Osmosis Games - Physics Standards
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AP Physics 1 StandardsBack to Top
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KinematicsDynamicsCircular Motion and GravitationEnergyMomentumSimple Harmonic Motion
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Torque and Rotational MotionElectric Charge and Electric ForceDC CircuitsMechanical Waves and SoundScience Practices
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Kinematics
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3.A.1.1The student is able to express the motion of an object using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations.
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3.A.1.2The student is able to design an experimental investigation of the motion of an object.
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3.A.1.3The student is able to analyze experimental data describing the motion of an object and is able to express the results of the analysis using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations.
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Dynamics
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1.C.1.1The student is able to design an experiment for collecting data to determine the relationship between the net force exerted on an object, its inertial mass, and its acceleration.
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1.C.3.1The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to measure gravitational mass and to measure inertial mass, and to distinguish between the two experiments.
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2.B.1.1The student is able to apply F= mg to calculate the gravitational force on an object with mass m in a gravitational field of strength g in the context of the effects of a net force on objects and systems.
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3.A.2.1The student is able to represent forces in diagrams or mathematically using appropriately labeled vectors with magnitude, direction, and units during the analysis of a situation.
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3.A.3.1The student is able to analyze a scenario and make claims (develop arguments, justify assertions) about the forces exerted on an object by other objects for different types of forces or components of forces.
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3.A.3.2The student is able to challenge a claim that an object can exert a force on itself.
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3.A.3.3The student is able to describe a force as an interaction between two objects and identify both objects for any force.
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3.A.4.1The student is able to construct explanations of physical situations involving the interaction of bodies using Newton's third law and the representation of action-reaction pairs of forces.
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3.A.4.2The student is able to use Newton's third law to make claims and predictions about the action-reaction pairs of forces when two objects interact.
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3.A.4.3The student is able to analyze situations involving interactions among several objects by using free-body diagrams that include the application of Newton's third law to identify forces.
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3.B.1.1The student is able to predict the motion of an object subject to forces exerted by several objects using an application of Newton's second law in a variety of physical situations with acceleration in one dimension.
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3.B.1.2The student is able to design a plan to collect and analyze data for motion (static, Constant, or accelerating) from force measurements and carry out an analysis to determine the relationship between the net force and the vector sum of the individual forces.
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3.B.1.3The student is able to reexpress a free-body diagram representation into a mathematical representation and solve the mathematical representation for the acceleration of the object.
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3.B.2.1The student is able to create and use free-body diagrams to analyze physical situations to solve problems with motion qualitatively and quantitatively.
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3.C.4.1The student is able to make claims about various contact forces between objects based on the microscopic cause of those forces.
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3.C.4.2The student is able to explain contact forces (tension, friction, normal, buoyant, spring) as arising from interatomic electric forces and that they therefore have certain directions.
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4.A.2.1The student is able to make predictions about the motion of a system based on the fact that acceleration is equal to the change in Velocity per unit time, and Velocity is equal to the change in position per unit time.
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4.A.2.2The student is able to evaluate using given data whether all the forces on a System or whether all the parts of a system have been identified.
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4.A.2.3The student is able to create mathematical models and analyze graphical relationships for acceleration, velocity, and position of the center of mass of a system and use them to calculate properties of the motion of the center of mass of a system.
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4.A.3.1The student is able to apply Newton's second law to systems to calculate the change in the center-of-mass velocity when an external force is exerted on the system.
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4.A.3.2The student is able to use visual or mathematical representations of the forces between objects in a system to predict whether or not there will be a change in the center-of-mass velocity of that system.
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Circular Motion and Gravitation
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1.C.1.1The student is able to design an experiment for collecting data to determine the relationship between the net force exerted on an object, its inertial mass, and its acceleration.
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1.C.3.1The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to measure gravitational mass and to measure inertial mass, and to distinguish between the two experiments.
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2.B.1.1The student is able to apply F=mg to calculate the gravitational force on an object with mass m in a gravitational field of strength g in the context of the effects of a net force on objects and systems.
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2.B.2.1The student is able to apply g = G(m/r2) to calculate the gravitational field due to an object with mass M, where the field is a vector directed toward the center of the object of mass M.
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2.B.2.2The student is able to approximate a numerical value of the gravitational field (g) near the surface of an object from its radius and mass relative to those of the Earth or other reference objects.
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3.A.2.1The student is able to represent forces in diagrams or mathematically using appropriately labeled vectors with magnitude, direction, and units during the analysis of a situation.
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3.A.3.1The student is able to analyze a scenario and make claims (develop arguments, justify assertions) about the forces exerted on an object by other objects for different types of forces or components of forces.
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3.A.3.2The student is able to challenge a claim that an object can exert a force on itself.
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3.A.3.3The student is able to describe a force as an interaction between two objects and identify both objects for any force.
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3.A.4.1The student is able to construct explanations of physical situations involving the interaction of bodies using Newton's third law and the representation of action-reaction pairs of forces.
