neurons are not obligatory for memory formation; cyclin D2 knockout mice with no adult brain neurogenesis show learningdepr / anxiety - elevated plus mazetransgenic Cyclin D2nothingmouseThe role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs known for their side effects and the results obtained vary greatly. We used a novel approach, cyclin D2 knockout mice (D2 KO mice), specifically lacking adult brain neurogenesis to verify its importance in learning and memory. D2 KO mice and their wild-type siblings were tested in several behavioral paradigms, including those in which the role of adult neurogenesis has been postulated. D2 KO mice showed no impairment in sensorimotor tests, with only sensory impairment in an olfaction-dependent task. However, D2 KO mice showed proper procedural learning as well as learning in context (including remote memory), cue, and trace fear conditioning, Morris water maze, novel object recognition test, and in a multifunctional behavioral system-IntelliCages. D2 KO mice also demonstrated correct reversal learning. Our results suggest that adult brain neurogenesis is not obligatory in learning, including the kinds of learning where the role of adult neurogenesis has previously been strongly suggested.
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19255582Revest2009Mol PsychiatryAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in anxiety-related behaviorsdepr / anxiety - elevated plus mazetransgenic nestin-Baxreduced depr / anxietymouseAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is a unique example of structural plasticity, the functional role of which has been a matter of intense debate. New transgenic models have recently shown that neurogenesis participates in hippocampus-mediated learning. Here, we show that transgenic animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been specifically impaired, exhibit a striking increase in anxiety-related behaviors. Our results indicate that neurogenesis plays an important role in the regulation of affective states and could be the target of new treatments for anxiety disorders.
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20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictiondepr / anxiety - extinction of sucrose self administrationirradiationnothingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
20
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - forced swim testexog. MAMnothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
21
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - forced swim testexog. MAM + UCMSnothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
22
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - forced swim testexog. MAM + UCMS + flxnothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
23
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - forced swim testexog. MAM + UCMS + iminothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
24
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - forced swim testexog. MAM + UCMS + CP156526nothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
25
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - forced swim testexog. MAM + UCMS + SSR149415nothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
26
17429410Holick2008NeuropsychopharmacologyBehavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine in BALB/cJ mice do not require adult hippocampal neurogenesis or the serotonin 1A receptor.depr / anxiety - forced swim testirradiationnothingmouseWe previously reported that chronic, but not subchronic, treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine altered behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) in BALB/cJ mice. We now use this model to investigate mechanisms underlying the delayed onset of the behavioral response to antidepressants, specifically (1) adult hippocampal neurogenesis and (2) expression of the 5-HT1A receptor. Here, we show data validating this model of chronic antidepressant action. We found the FST to be selectively responsive to chronic administration of the SSRI fluoxetine (18 mg/kg/day) and the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (20 mg/kg/day), but not to the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day) in BALB/cJ mice. The behavioral effects of fluoxetine emerged by 12 days of treatment, and were affected neither by ablation of progenitor cells of the hippocampus nor by genetic deletion of the 5-HT1A receptor. The effect of fluoxetine in the BALB/cJ mice was also neurogenesis-independent in the novelty-induced hypophagia test. We also found that chronic fluoxetine does not induce an increase in cell proliferation or the number of young neurons as measured by BrdU and doublecortin immunolabeling, respectively, in BALB/cJ mice. These data are in contrast to our previous report using a different strain of mice (129SvEvTac). In conclusion, we find that BALB/cJ mice show a robust response to chronic SSRI treatment in the FST, which is not mediated by an increase in new neurons in the hippocampus, and does not require the 5-HT1A receptor. These findings suggest that SSRIs can produce antidepressant-like effects via distinct mechanisms in different mouse strains.
27
17615305Airan2007ScienceHigh-speed imaging reveals neurophysiological links to behavior in an animal model of depression.depr / anxiety - forced swim testirradiationnothingratThe hippocampus is one of several brain areas thought to play a central role in affective behaviors, but the underlying local network dynamics are not understood. We used quantitative voltage-sensitive dye imaging to probe hippocampal dynamics with millisecond resolution in brain slices after bidirectional modulation of affective state in rat models of depression. We found that a simple measure of real-time activity-stimulus-evoked percolation of activity through the dentate gyrus relative to the hippocampal output subfield-accounted for induced changes in animal behavior independent of the underlying mechanism of action of the treatments. Our results define a circuit-level neurophysiological endophenotype for affective behavior and suggest an approach to understanding circuit-level substrates underlying psychiatric disease symptoms.
28
19255582Revest2009Mol PsychiatryAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in anxiety-related behaviorsdepr / anxiety - forced swim testtransgenic nestin-BaxnothingmouseAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is a unique example of structural plasticity, the functional role of which has been a matter of intense debate. New transgenic models have recently shown that neurogenesis participates in hippocampus-mediated learning. Here, we show that transgenic animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been specifically impaired, exhibit a striking increase in anxiety-related behaviors. Our results indicate that neurogenesis plays an important role in the regulation of affective states and could be the target of new treatments for anxiety disorders.
29
19477151David2009NeuronNeurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of fluoxetine in an animal model of anxiety/depression.depr / anxiety - forced swim testirradiation + chronic cortnothingmouseUnderstanding the physiopathology of affective disorders and their treatment relies on the availability of experimental models that accurately mimic aspects of the disease. Here we describe a mouse model of an anxiety/depressive-like state induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Furthermore, chronic antidepressant treatment reversed the behavioral dysfunctions and the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by corticosterone treatment. In corticosterone-treated mice where hippocampal neurogenesis is abolished by X-irradiation, the efficacy of fluoxetine is blocked in some, but not all, behavioral paradigms, suggesting both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms of antidepressant action. Finally, we identified a number of candidate genes, the expression of which is decreased by chronic corticosterone and normalized by chronic fluoxetine treatment selectively in the hypothalamus. Importantly, mice deficient in one of these genes, beta-arrestin 2, displayed a reduced response to fluoxetine in multiple tasks, suggesting that beta-arrestin signaling is necessary for the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.
