Studies Psychological issues - covid19
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Name PILab/departmentContact (e-mail and/or cellphone)URLMethod (e.g. field experiment, survey, interviews, ...)Type of population involved
Location (Belgium only or international)
Anticipated impact (including practical recommendations)Timing (Date start - Date end)Availability to present at virtual symposium BAPS2020Availability for contacts with the mediaPaper published/research report/ongoinglink papershort summarytake home message
policy implications
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Impact of covid-19 lockdown daily life, well-being and behaviours among youth (12-21 years old)-
Fabienne Glowacz, Emilie Schmits, Margot Goblet, Annabelle Kinard, ARCh Research Unit , Department of Psychology, ULiegefabienne.glowacz@uliege.beSurveyGeneral populationBelgium FWB march 2020 june 2020Yesongoing
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Impact of covid-19 lockdown on intimate partner violenceFabienne Glowacz, Margot Globet, Emilie Schmits,Amandine Dziewa ARCh Research Unit, Department of Psychology ULiegefabienne.glowacz@uliege.beSurveyGenral population
Belgium FWB France Quebec
April 17 to May 1, 2020yesongoing
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Lockdown Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic: anxiety, depression uncertainty
Fabienne Glowacz, Emilie SchmitsARCh Research Unit , Department of Psychology, ULiegefabienne.glowacz@uliegehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113486SurveyGeneral population
Belgium FWB France Quebec
The purpose of this study is to measure the psychological distress related to the COVID-19 crisis and public health measures associated with its lockdown.
April 17 to May 1, 2020Yes
Glowacz, F., & Schmits, E. (2020). Psychological distress during the COVID-19 lockdown: The young adults most at risk. Psychiatry research, 293, 113486
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113486
Young people are more sensitive to lockdown conditions and psychological distress
to propose clear guidelines for teachers to help them communicate with students, to offer access to infrastructure that will be conducive to their well-being, such free psychological consultations, and the promotion of access to sports and cultural centers.To provide public health warnings about the risk of excessive consumption in social contexts among young adults after lockdown
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The impact of COVID-19 on the wellbeing and cognitive functioning of older adults
Sarah De Pue, Eva Van den Bussche & Céline Gillebert[UR2NF]isleep@gmail.com, petersimor@gmail.com
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdc3EFgKhA-MtxfsOXU1Vu9aIys5dPJDb9ftGgnzFRFaexaCA/viewform
survey
Belgium, Hungary, Spain mainly
The aim of the study is to examine day-to-day associations between subjective sleep quality and daytime functioning during the large-scale confinement measures taken in Belgium given the current Covid-19 pandemic in Europe. In particular, we are interested in assessing the interplay between altered patterns of sleep timing, duration and quality, and daytime behavior, cognition, and affect for 2 weeks during the confinement period
April 2020 - June 2020Maybe (if preliminary analyses finished)yes
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The impact of the school closure and home-schooling on the minority-majority achievement gap in education.
Jozefien De Leersnyder, Loes Meeussen, & Karen PhaletARCh Research Unit , Department of Psychology, ULiegeemilie.schmits@uliegesurveygeneral population
Belgium FWB France Quebec
The present study proposes to focus on the role of individual/contextual factors related to confinement and mental health variables on alcohol use during the lockdown (COVID-19 pandemic).
April 17 to May 1, 2020NoNo
Schmits,E. & Glowacz, F. (in press). Changes in Alcohol use during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact of the Lockdown Conditions and Mental Health Factors. International journal of mental health and addiction.
Half of the population change their drinking pattern, due to lockdown conditions and anxiodepressive symptoms.
To implement alcohol prevention strategies in the context of health crisis.
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School closure during COVID-19: implications for school and psychological adjustment among vulnerable pupils
Jessie Hillekens, Gülseli Baysu, & Karen PhaletBrain & Cognition, KU Leuveneva.vandenbussche@kuleuven.beOnline surveyFlemish adults of 65 years or older
Belgium, Dutch speaking population
We aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the cognitive functioning and well-being of older adults, which is a group at risk. Using several measurement moments, we will also assess the evolution of wellbeing and cognitive functioning over time and study potential moderators.19/5/2020 - 28/12/2020NoYes
Preprint of first paper based on first measurement moment, analyses of follow-up measurements ongoing
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.27.20183129v1COVID-19 took a heavy toll on older adults. In Belgium, by the end of August, 93% of deaths due to COVID-19 were aged 65 or older. Similar trends were observed in other countries. As a consequence, older adults were identified as a group at risk, and strict governmental restrictions were imposed on them. This has caused concerns about their mental health. Using an online survey, this study established the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults aged 65 years or older, and which factors moderate this impact. Participants reported a significant decrease in activity level, sleep quality and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression was strongly related to reported declines in activity level, sleep quality, wellbeing and cognitive functioning. Our study shows that the COVID-19 pandemic had a severe impact on the mental health of older adults. This implies that this group at risk requires attention of governments and healthcare.
1. The COVID-19 pandemic had a severe impact on the wellbeing, activity level and sleep quality of older adults. 2. Only a small group of participants reported a decline in cognitive functioning. 3. All changes reported during the COVID-19 period were strongly related to depression.