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3.A.4.2The student is able to use Newton's third law to make claims and predictions about the action-reaction pairs of forces when two objects interact.
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3.A.4.3The student is able to analyze situations involving interactions among several objects by using free-body diagrams that include the application of Newton's third law to identify forces.
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3.B.1.3The student is able to reexpress a free-body diagram representation into a mathematical representation and solve the mathematical representation for the acceleration of the object.
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3.B.2.1The student is able to create and use free-body diagrams to analyze physical situations to solve problems with motion qualitatively and quantitatively.
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3.C.1.1The student is able to use Newton's law of gravitation to calculate the gravitational force the two objects exert on each other and use that force in contexts other than orbital motion.
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3.C.1.2The student is able to use Newton's law of gravitation to calculate the gravitational force between two objects and use that force in contexts involving orbital motion.
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3.C.2.2The student is able to connect the concepts of gravitational force and electric force to compare similarities and differences between the forces.
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3.C.4.1The student is able to make claims about various contact forces between objects based on the microscopic cause of those forces.
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3.C.4.2The student is able to explain contact forces (tension, friction, normal, buoyant, spring) as arising from interatomic electric forces and that they therefore have certain directions.
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3.G.1.1The student is able to articulate situations when the gravitational force is the dominant force and when the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces can be ignored.
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4.A.2.2The student is able to evaluate using given data whether all the forces on a system or whether all the parts of a system have been identified.
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Energy
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3.E.1.1The student is able to make predictions about the changes in kinetic energy of an object based on considerations of the direction of the net force on the object as the object moves.
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3.E.1.2The student is able to use net force and velocity vectors to determine qualitatively whether kinetic energy of an object would increase, decrease, or remain unchanged.
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3.E.1.3The student is able to use force and velocity vectors to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the net force exerted on an object and qualitatively whether kinetic energy of that object would increase, decrease, or remain unchanged.
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3.E.1.4The student is able to apply mathematical routines to determine the change in kinetic energy of an object given the forces on the object and the displacement of the object.
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4.C.1.1The student is able to calculate the total energy of a system and justify the mathematical routines used in the calculation of component types of energy within the system whose sum is the total energy.
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4.C.1.2The student is able to predict changes in the total energy of a system due to changes in position and speed of objects or frictional interactions within the system.
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4.C.2.1The student is able to make predictions about the changes in the mechanical energy of a System when a component of an external force acts parallel or antiparallel to the direction of the displacement of the center of mass.
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4.C.2.2The student is able to apply the concepts of Conservation of Energy and the Work-Energy theorem to determine qualitatively and/or quantitatively that work done on a two-object system in linear motion will change the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the system, the potential energy of the systems, and/or the internal energy of the system.
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5.A.2.1The student is able to define open and closed systems for everyday situations and apply conservation concepts for energy, charge, and linear momentum to those situations.
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5.B.1.1The student is able to set up a representation or model showing that a single object can only have kinetic energy and use information about that object to calculate its kinetic energy.
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5.B.1.2The student is able to translate between a representation of a single object, which can only have kinetic energy, and a system that includes the object, which may have both kinetic and potential energies.
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5.B.2.1The student is able to calculate the expected behavior of a System using the object model (i.e., by ignoring changes in internal structure) to analyze a situation. Then, when the model fails, the student can justify the use of conservation of energy principles to calculate the change in internal energy due to changes in internal structure because the object is actually a system.
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5.B.3.1The student is able to describe and make qualitative and/or quantitative predictions about everyday examples of systems with internal potential energy.
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5.B.3.2The student is able to make quantitative calculations of the internal potential energy of a system from a description or diagram of that system.
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5.B.3.3The student is able to apply mathematical reasoning to create a description of the internal potential energy of a system from a description or diagram of the objects and interactions in that system.
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5.B.4.1The student is able to describe and make predictions about the internal energy of systems.
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5.B.4.2The student is able to calculate changes in kinetic energy and potential energy of a System, using information from representations of that system.
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5.B.5.1The student is able to design an experiment and analyze data to examine how a force exerted on an object or system does work on the object or system as it moves through a distance.
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5.B.5.2The student is able to design an experiment and analyze graphical data in which interpretations of the area under a force-distance curve are needed to determine the work done on or by the object or system.
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5.B.5.3The student is able to predict and calculate from graphical data the energy transfer to or work done on an object or system from information about a force exerted on the object or system through a distance.
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5.B.5.4The student is able to make claims about the interaction between a system and its environment in which the environment exerts a force on the System, thus doing Work on the System and changing the energy of the system (kinetic energy plus potential energy).
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5.B.5.5The student is able to predict and calculate the energy transfer to (i.e., the work done on) an object or system from information about a force exerted on the object or system through a distance.
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5.D.1.1The student is able to make qualitative predictions about natural phenomena based on conservation of linear momentum and restoration of kinetic energy in elastic collisions.