30
19477151David2009NeuronNeurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of fluoxetine in an animal model of anxiety/depression.depr / anxiety - forced swim testirradiation + chronic cort + flxnothingmouseUnderstanding the physiopathology of affective disorders and their treatment relies on the availability of experimental models that accurately mimic aspects of the disease. Here we describe a mouse model of an anxiety/depressive-like state induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Furthermore, chronic antidepressant treatment reversed the behavioral dysfunctions and the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by corticosterone treatment. In corticosterone-treated mice where hippocampal neurogenesis is abolished by X-irradiation, the efficacy of fluoxetine is blocked in some, but not all, behavioral paradigms, suggesting both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms of antidepressant action. Finally, we identified a number of candidate genes, the expression of which is decreased by chronic corticosterone and normalized by chronic fluoxetine treatment selectively in the hypothalamus. Importantly, mice deficient in one of these genes, beta-arrestin 2, displayed a reduced response to fluoxetine in multiple tasks, suggesting that beta-arrestin signaling is necessary for the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.
31
16224541Jiang2005J Clin Invest.Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effectsdepr / anxiety - forced swim testirradiation + HU210 (cannabinoid)reduced depr / anxietyratThe hippocampal dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain contains neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) capable of generating new neurons, i.e., neurogenesis. Most drugs of abuse examined to date decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids) on hippocampal neurogenesis remain unknown. This study aimed at investigating the potential regulatory capacity of the potent synthetic cannabinoid HU210 on hippocampal neurogenesis and its possible correlation with behavioral change. We show that both embryonic and adult rat hippocampal NS/PCs are immunoreactive for CB1 cannabinoid receptors, indicating that cannabinoids could act on CB1 receptors to regulate neurogenesis. This hypothesis is supported by further findings that HU210 promotes proliferation, but not differentiation, of cultured embryonic hippocampal NS/PCs likely via a sequential activation of CB1 receptors, G(i/o) proteins, and ERK signaling. Chronic, but not acute, HU210 treatment promoted neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult rats and exerted anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. X-irradiation of the hippocampus blocked both the neurogenic and behavioral effects of chronic HU210 treatment, suggesting that chronic HU210 treatment produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects likely via promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis.
32
17615305Airan2007ScienceHigh-speed imaging reveals neurophysiological links to behavior in an animal model of depression.depr / anxiety - forced swim testirradiation + flxreduced depr / anxietyratThe hippocampus is one of several brain areas thought to play a central role in affective behaviors, but the underlying local network dynamics are not understood. We used quantitative voltage-sensitive dye imaging to probe hippocampal dynamics with millisecond resolution in brain slices after bidirectional modulation of affective state in rat models of depression. We found that a simple measure of real-time activity-stimulus-evoked percolation of activity through the dentate gyrus relative to the hippocampal output subfield-accounted for induced changes in animal behavior independent of the underlying mechanism of action of the treatments. Our results define a circuit-level neurophysiological endophenotype for affective behavior and suggest an approach to understanding circuit-level substrates underlying psychiatric disease symptoms.
33
20862278Fuss2010PLoS ONEDeletion of Running-Induced Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Irradiation Prevents Development of an Anxious Phenotype in Micedepr / anxiety - light / dark testirradiation + runningincreased depr / anxietymouseRecent evidence postulates a role of hippocampal neurogenesis in anxiety behavior. Here we report that elevated levels of neurogenesis elicit increased anxiety in rodents. Mice performing voluntary wheel running displayed both highly elevated levels of neurogenesis and increased anxiety in three different anxiety-like paradigms: the open field, elevated O-maze, and dark-light box. Reducing neurogenesis by focalized irradiation of the hippocampus abolished this exercise-induced increase of anxiety, suggesting a direct implication of hippocampal neurogenesis in this phenotype. On the other hand, irradiated mice explored less frequently the lit compartment of the dark-light box test irrespective of wheel running, suggesting that irradiation per se induced anxiety as well. Thus, our data suggest that intermediate levels of neurogenesis are related to the lowest levels of anxiety. Moreover, using c-Fos immunocytochemistry as cellular activity marker, we observed significantly different induction patterns between runners and sedentary controls when exposed to a strong anxiogenic stimulus. Again, this effect was altered by irradiation. In contrast, the well-known induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by voluntary exercise was not disrupted by focal irradiation, indicating that hippocampal BDNF levels were not correlated with anxiety under our experimental conditions. In summary, our data demonstrate to our knowledge for the first time that increased neurogenesis has a causative implication in the induction of anxiety
34
17088541Saxe2006Proc Natl Acad Sci U S AAblation of hippocampal neurogenesis impairs contextual fear conditioning and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus.depr / anxiety - light / dark testirradiationnothingmouseAlthough hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in many adult mammals, the functional impact of this process on physiology and behavior remains unclear. In the present study, we used two independent methods to ablate hippocampal neurogenesis and found that each procedure caused a limited behavioral deficit and a loss of synaptic plasticity within the dentate gyrus. Specifically, focal X irradiation of the hippocampus or genetic ablation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive neural progenitor cells impaired contextual fear conditioning but not cued conditioning. Hippocampal-dependent spatial learning tasks such as the Morris water maze and Y maze were unaffected. These findings show that adult-born neurons make a distinct contribution to some but not all hippocampal functions. In a parallel set of experiments, we show that long-term potentiation elicited in the dentate gyrus in the absence of GABA blockers requires the presence of new neurons, as it is eliminated by each of our ablation procedures. These data show that new hippocampal neurons can be preferentially recruited over mature granule cells in vitro and may provide a framework for how this small cell population can influence behavior.