1. Concerns raised about the wellbeing of older adults are justified, and this group at risk requires the attention of governments and healthcare. 2. In the future, prevention and intervention strategies are needed to aid older adults to prepare for and cope with extreme stressors, such as COVID-19, especially for those at risk of depression. Psychological counselling could play an important in improving social skills in preventing loneliness and decreased wellbeing. 3. New ways need to be explored to reach older adults. 4. More attention needs to be devoted to the importance of maintaining strong social relationships (for example through social media usage and telephone contact) during major stressors, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Media actions might help in stressing the importance of maintaining such interactions for older adults.
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Center for Social and Cultural Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Leuven
jozefien.deleersnyder@kuleuven.besurvey
Pupils in 10 secondary schools in Flanders
Dutch speaking
With this study we not only hope to get insight into the impact of the school-closure and home-schooling policy on the widening of the achievement gap in education, but also to shed light on which personal and school-related factors widen versus buffer against the widening of this gap. Among the personal factors, we study students' home situation, including the practical and mental support that is available from their parents, their pre-corona academic identity and their bond with their teachers. Among the school factors, we study which types of home-schooling tasks are asked for by the school, how teachers communicate with their students, and how the schools generally approach cultural diversity (e.g., in a colorblind vs. intercultural way). In addition, we aim to investigate if the links between these variables and school achievement are mediated by current school engagement and well-being.
May-June 2020 + pre-measure 2019
Most likely not - depends on how fast data come inYes
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Center for Social and Cultural Psychology, KU LeuvenJessie.Hillekens@kuleuven.be
Longitudinal survey study with three waves (pre, during, post)
Pupils in the first 2 years of secondary education
Flanders, Belgium
In this study, we look at how the closure of secondary schools impacted school and psychological adjustment of pupils and whether it has more severe consequences for ethnic minority and socio-economically disadvantaged pupils. Additionally, we look at risks and resources at home and in school that can impact school and psychological adjustment for more and less vulnerable pupils (e.g., parent-child relationship quality, resources at home, quality of online instruction)
March 2020 (pre), June 2020 (during), Spring 2021 (after)
NoyesOngoing
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Ironic side-effects of appeals to follow behavioral rulesVera Hoorens, Geert Molenberghs, Geert Verbeke, Stefaan Demarest, Eliane Deschrijver
Center for Social and Cultural Psychology, KU Leuven & Department of Experimental Psychology, UGent
Vera.Hoorens@kuleuven.beLongitudinal survey + experimentGeneral population
We examine self-favoring biases in risk perception and in the appraisal of one’s own risk and precautionary behavior. We will in a longitudinal study (data collection of the first wave almost being completed, target N = 5000) on a sample from the general population from all regions of Belgium examine the effect of ‘errors’ in risk perception on the motivation to follow precautionary rules. In addition, we will in an online experiment test the hypothesis that there are situations where appeals meant to motivate people to comply with precautionary rules against COVID-19 ironically inflate precisely those biases that reduce compliance. Our project will thus yield specific and readily applicable solutions to achieve an urgently needed better compliance with precautionary measures.
November 2020-October 2021 (first wave of data collection december)
noyesOngoing
Interventions meant to enhance compliance with precautionary rules and vaccination policies may have ironic side-effects
Persuasive communication should avoid inadvertently enhancing biased risk perception
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Is the media coverage of COVID-19 prejudiced?Vera Hoorens & master's thesis studentsCenter for Social and Cultural Psychology, KU LeuvenVera.Hoorens@kuleuven.beAnalysis of written mediaThe study will show if COVID-19 patients with different ethnic backgrounds are depicted differently in the written mediaOctober 2020-June 2022noyesOngoing
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Risk perception concerning COVID-19Vera Hoorens, Eliane Deschrijver + international team
Center for Social and Cultural Psychology, KU Leuven & Department of Experimental Psychology, UGent, + 8 Universities in 3 continents
Vera.Hoorens@kuleuven.beOnline Surveys
General population + > 400 students
We examine the occurrence of self-uniqueness beliefs in risk perception and assessment of compliance with precautionary measures and vaccination
April-May 2020 data collection (general population) and November 2020 data collection (students)
noyes
Several papers in progress; one published (open access): Asimakopoulou, K., Hoorens, V., Speed, E., Coulson, N. S., Antoniszczak, D., Collyer, F., Deschrijver, E., Dubbin, L., Faulks, D., Forsyth, R., Goltsi, V., Harsløf, I., Larsen, K., Manaras, I., Olczak-Kowalczyk, D., Willis, K., Xenou, T. & Scambler, S. (2020). Comparative optimism about infection and recovery from COVID-19; Implications for adherence with lockdown advice. Health Expectations.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/hex.13134
People understand risk communication about COVID-19 very differently from how it is intended
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Validation of the Impact of Event Scale with modifications for COVID-19 (IES-COVID19)
Lauranne Vanaken, Sara Scheveneels, Eline Belmans, Dirk HermansCentre for Learning Psychology and Experimental Psychopathologylauranne.vanaken@kuleuven.behttps://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00738Online Survey
380 university students (M = 19.44, SD = 1.40, range = 17 – 28)
Flanders, Belgium
In the current study, we adjusted the Dutch version of the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to assess traumatic stress symptoms related to the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.
March 23 2020 - April 29 2020NoYes
· Persuasive messages should directly address self-favoring biases
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A longitudinal investigation of the relations between narrative coherence, psychological well-being, internalizing symptoms and social bonding
Lauranne Vanaken, Dirk HermansCentre for Learning Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology
https://ghum.kuleuven.be/NL2018/corona/research-summary/lauranne-vanaken
Longitudinal online survey with two waves (pre, during)
635 university students (M = 18.38, SD = .99, range = 17 – 26)
Flanders, Belgium
Narrative coherence will be investigated in its cross-sectional and longitudinal relations to psychological and social well-being.