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5.D.1.2The student is able to apply the principles of conservation of momentum and restoration of kinetic energy to reconcile a situation that appears to be isolated and elastic, but in which data indicate that linear momentum and kinetic energy are not the same after the interaction, by refining a scientific question to identify interactions that have not been considered. Students will be expected to solve qualitatively and/or quantitatively for one-dimensional situations and only qualitatively in two-dimensional situations.
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5.D.1.3The student is able to apply mathematical routines appropriately to problems involving elastic collisions in one dimension and justify the selection of those mathematical routines based on conservation of momentum and restoration of kinetic energy.
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5.D.1.4The student is able to design an experimental test of an application of the principle of the conservation of linear momentum, predict an outcome of the experiment using the principle, analyze data generated by that experiment whose uncertainties are expressed numerically, and evaluate the match between the prediction and the outcome.
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5.D.1.5The student is able to classify a given collision situation as elastic or inelastic, justify the selection of conservation of linear momentum and restoration of kinetic energy as the appropriate principles for analyzing an elastic collision, solve for missing variables, and calculate their values.
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5.D.2.1The student is able to qualitatively predict, in terms of linear momentum and kinetic energy, how the outcome of a collision between two objects changes depending on whether the Collision is elastic or inelastic.
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5.D.2.3The student is able to apply the conservation of linear momentum to a closed system of objects involved in an inelastic collision to predict the change in kinetic energy.
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Momentum
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3.D.1.1The student is able to justify the selection of data needed to determine the relationship between the direction of the force acting on an object and the change in momentum caused by that force.
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3.D.2.1The student is able to justify the selection of routines for the calculation of the relationships between changes in momentum of an object, average force, impulse, and time of interaction.
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3.D.2.2The student is able to predict the change in momentum of an object from the average force exerted on the object and the interval of time during which the force is exerted.
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3.D.2.3The student is able to analyze data to characterize the change in momentum of an object from the average force exerted on the object and the interval of time during which the force is exerted.
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3.D.2.4The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to investigate the relationship between changes in momentum and the average force exerted on an object over time. SP4.2) 4.B.1.1: The student is able to calculate the change in linear momentum of a two-object system with constant mass in linear motion from a representation of the system (data, graphs, etc.). SP 1.4, 2.2 4.B.1.2: The student is able to analyze data to find the change in linear momentum for a constant-mass system using the product of the mass and the change in velocity of the center of mass.
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4.B.2.1The student is able to apply mathematical routines to calculate the change in momentum of a system by analyzing the average force exerted over a certain time on the system.
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4.B.2.2The student is able to perform analysis on data presented as a force-time graph and predict the change in momentum of a system.
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5.A.2.1The student is able to define open and closed Systems for everyday situations and apply conservation concepts for energy, charge, and linear momentum to those situations.
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5.D.1.1The student is able to make qualitative predictions about natural phenomena based on Conservation of linear momentum and restoration of kinetic energy in elastic collisions.
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5.D.1.2The student is able to apply the principles of conservation of momentum and restoration of kinetic energy to reconcile a situation that appears to be isolated and elastic, but in which data indicate that linear momentum and kinetic energy are not the same after the interaction, by refining a scientific question to identify interactions that have not been considered. Students will be expected to solve qualitatively and/or quantitatively for one-dimensional situations and only qualitatively in two-dimensional situations.
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5.D.1.3The student is able to apply mathematical routines appropriately to problems involving elastic collisions in one dimension and justify the selection of those mathematical routines based on conservation of momentum and restoration of kinetic energy.
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5.D.1.4The student is able to design an experimental test of an application of the principle of the conservation of linear momentum, predict an outcome of the experiment using the principle, analyze data generated by that experiment whose uncertainties are expressed numerically, and evaluate the match between the prediction and the outcome.
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5.D.1.5The student is able to classify a given collision situation as elastic or inelastic, justify the selection of conservation of linear momentum and restoration of kinetic energy as the appropriate principles for analyzing an elastic collision, solve for missing variables, and calculate their values.
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5.D.2.1The student is able to qualitatively predict, in terms of linear momentum and kinetic energy, how the outcome of a collision between two objects changes depending on whether the collision is elastic or inelastic.
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5.D.2.2The student is able to plan data collection strategies to test the law of conservation of momentum in a two-object Collision that is elastic or inelastic and analyze the resulting data graphically.
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5.D.2.3The student is able to apply the conservation of linear momentum to a closed system of objects involved in an inelastic collision to predict the change in kinetic energy.
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5.D.2.4The student is able to analyze data that verify conservation of momentum in collisions with and without an external friction force.
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5.D.2.5The student is able to classify a given collision situation as elastic or inelastic, justify the selection of conservation of linear momentum as the appropriate solution method for an inelastic collision, recognize that there is a common final velocity for the colliding objects in the totally inelastic case, solve for missing variables, and calculate their values.
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