35
19255582Revest2009Mol PsychiatryAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in anxiety-related behaviorsdepr / anxiety - light / dark testtransgenic nestin-Baxreduced depr / anxietymouseAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is a unique example of structural plasticity, the functional role of which has been a matter of intense debate. New transgenic models have recently shown that neurogenesis participates in hippocampus-mediated learning. Here, we show that transgenic animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been specifically impaired, exhibit a striking increase in anxiety-related behaviors. Our results indicate that neurogenesis plays an important role in the regulation of affective states and could be the target of new treatments for anxiety disorders.
36
12907793Santarelli2003ScienceRequirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiationnothingmouseVarious chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the neurogenic and behavioral effects of fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. X-irradiation of a restricted region of mouse brain containing the hippocampus prevented the neurogenic and behavioral effects of two classes of antidepressants. These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
37
16648847Meshi2006Nat NeurosciHippocampal neurogenesis is not required for behavioral effects of environmental enrichment.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiationnothingmouseEnvironmental enrichment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alters hippocampal-dependent behavior in rodents. To investigate a causal link between these two observations, we analyzed the effect of enrichment on spatial learning and anxiety-like behavior while blocking adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We report that environmental enrichment alters behavior in mice regardless of their hippocampal neurogenic capability, providing evidence that the newborn cells do not mediate these effects of enrichment.
38
16648847Meshi2006Nat NeurosciHippocampal neurogenesis is not required for behavioral effects of environmental enrichment.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + EEnothingmouseEnvironmental enrichment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alters hippocampal-dependent behavior in rodents. To investigate a causal link between these two observations, we analyzed the effect of enrichment on spatial learning and anxiety-like behavior while blocking adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We report that environmental enrichment alters behavior in mice regardless of their hippocampal neurogenic capability, providing evidence that the newborn cells do not mediate these effects of enrichment.
39
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiationnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
40
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + UCMS + AVP antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
41
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + UCMS + CRF antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
42
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + UCMS + iminothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
43
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + UCMSnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
44
19255582Revest2009Mol PsychiatryAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in anxiety-related behaviorsdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingtransgenic nestin-BaxnothingmouseAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is a unique example of structural plasticity, the functional role of which has been a matter of intense debate. New transgenic models have recently shown that neurogenesis participates in hippocampus-mediated learning. Here, we show that transgenic animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been specifically impaired, exhibit a striking increase in anxiety-related behaviors. Our results indicate that neurogenesis plays an important role in the regulation of affective states and could be the target of new treatments for anxiety disorders.
45
19477151David2009NeuronNeurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of fluoxetine in an animal model of anxiety/depression.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + chronic cortnothingmouseUnderstanding the physiopathology of affective disorders and their treatment relies on the availability of experimental models that accurately mimic aspects of the disease. Here we describe a mouse model of an anxiety/depressive-like state induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Furthermore, chronic antidepressant treatment reversed the behavioral dysfunctions and the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by corticosterone treatment. In corticosterone-treated mice where hippocampal neurogenesis is abolished by X-irradiation, the efficacy of fluoxetine is blocked in some, but not all, behavioral paradigms, suggesting both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms of antidepressant action. Finally, we identified a number of candidate genes, the expression of which is decreased by chronic corticosterone and normalized by chronic fluoxetine treatment selectively in the hypothalamus. Importantly, mice deficient in one of these genes, beta-arrestin 2, displayed a reduced response to fluoxetine in multiple tasks, suggesting that beta-arrestin signaling is necessary for the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.
46
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingexog. MAMreduced depr / anxietyratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
47
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingexog. MAM + UCMSreduced depr / anxietyratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
48
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingexog. MAM + UCMS + flxreduced depr / anxietyratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
49
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingexog. MAM + UCMS + imireduced depr / anxietyratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
50
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingexog. MAM + UCMS + CP156526reduced depr / anxietyratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
51
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingexog. MAM + UCMS + SSR149415reduced depr / anxietyratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
52
16224541Jiang2005J Clin Invest.Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effectsdepr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + HU210 (cannabinoid)reduced depr / anxietyratThe hippocampal dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain contains neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) capable of generating new neurons, i.e., neurogenesis. Most drugs of abuse examined to date decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids) on hippocampal neurogenesis remain unknown. This study aimed at investigating the potential regulatory capacity of the potent synthetic cannabinoid HU210 on hippocampal neurogenesis and its possible correlation with behavioral change. We show that both embryonic and adult rat hippocampal NS/PCs are immunoreactive for CB1 cannabinoid receptors, indicating that cannabinoids could act on CB1 receptors to regulate neurogenesis. This hypothesis is supported by further findings that HU210 promotes proliferation, but not differentiation, of cultured embryonic hippocampal NS/PCs likely via a sequential activation of CB1 receptors, G(i/o) proteins, and ERK signaling. Chronic, but not acute, HU210 treatment promoted neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult rats and exerted anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. X-irradiation of the hippocampus blocked both the neurogenic and behavioral effects of chronic HU210 treatment, suggesting that chronic HU210 treatment produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects likely via promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis.