November 2019 - March 2020NoYes
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Couple and parental relationships during lockdownSarah Galdiolo & Justine GaugueChild and Adolescent Labsarah.galdiolo@umons.ac.be
https://applications.umons.ac.be/survey/index.php?sid=69331&lang=fr
survey (4 waves)General population
Belgium (French part)
Longitudinal influence of the lockdown on couple and parental relationshipsMarch 2020 - July 2020Noyesongoing
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International study on the impact of Covid-19 on intimate relationships
Sarah Galdiolo, Marie Geonet, & Justine GaugueChild and Adolescent Labsarah.galdiolo@umons.ac.besurveyGeneral population
Belgium (French part) and France
Understanding the impact of covid-19 on relational well-being (international consortium)May - AugustNoYesongoing
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Buying and using the electronic cigarette in Belgium during the lock down period due to COVID-19
Baeyens Frank en Sven Van LommelCLEP, KU Leuvenfrank.baeyens@kuleuven.behttps://kuleuven.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_b8HiPrmc0lHOFUNOnline surveyCurrent vapersBelgium
We aim to investigate the impact of closing vape shops during the lock down period due to COVID-19 on smoking and vaping behavior among current vapers
25/5/2020 - End JuneNoYes
Adriaens, K., Van Gucht, D., Van Lommel, S., & Baeyens F. (2020, preprint). Vaping during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Belgium. Qeios.
https://www.qeios.com/read/SBVQ47.2Due to the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Belgian government has set out a range of measures to prevent the spread of the virus. One measure included closing all non-food shops, including vape shops. A retrospective online questionnaire was used to investigate the impact of closing the vape shops on the vaping and/or smoking behavior of current vapers. The sample (n = 202) reached consisted of 70% exclusive vapers, 29% dual users and 1% no-product users. Over half (55%) of participants was in need to buy e-liquid during the lockdown, with a small majority being able to buy e-liquids – mostly with their usual nicotine concentrations, flavor or brand –, but as much as 39% of them running out of e-liquid. Those buying e-liquid mainly did so by making purchases via foreign online webshops. A similar pattern was observed with respect to purchasing hardware, with about half (47%) of participants reporting hardware availability and with a small majority (53%) reporting hardware unavailability. Of those indicating that hardware was not available, 38% ran out of a properly functioning e-cigarette. A non-trivial minority was forced to consume e-liquids with another nicotine concentration, flavor or brand than usual. One seventh of exclusive vapers relapsed partly or completely to smoking during the lockdown. The main reasons for changing vaping and/or smoking behavior included the unavailability of e-liquid with nicotine, the unavailability of hardware, and stress/worries about COVID-19.
The majority of vapers succeeded in maintaining their vaping behavior as usual, highly likely due to (illegally) buying consumables online. Nevertheless, for a minority the lockdown period resulted in unintended consequences and these vapers relapsed (completely) to smoking. Even during periods of lockdown, smokers and vapers should be able to purchase low(er)-risk alternatives to smoking, for example e-cigarettes.
A majority of vapers knows how to purchase e-liquids and consumables, even when brick-and-mortar vape shops are closed.
A non-trivial minority relapse to smoking when e-liquids and consumables are not accessible.
The ability to purchase e-liquids and consumables online may be a protective factor to relapse to smoking when brick-and-mortar vape shops need to be closed.
Access to low(er)-risk alternatives to smoking needs to be guaranteed at all times.
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Psychological Impact of Covid-19: from lockdown to post crisis
Denis Jennifer, Meriaux Mathilde & Hendrick S. Clinical Psychology Department, UMONSjennifer.denis@umons.ac.beOnline surveyGeneral populationBelgium
investigating the influence of anxiety, stress, ressources, coping and social distancing in a longitudinal perspective (4waves)
20 th March, 20th April, 20th september, 20th december
Maybeyesongoing
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Social Distancing Behavior during the COVID-19 pandemicChristina Reimer, Raquel London, Zhang Chen, & Frederick VerbruggenControl of Impulsive Action Lab/Experimental Psychology Department/Ghentchristina.reimer@ugent.beSurveyGeneral populationInternationalUnderstanding why people engage in social distancingApril - June 2020NoYesongoing
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Decision Making during the COVID-19 pandemicRaquel London, Christina Reimer, Zhang Chen, & Frederick VerbruggenControl of Impulsive Action Lab/Experimental Psychology Department/Ghentraquel.london@ugent.besurveyGeneral populationInternationalApril-June 2020Noyes
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To Punish or to Assist? Divergent Reactions to In-group and Out-group Members Disobeying Social Distancing
Jasper Van Assche, Emanuele Politi, Pieter Van Dessel, Karen Phalet
Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology, Ghent University; Center for Social and Cultural Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Leuven; Department of Experimental Clinical and Health psychology, Ghent University
jasper.vanassche@kuleuven.be
https://bpspsychub.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjso.12395
Survey and embedded experimentGeneral population
International (Brits in the U.K.)