53
12907793Santarelli2003ScienceRequirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + flxreduced depr / anxietymouseVarious chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the neurogenic and behavioral effects of fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. X-irradiation of a restricted region of mouse brain containing the hippocampus prevented the neurogenic and behavioral effects of two classes of antidepressants. These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
54
12907793Santarelli2003ScienceRequirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + imireduced depr / anxietymouseVarious chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the neurogenic and behavioral effects of fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. X-irradiation of a restricted region of mouse brain containing the hippocampus prevented the neurogenic and behavioral effects of two classes of antidepressants. These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
55
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + UCMS + flxreduced depr / anxietymouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
56
19477151David2009NeuronNeurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of fluoxetine in an animal model of anxiety/depression.depr / anxiety - novelty suppressed feedingirradiation + chronic cort + flxreduced depr / anxietymouseUnderstanding the physiopathology of affective disorders and their treatment relies on the availability of experimental models that accurately mimic aspects of the disease. Here we describe a mouse model of an anxiety/depressive-like state induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Furthermore, chronic antidepressant treatment reversed the behavioral dysfunctions and the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by corticosterone treatment. In corticosterone-treated mice where hippocampal neurogenesis is abolished by X-irradiation, the efficacy of fluoxetine is blocked in some, but not all, behavioral paradigms, suggesting both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms of antidepressant action. Finally, we identified a number of candidate genes, the expression of which is decreased by chronic corticosterone and normalized by chronic fluoxetine treatment selectively in the hypothalamus. Importantly, mice deficient in one of these genes, beta-arrestin 2, displayed a reduced response to fluoxetine in multiple tasks, suggesting that beta-arrestin signaling is necessary for the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.
57
17429410Holick2008NeuropsychopharmacologyBehavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine in BALB/cJ mice do not require adult hippocampal neurogenesis or the serotonin 1A receptor.depr / anxiety - novelty-induced hypophagiairradiationnothingmouseWe previously reported that chronic, but not subchronic, treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine altered behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) in BALB/cJ mice. We now use this model to investigate mechanisms underlying the delayed onset of the behavioral response to antidepressants, specifically (1) adult hippocampal neurogenesis and (2) expression of the 5-HT1A receptor. Here, we show data validating this model of chronic antidepressant action. We found the FST to be selectively responsive to chronic administration of the SSRI fluoxetine (18 mg/kg/day) and the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (20 mg/kg/day), but not to the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day) in BALB/cJ mice. The behavioral effects of fluoxetine emerged by 12 days of treatment, and were affected neither by ablation of progenitor cells of the hippocampus nor by genetic deletion of the 5-HT1A receptor. The effect of fluoxetine in the BALB/cJ mice was also neurogenesis-independent in the novelty-induced hypophagia test. We also found that chronic fluoxetine does not induce an increase in cell proliferation or the number of young neurons as measured by BrdU and doublecortin immunolabeling, respectively, in BALB/cJ mice. These data are in contrast to our previous report using a different strain of mice (129SvEvTac). In conclusion, we find that BALB/cJ mice show a robust response to chronic SSRI treatment in the FST, which is not mediated by an increase in new neurons in the hippocampus, and does not require the 5-HT1A receptor. These findings suggest that SSRIs can produce antidepressant-like effects via distinct mechanisms in different mouse strains.
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20862278Fuss2010PLoS ONEDeletion of Running-Induced Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Irradiation Prevents Development of an Anxious Phenotype in Micedepr / anxiety - O mazeirradiation + runningincreased depr / anxietymouseRecent evidence postulates a role of hippocampal neurogenesis in anxiety behavior. Here we report that elevated levels of neurogenesis elicit increased anxiety in rodents. Mice performing voluntary wheel running displayed both highly elevated levels of neurogenesis and increased anxiety in three different anxiety-like paradigms: the open field, elevated O-maze, and dark-light box. Reducing neurogenesis by focalized irradiation of the hippocampus abolished this exercise-induced increase of anxiety, suggesting a direct implication of hippocampal neurogenesis in this phenotype. On the other hand, irradiated mice explored less frequently the lit compartment of the dark-light box test irrespective of wheel running, suggesting that irradiation per se induced anxiety as well. Thus, our data suggest that intermediate levels of neurogenesis are related to the lowest levels of anxiety. Moreover, using c-Fos immunocytochemistry as cellular activity marker, we observed significantly different induction patterns between runners and sedentary controls when exposed to a strong anxiogenic stimulus. Again, this effect was altered by irradiation. In contrast, the well-known induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by voluntary exercise was not disrupted by focal irradiation, indicating that hippocampal BDNF levels were not correlated with anxiety under our experimental conditions. In summary, our data demonstrate to our knowledge for the first time that increased neurogenesis has a causative implication in the induction of anxiety
59
20862278Fuss2010PLoS ONEDeletion of Running-Induced Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Irradiation Prevents Development of an Anxious Phenotype in Micedepr / anxiety - open fieldirradiation + runningincreased depr / anxietymouseRecent evidence postulates a role of hippocampal neurogenesis in anxiety behavior. Here we report that elevated levels of neurogenesis elicit increased anxiety in rodents. Mice performing voluntary wheel running displayed both highly elevated levels of neurogenesis and increased anxiety in three different anxiety-like paradigms: the open field, elevated O-maze, and dark-light box. Reducing neurogenesis by focalized irradiation of the hippocampus abolished this exercise-induced increase of anxiety, suggesting a direct implication of hippocampal neurogenesis in this phenotype. On the other hand, irradiated mice explored less frequently the lit compartment of the dark-light box test irrespective of wheel running, suggesting that irradiation per se induced anxiety as well. Thus, our data suggest that intermediate levels of neurogenesis are related to the lowest levels of anxiety. Moreover, using c-Fos immunocytochemistry as cellular activity marker, we observed significantly different induction patterns between runners and sedentary controls when exposed to a strong anxiogenic stimulus. Again, this effect was altered by irradiation. In contrast, the well-known induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by voluntary exercise was not disrupted by focal irradiation, indicating that hippocampal BDNF levels were not correlated with anxiety under our experimental conditions. In summary, our data demonstrate to our knowledge for the first time that increased neurogenesis has a causative implication in the induction of anxiety
60
19477151David2009NeuronNeurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of fluoxetine in an animal model of anxiety/depression.depr / anxiety - open fieldirradiation + chronic cortnothingmouseUnderstanding the physiopathology of affective disorders and their treatment relies on the availability of experimental models that accurately mimic aspects of the disease. Here we describe a mouse model of an anxiety/depressive-like state induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Furthermore, chronic antidepressant treatment reversed the behavioral dysfunctions and the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by corticosterone treatment. In corticosterone-treated mice where hippocampal neurogenesis is abolished by X-irradiation, the efficacy of fluoxetine is blocked in some, but not all, behavioral paradigms, suggesting both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms of antidepressant action. Finally, we identified a number of candidate genes, the expression of which is decreased by chronic corticosterone and normalized by chronic fluoxetine treatment selectively in the hypothalamus. Importantly, mice deficient in one of these genes, beta-arrestin 2, displayed a reduced response to fluoxetine in multiple tasks, suggesting that beta-arrestin signaling is necessary for the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.