In response to the corona pandemic, societies face the formidable challenge to develop sustainable forms of sociability-cum-social-distancing – supporting social life while containing the virus and preventing new outbreaks. Accordant public policies often balance between retributive (punishment-based) and assistance (solidarity-based) measures to foster responsible behaviour. Yet, the pandemic has further made salient group disparities in behaviour, potentially straining intergroup relations, elevating heated emotions, and undercutting coordinated containment policies. Using a 2x2 between-subjects experiment, British citizens (N = 377) read about members of their national in-group or a national out-group (categorical differentiation), that were either conforming to the corona regulations or deviated from them (normative differentiation). In general, participants’ support for assistance policies outweighed support for retributive policies. Second, however, norm-deviation was associated with less positive and more negative moral emotions, the latter category further relating to more punitiveness and less support for assistance measures. Finally, the combination of out-group norm-deviation especially produced support for retributive policies, pointing to potential out-group derogation. We discuss implications for policy makers and formulate avenues for future scientific research.
18-19 April 2020YesYes
Van Assche, J., Politi, E., Van Dessel, P., & Phalet, K. (2020). To punish or to assist? Divergent reactions to ingroup and outgroup members disobeying social distancing. British Journal of Social Psychology, 59(3), 594-606.
https://bpspsychub.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjso.12395In response to the COVID‐19 pandemic, societies face the formidable challenge of developing sustainable forms of sociability‐cumsocial‐distancing – enduring social life while containing the virus and preventing new outbreaks. Accordant public policies often balance between retributive (punishment‐based) and assistance (solidarity‐based) measures to foster responsible behaviour. Yet, the uncontrolled spreading of the disease has divided public opinion about which measures are best suited, and it has made salient group disparities in behaviour, potentially straining intergroup relations, elevating heated emotions, and undercutting coordinated international responses. In a 2 × 2 between‐subjects experiment, British citizens (N = 377) read about national in‐group or outgroup members (categorical differentiation), who were either conforming to or deviating from the corona regulations (normative differentiation). Participants then reported moral emotions towards the target national group and indicated support for public policies. In general, support for assistance policies outweighed support for retributive measures. Second, however, norm deviation was associated with less positive and more negative moral emotions, the latter category further relating to more punitiveness and less assistance support. Finally, respondents who read about norm‐violating outgroup members especially reported support for retributive measures, indicating that people might use norm deviation to justify outgroup derogation. We discuss implications for policymakers and formulate future research avenues.
1. In general, people are more in favor of assistance (solidarity-based) confinement measures, because retributive (punishment-based) policies go against core democratic values such as personal freedom. 2. News reports about norm-deviating groups trigger negative emotions (e.g., anger, condemnation, disgust), which can cause support for retributive measures. 3. Support for retributive measures was highest when people read news about norm-violating foreigners, indicating that people might blame foreigners for spreading the virus rather than fellow nationals that disobey hygiene standards and social distancing.
News about other national groups breaking the ‘corona-rules’ has the potential to elicit very strong negative emotions.As the Head of the United Nations, António Guterres, warned, governments should be careful that the COVID-19 outbreak does not unleash “a tsunami of hate and xenophobia, scapegoating and scaremongering”. It is therefore of utmost importance to avoid thinking in terms of the “us-versus-them” divide. We advocate policy makers to create a sense of inclusive togetherness, and promote collective resilience and international solidarity during these unprecedented times.
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International Investigation of Parental Burnout: wave 2Charlotte Schrooyen, Bart Soenens, Lesley Verhofstadt, Wim Beyers
Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology, Ghent University; Department of Experimental Clinical and Health psychology, Ghent University
charlotte.schrooyen@ugent.besurveyParents Belgium (Flanders)Identification of the situational and psychological moderators of the impact of the lockdown on parental distressMay 2020MaybeYesongoing
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Perfectionism, FOMO, social media, and anxiety during COVID-19 lock-down
Marie-Lotte Van Beveren
Department of Developmental, Personality, and Social Psychology, Ghent University, Clinical developmental psychology
marielotte.vanbeveren@ugent.besurveygeneral population, young-adultsFlanders, BelgiumResearching the role of perfectionisme and FOMO in dealing with the stress, associated with the Covid-19 lockdownMarch-April 2020NoNoongoingIn an online experiment, we invited [A1] 377 British citizens to read a scenario about a target group’s behavior. Each respondent read one of four possible scenarios:
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Generatie 2020: een follow-up studieCaroline Braet, Marie-Lotte Van Beveren
Department of Developmental, Personality, and Social Psychology, Ghent University, Clinical developmental psychology
caroline.braet@ugent.besurveyat-risk group, adolescents
Deinze, Flanders, Belgium
Identifying vulnerability and resilience factors in youngsters that moderate the impact of stress on emotional wellbeing2014-2020Noyes ongoing (writing stage)During the Covid-19 lockdown (April 2020), we questioned a sample of adolescents in one region in Belgium and concluded that one in three adolescents between the age of 15 and 21 suffered from (sub)clinical mental health problems. We could rely on a large-scale project entitled Generation 2020 – which was initiated in 2014 by our research group – and has been following a community sample (N=1655) in one region since 2014. Participants are now 15 to 21 years old. Based on online self-report questionnaires, we assessed (a) the number of life-stressors and perceived stress, (b) self- reported temperamental vulnerability (c) well-being. We hypothesized that a unique temperamental profile (constituting out of three traits) carries strong potential to predict mental health problems in response to stressors and more specific to Covid-19. Now we are conducting further in depth analyses testing a moderated mediation model using longitudinal structural equation modelling (SEM) with latent variables to analyse more closely the data. In February 2021 a new follow-up is planned.