61
19477151David2009NeuronNeurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of fluoxetine in an animal model of anxiety/depression.depr / anxiety - open fieldirradiation + chronic cort + flxnothingmouseUnderstanding the physiopathology of affective disorders and their treatment relies on the availability of experimental models that accurately mimic aspects of the disease. Here we describe a mouse model of an anxiety/depressive-like state induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Furthermore, chronic antidepressant treatment reversed the behavioral dysfunctions and the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by corticosterone treatment. In corticosterone-treated mice where hippocampal neurogenesis is abolished by X-irradiation, the efficacy of fluoxetine is blocked in some, but not all, behavioral paradigms, suggesting both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms of antidepressant action. Finally, we identified a number of candidate genes, the expression of which is decreased by chronic corticosterone and normalized by chronic fluoxetine treatment selectively in the hypothalamus. Importantly, mice deficient in one of these genes, beta-arrestin 2, displayed a reduced response to fluoxetine in multiple tasks, suggesting that beta-arrestin signaling is necessary for the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.
62
19553382Jaholkowski2009Learn MemNew hippocampal neurons are not obligatory for memory formation; cyclin D2 knockout mice with no adult brain neurogenesis show learningdepr / anxiety - open fieldtransgenic Cyclin D2nothingmouseThe role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs known for their side effects and the results obtained vary greatly. We used a novel approach, cyclin D2 knockout mice (D2 KO mice), specifically lacking adult brain neurogenesis to verify its importance in learning and memory. D2 KO mice and their wild-type siblings were tested in several behavioral paradigms, including those in which the role of adult neurogenesis has been postulated. D2 KO mice showed no impairment in sensorimotor tests, with only sensory impairment in an olfaction-dependent task. However, D2 KO mice showed proper procedural learning as well as learning in context (including remote memory), cue, and trace fear conditioning, Morris water maze, novel object recognition test, and in a multifunctional behavioral system-IntelliCages. D2 KO mice also demonstrated correct reversal learning. Our results suggest that adult brain neurogenesis is not obligatory in learning, including the kinds of learning where the role of adult neurogenesis has previously been strongly suggested.
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19255582Revest2009Mol PsychiatryAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in anxiety-related behaviorsdepr / anxiety - predator avoidancetransgenic nestin-Baxreduced depr / anxietymouseAdult hippocampal neurogenesis is a unique example of structural plasticity, the functional role of which has been a matter of intense debate. New transgenic models have recently shown that neurogenesis participates in hippocampus-mediated learning. Here, we show that transgenic animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been specifically impaired, exhibit a striking increase in anxiety-related behaviors. Our results indicate that neurogenesis plays an important role in the regulation of affective states and could be the target of new treatments for anxiety disorders.
64
20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictiondepr / anxiety - reinstatement of sucrose self administrationirradiationnothingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
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18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - splash testirradiationnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
66
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - splash testirradiation + UCMS + AVP antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
67
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - splash testirradiation + UCMS + CRF antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
68
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - splash testirradiation + UCMSnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
69
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - splash testirradiation + UCMS + flxreduced depr / anxietymouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
70
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.depr / anxiety - splash testirradiation + UCMS + imireduced depr / anxietymouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
71
12907793Santarelli2003ScienceRequirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants.depr / anxiety - splash test (after UCMS)irradiationnothingmouseVarious chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the neurogenic and behavioral effects of fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. X-irradiation of a restricted region of mouse brain containing the hippocampus prevented the neurogenic and behavioral effects of two classes of antidepressants. These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
72
12907793Santarelli2003ScienceRequirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants.depr / anxiety - splash test (after UCMS)irradiation + flxreduced depr / anxietymouseVarious chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the neurogenic and behavioral effects of fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor. X-irradiation of a restricted region of mouse brain containing the hippocampus prevented the neurogenic and behavioral effects of two classes of antidepressants. These findings suggest that the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressants may be mediated by the stimulation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
73
19595674Jayatissa2009Brain ResDecreased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus does not associate with development of anhedonic-like symptoms in rats.depr / anxiety - sucrose consumptionexog. MAMnothingratDepressive disorders have been proposed to be caused by stress-induced down-regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis. Nevertheless, several reports have recently pointed out that, in rodent models of depression, suppression of generation of new hippocampal neurons is not by itself sufficient to induce the development of depression-related symptoms. In the present study, we used the cell proliferation blocker methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and the rat chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression to challenge the neurogenic theory of depression. In order to achieve a comparable reduction in hippocampal cytogenesis, rats were either chronically treated with MAM for 2 weeks, or subjected to an 8 week regime of chronic mild stress. Consumption of a palatable sucrose solution was monitored once a week to assess the development of anhedonic behavior. Prior to terminal perfusion, the animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine, a marker of proliferating cells. The number of proliferating cells and total cell number and volume were estimated for the granule cell layer of the ventral hippocampal formation. Unlike CMS, chronic injections with MAM did not induce anhedonia-like symptoms in rats. Both MAM-treated and CMS-exposed groups of rats showed a comparable significant reduction in cell proliferation in the granular cell layer of the ventral hippocampal formation. However, the total cell number was reduced for CMS-exposed rats only while the granule cell layer volume was conserved for both groups. Our results show that suppression of cell proliferation in the hippocampal formation is not an absolute factor for induction of an anhedonia-like state in rats. However, it may still represent an important causal factor for vulnerable subjects.