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"Pak-aan": online psycho-education platform for parentsTiffany Naets, Caroline Braet, Leentje Vervoort
Department of Developmental, Personality, and Social Psychology, Ghent University, Clinical developmental psychology
tiffany.naets@ugent.beno available website yet (test phase)intervention study
Parents of children between 10-14 with internalizing, externalizing or overweight problems who request for help at school
BelgiumOutcomes: increased positive parenting, decreased childhood problemsJan 2021-2022Nomaybeongoing1) fellow nationals (Britons) conforming to the British governmental coronavirus guidelines,
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Work-Family DynamicsJonas Lang, Zen Goh (Monash University)
Department of Human Resource Management and Organizational Psychology, UGent
jonas.lang@ugent.be, zen.goh@monash.eduintervention studyworking populationBelgium (Flanders)Possibilities for helping people dealing with work-family stressMay-July 2020maybemaybeongoing (writing stage)
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daily work during corona/telewerkGudrun Reindl, Jonas Lang
Department of Human Resource Management and Organizational Psychology, UGent
gudrun.reindl@ugent.be; jonas.lang@ugent.besurveyworking populationBelgium (Flanders)insights into how teleworking affects work experiences, what leasure time experiences improve moodApril-May 2020noongoing (writing stage)2) fellow nationals (Britons) deviating from the British governmental coronavirus guidelines;
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Psychosocial impact of covid-19 on refugees and migrantsIlse Derluyn, An Verelst
Department of Social Work and Social Pedagogy - Centre for the Social Study of Migration and Refugees (CESSMIR)
ilse.derluyn@ugent.Bewww.aparttogetherstudy.orgsurveymigrants and refugeesglobal
The aim is to document the psychosocial impact of covid-19 and the related measures for different groups of migrants and refugees across the globe in order to formulate recommendations for policy makers and practitioners
april - june 2020maybeyes Report published/additional papers ongoingLink to first publication: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240017924Summary of first publication: Apart Together aims to uncover the psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on refugees and migrants across the world. Quantitative data was collected from more than 30,000 respondents between April 2020 and October 2020, focusing on five categories: sociodemographic characteristics (1), COVID-19-related situations (2), daily stressors (3), mental health (4), and social well-being (5). The majority of the respondents reported a deterioration of daily stressors (i.e. access to work, safety, and financial means) and mental health (i.e. feelings of depression, worries, anxiety, and loneliness). In addition, over 60 % reported to follow preventive measures, such as covering their nose and mouth. Last, those that would not seek medical health care in case of suspected symptoms said this was mostly due to a lack of financial means and fear of deportation. The results clearly underline the need and importance of including refugees and migrants in policy responses to COVID‑19. Measures are needed to increase refugees’ and migrants’ access to multi-language information and to health services, both medical and psychological. Efforts need to be taken to improve the living conditions of the most vulnerable groups, and to continue the provision of services - also in times of a pandemic.
Key findings of first publication: 1. Almost one out of three refugees and migrants tested positive themselves or had a loved one who tested positive. 2. Not all would seek medical care in case of (suspected) COVID-19-infection, because of lack of financial means, fear of deportation, lack of availability of health care providers or entitlement to health care. 3. A large majority of refugees and migrants take precautions, to avoid COVID-19-infections, and follow the government-initiated preventive measures, especially increased handwashing, keeping physical distance and covering nose and mouth. 4. Those living on the street report more difficulty in following measures related to increased handwashing, while those living in a refugee camp or asylum center report more difficulties following rules regarding physical distancing. 5. Refugees and migrants rely on different sources of information about COVID-19 from the news, from friends and family and from social media, both in the home as in the host country. 6. NGOs and supporting organisations do play a key role in information provision on COVID-19 for certain groups and in certain regions. 7. The COVID-19-pandemic, including the government-initiated measures, have strongly impacted the lives, in all its domains, of all refugees and migrants. Overall ,they report a greater struggle with access to work, safety and financial means since the outbreak of COVID-19. 8. Most refugees and migrants report that depressive feelings, anxiety, worries and loneliness are seriously worsened since the COVID-19 outbreak and have a lot of worries related to COVID-19. 9. Having lost one’s income increases the likelihood for worsened mental health problems. 10. Thirteen to 17% of the refugees and migrants experience more discrimination because of their origin or religion than before the pandemic 11. The most effective strategies to feel better for respondents are staying in contact with family and friends, entertaining oneself, seeking information and meditating/praying.
Policy implications of first publication: 1. Reduce language and financial barriers to seeking health care for refugees and migrants. 2. Targeted and accessible information for all. 3. Adress discrimination and stigmatization and actively focusing on sensitization campaigns ro rpevent it. 4. Improve daily living conditions for different groups of migrants and refugees, especially those living in more precarious situations, such as on the street or as undocumented migrants. 5. Ensure psychological support and foster connectedness for refugees and migrants during and after the pandemic. 6. Ensure participation of refugees and migrants as part of the solution in response plans for COVID-19
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Violent behavior within the relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic: examining the effect of psychopathic traits, emotion regulation and dyadic coping
Kasia Uzieblo, Joan van Horn (extern), Marscha Mansvelt (extern)
Experimental Clinical and health psychology, Ghent University + De Waag (NL) + Emergis (NL)
kasia.uzieblo@ugent.be
https://nlpsych.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_79gi4DTcXtoBAR7
Online surveyGeneral population
Belgium/Netherlands
identification of risk factors related to the pandemic for intimate partner violenceMay - ? 2020noyes3) foreigners (Italians) conforming to the Italian governmental coronavirus guidelines, and
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The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Danna Oomen, Annabel Nijhof, Roeljan WiersemaExperimental Psychological Research on Autism (EXPLORA)danna.oomen@ugent.beData collection completesurvey
Adults from the general population and adults wiht autism
Belgium, the Netherlands, The United Kingdom
The impact on the mental health and daily lives of adults on the autism spectrum, and insight into how autistic adults can be supported.
3 April-7 May 2020noyes Preprint (manuscript under review) https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-111820/v1
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International study on the impact of a global stressor (COVID-19) on intimate relationships
Lesley Verhofstadt & Laura SelsFamily lab (Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology)laura.sels@ugent.be
https://covid19-codebook.limequery.com/736347?newtest=Y&lang=nl
survey
general population: cohabiting couples
Internationalunderstanding the impact of COVID-19 on individual and relational well-being May-August NoyesOngoing4) foreigners (Italians) deviating from the Italian governmental coronavirus guidelines.
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Effect of the Belgian coast on well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic
Marine Severin, Michiel Vandegehuchte, Gert Everaert, Ann Buysse, Filip RaesFlanders Marine Institute, Ghent University, KULeuvenmarine.severin@vliz.beData collection completeOnline surveyFlemish adults
Belgium, Dutch speaking population
Those living near the coast experience a better well-being than those living inland due to the opportunity to visit the coast during the lockdown. This study helps us better understand the effect of the coast on our wellbeing.
22nd April - June 8thNoYesPlanned for submission end of December
Having access to the coast in times of crisis serves as a potential buffer aganist negative psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The emotion of awe could be a protective factor aganist boredom.
Promote the use and access of the coast to reduce boredom and worry and increase happiness. Encourage people to focus on their emotions, such as awe, while being at the coast.
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Impact of Covid-19 on the interpreter populationAnne Delizée, Jennifer DenisFTI UMONS & Clinical Psychology Dpt UMONSanne.delizee@umons.ac.beOnline surveyInterpreter and cultural mediatorInternationalthis study aims to map the effects that crisis is having on the work and well-being of interpreterApril -SeptemberNoyesParticipants then were asked to report their emotions towards the target national group (i.e., ‘good’ or ‘bad’ Britons or Italians), as well as indicate their support for assistance measures (aimed at informing and educating the target group) and/or retributive measures (aimed at punishing the target group).
34
Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to COVID-19-related distress
Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Rudi De Raedt
Ghent Experimental Psychiatry Lab, Psychopathology and Affective Neuroscience Lab (Ghent University)
jens.allaert@ugent.behttps://redcap1.ugent.be/surveys/?s=74AJ9XDFRLsurveyGeneral population
Belgium (Flemish part)
Understanding which cognitive emotion regulation strategies are most dangerous and most beneficial in response to Covid-19
March-July 2020NoYes
35
Behave safe! Why do we (not) adopt behavioural
measures in the COVID-19 pandemic?
Geert CrombezGhent Health Psychology Lab (Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology)geert.crombez@ugent.be, mebeeckm.Beeckman@UGent.be, Annick.DePaepe@UGent.be, Louise.Poppe@UGent.be
https://www.ugent.be/pp/ekgp/nl/onderzoek/onderzoeksgroepen/gezondheidspsychologie/gedrag-welzijn-covid19.htm
Survey (multiple waves) General populationBelgium (Flemish part)Idenfication of psychosocial determinants of (not) following the government regulations and examine the link with mental well-being + formulate and disseminate findings + guidelines / recommendations for the general population. 20/03 - August (6 months) Yes Yes Beeckman, M., De Paepe, A., Van Alboom, M., Maes, S., Wauters, A., Baert, F., Kissi, A., Veirman, E., Van Ryckeghem, D. & Poppe, L. (2020). Adherence to the Physical Distancing Measures during the COVID‐19 Pandemic: A HAPA‐Based Perspective. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12242In general, retributive measures were supported less than assistance measures, because such policies go against core democratic values (e.g., personal freedom). However, respondents who read news reports[A2] about norm-deviating groups reported more negative emotions (e.g., anger, condemnation, disgust), which further caused more support [A3] for retributive measures and less assistance support. Interestingly, respondents who read about norm-violating foreigners1. Self‐efficacy, outcome expectancies, intention, action planning, and coping planning are related to adherence to physical distancing measures.
2. Reduced mental well‐being is related to more difficulties to adhere to physical distancing measures and less perseverance in doing so.
3. Social support is an important resource for adherence to the keeping 1.5 m physical distance measure.1.
Health action process approach determinants are associated with adherence to physical distancing measures. Future work could therefore design HAPA‐based interventions to support people in adhering to these measures.
36
Meaningful activities in times of Covid-19
Ellen Cruyt, Patricia De Vriendt, Miet De Letter, Peter Vlerick, Kristine Oostra, Robby De Pauw, Patrick Calders, Arnaud Szmalec, Dominique Van de Velde
Ghent University (Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Department of Work, Organization and Society) and Université catholique de Louvain (Psychological Sciences Research Institute)
ellen.cruyt@ugent.be
https://www.activiteitencoronacrisis.ugent.be/limesurvey/index.php/345924
surveyGeneral population (adults)Belgium onlyWe aim to understand how the corona restrictions affect the activities that give sense to our daily livesApril - May 2020NoYesSubmitted in BMC public health
Performing meaningful activities during lockdown, is associated with mental health in Belgian adults.
Insights from this study can be taken into account during future lockdown measures in case of pandemics.