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18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - sucrose preferenceexog. MAMnothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
75
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - sucrose preferenceexog. MAM + UCMSnothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
76
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - sucrose preferenceexog. MAM + UCMS + flxnothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
77
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - sucrose preferenceexog. MAM + UCMS + iminothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
78
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - sucrose preferenceexog. MAM + UCMS + CP156526nothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
79
18982002Bessa2009Mol PsychiatryThe mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodelingdepr / anxiety - sucrose preferenceexog. MAM + UCMS + SSR149415nothingratThe mechanisms underlying the initiation/onset of, and the recovery from, depression are still largely unknown; views that neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be important for the pathogenesis and amelioration of depressive symptoms have gained currency over the years although the original evidence has been challenged. In this study, an unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol was used to induce a depressive-like phenotype in rats. In the last 2 weeks of stress exposure, animals were treated with the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine, CP 156,526 or SSR 1494515, alone or combined with methylazoxymethanol, a cytostatic agent used to arrest neurogenesis. We found that antidepressants retain their therapeutic efficacy in reducing both measured indices of depression-like behavior (learned helplessness and anhedonia), even when neurogenesis is blocked. Instead, our experiments suggest re-establishment of neuronal plasticity (dendritic remodeling and synaptic contacts) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, rather than neurogenesis, as the basis for the restoration of behavioral homeostasis by antidepressants.
80
20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictiondepr / anxiety - sucrose self administrationirradiationnothingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
81
19363795Singer2009J Comp NeurolConditional ablation and recovery of forebrain neurogenesis in the mouse.depr / anxiety - tail suspensiontransgenic nestin-tk + iminothingmouseForebrain neurogenesis persists throughout life in the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Several strategies have been employed to eliminate adult neurogenesis and thereby determine whether depleting adult-born neurons disrupts specific brain functions, but some approaches do not specifically target neural progenitors. We have developed a transgenic mouse line to reversibly ablate adult neural stem cells and suppress neurogenesis. The nestin-tk mouse expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) under the control of the nestin 2nd intronic enhancer, which drives expression in neural progenitors. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV) kills actively dividing cells expressing this transgene. We found that peripheral GCV administration suppressed SVZ-olfactory bulb and DG neurogenesis within 2 weeks but caused systemic toxicity. Intracerebroventricular GCV infusion for 28 days nearly completely depleted proliferating cells and immature neurons in both the SVZ and DG without systemic toxicity. Reversibility of the effects after prolonged GCV infusion was slow and partial. Neurogenesis did not recover 2 weeks after cessation of GCV administration, but showed limited recovery 6 weeks after GCV that differed between the SVZ and DG. Suppression of neurogenesis did not inhibit antidepressant responsiveness of mice in the tail suspension test. These findings indicate that SVZ and DG neural stem cells differ in their capacity for repopulation, and that adult-born neurons are not required for antidepressant responses in a common behavioral test of antidepressant efficacy. The nestin-tk mouse should be useful for studying how reversible depletion of adult neurogenesis influences neurophysiology, other behaviors, and neural progenitor dynamics.
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12440573Shors2002HippocampusNeurogenesis may relate to some but not all types of hippocampal-dependent learning.locomotionexog. MAMnothingratThe hippocampal formation generates new neurons throughout adulthood. Recent studies indicate that these cells possess the morphology and physiological properties of more established neurons. However, the function of adult generated neurons is still a matter of debate. We previously demonstrated that certain forms of associative learning can enhance the survival of new neurons and a reduction in neurogenesis coincides with impaired learning of the hippocampal-dependent task of trace eyeblink conditioning. Using the toxin methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) for proliferating cells, we tested whether reduction of neurogenesis affected learning and performance associated with different hippocampal dependent tasks: spatial navigation learning in a Morris water maze, fear responses to context and an explicit cue after training with a trace fear paradigm. We also examined exploratory behavior in an elevated plus maze. Rats were injected with MAM (7 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days, concurrent with BrdU, to label new neurons on days 10, 12, and 14. After treatment, groups of rats were tested in the various tasks. A significant reduction in new neurons in the adult hippocampus was associated with impaired performance in some tasks, but not with others. Specifically, treatment with the antimitotic agent reduced the amount of fear acquired after exposure to a trace fear conditioning paradigm but did not affect contextual fear conditioning or spatial navigation learning in the Morris water maze. Nor did MAM treatment affect exploration in the elevated plus maze. These results combined with previous ones suggest that neurogenesis may be associated with the formation of some but not all types of hippocampal-dependent memories.
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12809684Madsen2003NeuroscienceArrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat.locomotionirradiationnothingratThe generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At different time points after the termination of the irradiation procedure, the animals were tested in two tests of short-term memory that differ with respect to their dependence on hippocampal function. Eight and 21 days after irradiation, the animals with blocked neurogenesis performed poorer than controls in a hippocampus-dependent place-recognition task, indicating that the presence of newly generated neurons may be necessary for the normal function of this brain area. The animals were never impaired in a hippocampus-independent object-recognition task. These results are in line with other reports documenting the functional significance of newly generated neurons in this region. As our irradiation procedure models prophylactic cranial irradiation used in the treatment of different cancers, we suggest that blocked neurogenesis contributes to the reported deleterious side effects of this treatment, consisting of memory impairment, dysphoria and lethargy.
84
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.locomotionirradiationnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
85
18509506Dupret2008PLoS OneSpatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.locomotiontransgenic nestin-BaxnothingmouseThe dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.