37
e-Health tools: opportunities and obstacles for implementation in clinical psychology
Geert CrombezGHPlab members, Tom Van Daele,...ghplab@ugent.beshowed the highest support for retributive measures, indicating that people might blame foreigners for spreading the virus rather than fellow nationals that disobey hygiene standards and social distancing.
38
Impact of lockdown on sleep, cognitive fatigue and memoryChristina Schmidt, Fabienne Collette, Sylvie Willems, & Christine Bastin
GIGA-Cyclotron Research Center and Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience (ULiège)
Christina.schmidt@uliege.behttps://surveys.fplse.uliege.be/surveys/y.php?s=DMOOSDZWDsurveyGeneral populationBelgium and FranceUnderstanding changes in life habits due to lockdown and their impact on sleep, fatigue and memoryMarch 2020 - July 2020Noyes
Cellini, N., Conte, F., De Rosa; O., Giganti, F.,Malloggi, S., Reyt, M., Guillemin, C., Schmidt, C., Muto, V., Ficca, G.L. (in press). Changes in sleep timing and subjective sleep quality during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and Belgium: age, gender and working status as modulating factors. Sleep Medicine.
10.1016/j.sleep.2020.11.027
39
COVID-19 and stressAurélie Wagener, Catherine Fuselli, Céline Stassart, Anne-Marie EtienneHealth Psychology, URiSS, ULiègeaurelie.wagener@uliege.beOnline surveyGeneral populationBelgium mostly
Our study aims at investigating the impact of the COVID-19 crises on stress and related variables such as emotions and health-related concepts (e.g., irrealistic optimism).
May 2020 - End JulyNoYesThese findings
have important consequences for international relations within Europe.[A4]
40
COVID-19 and children: emotionel et behavioral impactCéline Stassart, Aurélie Wagener, Anne-Marie EtienneHealth Psychology, URiSS, ULiègecstassart@uliege.beOnline survey
Parents of children between 4 and 13 years old
Belgium mostlyOur study aims at investigating the impact of the COVID-19 crises on impact on children's emotional and behavioral stateMay 2020 - End JuneNoYesPlanned for submission end of DecemberThis exploratory study assesses parents' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of quarantine following Covid-19 on their child aged between 4 and 13 years old. The total sample includes the assessment of 749 children, aged between 4 and 13 (353 girls, 396 boys) with 524 parents interviewed. The emotional and behavioral changes observed in their child during quarantine, family coexistence, as well as the frequency of social contact before and during quarantine were investigated. Most parents report a change in their child's emotional and behavioral state. The main results show that the child's nervousness due to Covid-19, family coexistence during quarantine which represents the difficulty of living together, and social contacts before and during quarantine seem to explain the different emotional and behavioral changes observed in children during quarantine.
- Take care of family cohesion: Identify, through repeated evaluation, difficulties in living together within the family to act early (eg: take time for yourself, pass the baton momentarily, ...) - Maintain social contacts: social ties improve a child's resilience skills in complex situations. Creative approaches to stay connected are therefore very important (eg writing letters, video conversations, etc.) - Create a secure emotional environment: Importance of maintaining a routine to give children a sense of security and predictability such as setting regular bed and meal times, daily learning and play times.

- Have appropriate communication: Faced with children's concerns and questions, it is important to have honest communication that is appropriate to the child's age. Children's exposure to social media and adult conversations about the pandemic should be limited as these channels are less age-appropriate.
41
Lessons for Higher Education from the COVID-19 Transition to Online Teaching and Learning
Dominique Verpoorten, Pascal Detroz
IFRES (Institut de Formation et de Recherche en Enseignement Supérieur), ULiège
Survey + interviews + learning analyticsstudents and teachersULiège, 5 facultiesImpact of covid on teaching and learning processesNoYesNoItaly was the first European country where the COVID-19 disease hit hard, and was readily accused of spreading the virus around Europe. People search for positive
distinctiveness in relation to other groups
in any given comparative context. [A5] Hence, news about other national groups breaking ‘corona-measures’ has the potential to elicit very strong negative emotions towards these norm-violating (sub)groups. Furthermore, such emotions can further translate into a stronger endorsement of punishment-based governmental decisions to contain the virus.
42
Emotional reactions and behaviors during the covid-19 outbreak
Olivier Luminet, Emilie Banse, Alix BigotIlluminetti labolivier.luminet@uclouvain.behttps://sites.google.com/site/illuminettilab/homeSurveyGeneral population
Belgium, French part (and international)
Identification of the psychological determinants (e.g. appraisal, emotions, TPB) influencing recommended and reactional behaviors
18/03/2020 - 20/04/2020Maybe (if statistical analyses finished)yes
43
Past and future thinking in Corona-timesAline Cordonnier, Camille DabéIlluminetti lab (UCLouvain)aline.cordonnier@ucloucain.besurveyGeneral population
French speaking part of Belgium
We examine how people remember and/or imagine certain key moments of their past/future (first day of confinement, first get together with family post confinement, 21st of July) and what emotions are associated with these thoughts. We also examine expected consequences (good and bad) of the situation for the individual and the collective
March - April 2020 + end of May + end of July
NoYesOngoingThe consequences of such shifted [A6] attitudes towards foreigners should not be underestimated. As the Head of the United Nations, António Guterres, stated, the COVID-19 outbreak is unleashing “a tsunami of hate and xenophobia, scapegoating and scaremongering”. Seven hundred years ago, there was an increase in anti-Jew hatred during the Black Death. Now, we can also notice a rise in prejudice towards Asians in other
studies[A7] , and towards (disobeying) Italians in our study. When governments blame such foreign groups, they might opt for harsher confinement measures.