86
19138433Ko2009Mol BrainEffect of ablated hippocampal neurogenesis on the formation and extinction of contextual fear memory.locomotionexog. MAMnothingmouseABSTRACT: Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning and memory. However, it is largely unknown whether hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in memory extinction per se. Here, we sought to examine the possibility that hippocampal neurogenesis may play a critical role in the formation and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory. By methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) or gamma-ray irradiation, hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in adult mice. Under our experimental conditions, only a severe impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis inhibited the formation of contextual fear memory. However, the extinction of contextual fear memory was not affected. These results suggest that although adult newborn neurons contribute to contextual fear memory, they may not be involved in the extinction or erasure of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory.
87
19138433Ko2009Mol BrainEffect of ablated hippocampal neurogenesis on the formation and extinction of contextual fear memory.locomotionirradiationnothingmouseABSTRACT: Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning and memory. However, it is largely unknown whether hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in memory extinction per se. Here, we sought to examine the possibility that hippocampal neurogenesis may play a critical role in the formation and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory. By methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) or gamma-ray irradiation, hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in adult mice. Under our experimental conditions, only a severe impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis inhibited the formation of contextual fear memory. However, the extinction of contextual fear memory was not affected. These results suggest that although adult newborn neurons contribute to contextual fear memory, they may not be involved in the extinction or erasure of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory.
88
19138433Ko2009Mol BrainEffect of ablated hippocampal neurogenesis on the formation and extinction of contextual fear memory.locomotionirradiationnothingmouseABSTRACT: Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning and memory. However, it is largely unknown whether hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in memory extinction per se. Here, we sought to examine the possibility that hippocampal neurogenesis may play a critical role in the formation and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory. By methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) or gamma-ray irradiation, hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in adult mice. Under our experimental conditions, only a severe impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis inhibited the formation of contextual fear memory. However, the extinction of contextual fear memory was not affected. These results suggest that although adult newborn neurons contribute to contextual fear memory, they may not be involved in the extinction or erasure of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory.
89
20053911Noonan2010J NeurosciReduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addictionlocomotionirradiationnothingratDrugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse.
90
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.locomotion (after UCMS)irradiation + UCMS + AVP antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
91
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.locomotion (after UCMS)irradiation + UCMS + CRF antagnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
92
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.locomotion (after UCMS)irradiation + UCMS + flxnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
93
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.locomotion (after UCMS)irradiation + UCMS + iminothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
94
18406399Surget2008Biol PsychiatryDrug-dependent requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis in a model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.locomotion (after UCMS)irradiation + UCMSnothingmouseBACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders have been linked to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and structural changes within the hippocampus. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can recapitulate these effects in a mouse model, and UCMS-induced changes, including downregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis, can be reversed by antidepressant (AD) treatment. We investigated causality between changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the effects of both chronic stress and chronic ADs. METHODS: Mice were treated with either a sham procedure or focal hippocampal irradiation to disrupt cell proliferation before being confronted with 5 weeks of UCMS. From the third week onward, we administered monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine), the corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist SSR125543, or the vasopressin 1b (V(1b)) antagonist SSR149415 daily. The effects of UCMS regimen, AD treatments, and irradiation were assessed by physical measures (coat state, weight), behavioral testing (Splash test, Novelty-Suppressed feeding test, locomotor activity), and hippocampal BrdU labeling. RESULTS: Our results show that elimination of hippocampal neurogenesis has no effect on animals' sensitivity to UCMS in several behavioral assays, suggesting that reduced neurogenesis is not a cause of stress-related behavioral deficits. Second, we present evidence for both neurogenesis-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the reversal of stress-induced behaviors by AD drugs. Specifically, loss of neurogenesis completely blocked the effects of monoaminergic ADs (imipramine, fluoxetine) but did not prevent most effects of the CRF(1) and the V(1b) antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal neurogenesis might thus be used by the monoaminergic ADs to counteract the effects of stress, whereas similar effects could be achieved by directly targeting the HPA axis and related neuropeptides.
95
20862278Fuss2010PLoS ONEDeletion of Running-Induced Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Irradiation Prevents Development of an Anxious Phenotype in Micelocomotion (running)irradiationnothingmouseRecent evidence postulates a role of hippocampal neurogenesis in anxiety behavior. Here we report that elevated levels of neurogenesis elicit increased anxiety in rodents. Mice performing voluntary wheel running displayed both highly elevated levels of neurogenesis and increased anxiety in three different anxiety-like paradigms: the open field, elevated O-maze, and dark-light box. Reducing neurogenesis by focalized irradiation of the hippocampus abolished this exercise-induced increase of anxiety, suggesting a direct implication of hippocampal neurogenesis in this phenotype. On the other hand, irradiated mice explored less frequently the lit compartment of the dark-light box test irrespective of wheel running, suggesting that irradiation per se induced anxiety as well. Thus, our data suggest that intermediate levels of neurogenesis are related to the lowest levels of anxiety. Moreover, using c-Fos immunocytochemistry as cellular activity marker, we observed significantly different induction patterns between runners and sedentary controls when exposed to a strong anxiogenic stimulus. Again, this effect was altered by irradiation. In contrast, the well-known induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by voluntary exercise was not disrupted by focal irradiation, indicating that hippocampal BDNF levels were not correlated with anxiety under our experimental conditions. In summary, our data demonstrate to our knowledge for the first time that increased neurogenesis has a causative implication in the induction of anxiety
96
20884629Wong-Goodrich2010Cancer ResVoluntary running prevents progressive memory decline and increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and growth factor expression after whole-brain irradiationlocomotion (running)irradiationreduced runningmouseWhole-brain irradiation (WBI) therapy produces progressive learning and memory deficits in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Exercise enhances memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the intact brain, so we hypothesized that exercise may be an effective treatment to alleviate consequences of WBI. Previous studies using animal models to address this issue have yielded mixed results and have not examined potential molecular mechanisms. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of WBI on spatial learning and memory retention and determined whether voluntary running after WBI aids recovery of brain and cognitive function. Forty adult female C57Bl/6 mice given a single dose of 5 Gy or sham WBI were trained 2.5 weeks and up to 4 months after WBI in a Barnes maze. Half of the mice received daily voluntary wheel access starting 1 month after sham or WBI. Daily running following WBI prevented the marked decline in spatial memory retention observed months after irradiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) immunolabeling and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that this behavioral rescue was accompanied by a partial restoration of newborn BrdUrd+/NeuN+ neurons in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal expression of brain-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and occurred despite irradiation-induced elevations in hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines. WBI in adult mice produced a progressive memory decline consistent with what has been reported in cancer patients receiving WBI therapy. Our findings show that running can abrogate this memory decline and aid recovery of adult hippocampal plasticity, thus highlighting exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention.
97
18758458Imayoshi2008Nat NeurosciRoles of continuous neurogenesis in the structural and functional integrity of the adult forebrain.memory - Barnes maze, 7dtransgenic Nestin Cre-ER DTAenhanced memorymouseNeurogenesis occurs continuously in the forebrain of adult mammals, but the functional importance of adult neurogenesis is still unclear. Here, using a genetic labeling method in adult mice, we found that continuous neurogenesis results in the replacement of the majority of granule neurons in the olfactory bulb and a substantial addition of granule neurons to the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Genetic ablation of newly formed neurons in adult mice led to a gradual decrease in the number of granule cells in the olfactory bulb, inhibition of increases in the granule cell number in the dentate gyrus and impairment of behaviors in contextual and spatial memory, which are known to depend on hippocampus. These results suggest that continuous neurogenesis is required for the maintenance and reorganization of the whole interneuron system in the olfactory bulb, the modulation and refinement of the existing neuronal circuits in the dentate gyrus and the normal behaviors involved in hippocampal-dependent memory.
98
20884629Wong-Goodrich2010Cancer ResVoluntary running prevents progressive memory decline and increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and growth factor expression after whole-brain irradiationmemory - Barnes maze, acquisitionirradiation-earlyenhanced memorymouseWhole-brain irradiation (WBI) therapy produces progressive learning and memory deficits in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Exercise enhances memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the intact brain, so we hypothesized that exercise may be an effective treatment to alleviate consequences of WBI. Previous studies using animal models to address this issue have yielded mixed results and have not examined potential molecular mechanisms. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of WBI on spatial learning and memory retention and determined whether voluntary running after WBI aids recovery of brain and cognitive function. Forty adult female C57Bl/6 mice given a single dose of 5 Gy or sham WBI were trained 2.5 weeks and up to 4 months after WBI in a Barnes maze. Half of the mice received daily voluntary wheel access starting 1 month after sham or WBI. Daily running following WBI prevented the marked decline in spatial memory retention observed months after irradiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) immunolabeling and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that this behavioral rescue was accompanied by a partial restoration of newborn BrdUrd+/NeuN+ neurons in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal expression of brain-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and occurred despite irradiation-induced elevations in hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines. WBI in adult mice produced a progressive memory decline consistent with what has been reported in cancer patients receiving WBI therapy. Our findings show that running can abrogate this memory decline and aid recovery of adult hippocampal plasticity, thus highlighting exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention.
99
20884629Wong-Goodrich2010Cancer ResVoluntary running prevents progressive memory decline and increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and growth factor expression after whole-brain irradiationmemory - Barnes maze, acquisitionirradiation-latenothingmouseWhole-brain irradiation (WBI) therapy produces progressive learning and memory deficits in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Exercise enhances memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the intact brain, so we hypothesized that exercise may be an effective treatment to alleviate consequences of WBI. Previous studies using animal models to address this issue have yielded mixed results and have not examined potential molecular mechanisms. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of WBI on spatial learning and memory retention and determined whether voluntary running after WBI aids recovery of brain and cognitive function. Forty adult female C57Bl/6 mice given a single dose of 5 Gy or sham WBI were trained 2.5 weeks and up to 4 months after WBI in a Barnes maze. Half of the mice received daily voluntary wheel access starting 1 month after sham or WBI. Daily running following WBI prevented the marked decline in spatial memory retention observed months after irradiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) immunolabeling and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that this behavioral rescue was accompanied by a partial restoration of newborn BrdUrd+/NeuN+ neurons in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal expression of brain-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and occurred despite irradiation-induced elevations in hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines. WBI in adult mice produced a progressive memory decline consistent with what has been reported in cancer patients receiving WBI therapy. Our findings show that running can abrogate this memory decline and aid recovery of adult hippocampal plasticity, thus highlighting exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention.
100
20884629Wong-Goodrich2010Cancer ResVoluntary running prevents progressive memory decline and increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and growth factor expression after whole-brain irradiationmemory - Barnes maze, recentirradiation-lateenhanced memorymouseWhole-brain irradiation (WBI) therapy produces progressive learning and memory deficits in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Exercise enhances memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the intact brain, so we hypothesized that exercise may be an effective treatment to alleviate consequences of WBI. Previous studies using animal models to address this issue have yielded mixed results and have not examined potential molecular mechanisms. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of WBI on spatial learning and memory retention and determined whether voluntary running after WBI aids recovery of brain and cognitive function. Forty adult female C57Bl/6 mice given a single dose of 5 Gy or sham WBI were trained 2.5 weeks and up to 4 months after WBI in a Barnes maze. Half of the mice received daily voluntary wheel access starting 1 month after sham or WBI. Daily running following WBI prevented the marked decline in spatial memory retention observed months after irradiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) immunolabeling and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that this behavioral rescue was accompanied by a partial restoration of newborn BrdUrd+/NeuN+ neurons in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal expression of brain-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and occurred despite irradiation-induced elevations in hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines. WBI in adult mice produced a progressive memory decline consistent with what has been reported in cancer patients receiving WBI therapy. Our findings show that running can abrogate this memory decline and aid recovery of adult hippocampal plasticity, thus highlighting exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention.
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