[A8] Their citizens might perceive such decisions as more legitimate, and potentially become more hostile towards foreigners.[A9]
44
Impact of the mass medias on risk perception, trust in national representatives, and anxiety feelings during the COVD-19 pandemic
Grégoire List, Louise-Amélie Cougnon, Alexandre Heeren, & Bernard Hanseeuw
Institute of Langage & Communication (G. Lits; L.-A. Cougnon); Psychological Sciences Research Institute (A. Heeren); Institute of Neuroscience (B. Hanseeuw)
alexandre.heeren@uclouvain.besurvey (multivawes) General populationInternational
Impact of the mass medias on risk perception, trust in national representatives, and anxiety feelings during the COVD-19 pandemic
March - Oct 2020NoYes
45
Corona Diaries - a daily diary study to examine the impact of the Corona crisis on well-being
Yasemin Erbas, Marlies Houben, Marta Walentynowicz, Egon Dejonckheere, Katleen van der Gucht, Peter KuppensKU Leuven - OKPYasemin.erbas@kuleuven.behttps://ppw.kuleuven.be/indekijkermap/onderzoek-corona-diariesdaily diaryGeneral populationBelgium (flemish)
Through a 2-month daily diary study, we aim to assess the impact of the corona crisis on (changes in) emotions, behavior and well-being, both within and between persons. Participants also have access to two mindfulness exercises and we will examine how the use of these exercises affect emotions, behavior and well-being.
April - September 2020noyesSuch negative spiral readily exacerbates international tensions. It is therefore of utmost importance to avoid thinking in terms of the “us-versus-them” divide. We
a[A10] dvocate policy makers to create a sense of inclusive togetherness, and promote collective resilience and international solidarity. As an optimistic endnote,
it seems that people
endorse such solidarity- based measures
to a greater extent
than retributive measures, even for deviant
foreigners. The future will tell whether or not such methods will be effective to fight future pandemics.[A11]
46
International study on increased value and interest in nursing due to corona crisis - also among men, affecting future shortages
Colette van Laar, Loes Meeussen, Sanne Van Grootel, Toni Schmader, Kate Block, Sarah Martiny, Maria Olsson, Carolin Schuster, Alyssa Croft
KU Leuven - social and cultural psychologycolette.vanlaar@kuleuven.behttps://ucom2017.wordpress.com/research-team/cross-national survey 2 waves
Cross-national study of students at universities in different countries
Insight into changes in value to nursing due to corona crisis, insight into changes in male interest in communal roles (here nursing and teaching) following positive attention to nursing and teaching
Fall 2017-2020noyesOngoing
47
The impact of Covid-19 on the PhD population at KU Leuven?  Martina D'Agostini, Giorgia Carra, Marta Walentynowicz, Johan VlaeyenKU Leuven University | Health Psychology  johannes.vlaeyen@kuleuven.be
link to survey: https://kuleuven.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3gzeykxf5clpTdr 
surveyPhD population
Belgian and International
we decided to create a survey to assess how the restrictions due to the coronavirus have impacted the life of other PhD students and researchers like us. We think this is a great opportunity to have a voice within the academic community and to show how our well-being, work, and social interactions within the work place have changed. Based on this information, we hope to provide KU Leuven with valuable information which can be further used to improve the actions directed towards minimizing the impact of this pandemic on the PhD student population.
April - June 2020NoyesIn preparation[A1]Collectief standpunt preciseren (om wie gaat het en welke onderzoekscontext)?
48
Sensory sensitivity in patients with COVID-19 and post intensive care syndrome
Hella Thielen, Christophe Lafosse, Céline GillebertKU Leuven, Department of Brain and Cognition + RevArte Rehabiliation Hospitalceline.gillebert@kuleuven.beSurvey + neuropsychological assessment (two waves)
Patients with COVID-19 rehabilitating after post intensive care syndrome
Belgium (Flanders)
The primary aim is to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of atypical sensory sensitivity in patients with COVID-19 and post-intensive care syndrome. The secondary aim is to relate atypical sensory sensitivity to mental or physical fatigue, post-traumatic stress symptoms and cognitive deficits in these patients.
NVTMaybe
49
Dezorgsamen ZorgbarometerKris Vanhaecht, Gilbert Lemmens, Kris Van den Broeck, Johan Bilsen, Stephan Claes, ...KU Leuven, UAntwerpen, UGent, VUBkris.vandenbroeck@uantwerpen.beOnline surveyHealth professionalsFlandersInvestigating the impact of Covid19 crisis on health professionalsApril 6thNoyesOne finished, two in prep
https://watermark.silverchair.com/mzaa158.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAr8wggK7BgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggKsMIICqAIBADCCAqEGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMhuptRxB7VqpHbA5PAgEQgIICclQFe2gFDXGF-cMUgl_CSD-iqHqOa188Gfd_1RqALDYZabpZcufQYCheLhEE93uPx6FedgAZhcYJklmN2TMomjR3vmjxv6hyU7WjCG_Sb_lmwABZ6OAUApORJN-frN_LyXnlocjNKdJbm6Z8lEfn4rl5tbkeshD5P__RACj7qysjOzME4lO5MXs_7HngLqLxAgSLfG9_72gx9iB59f2JeNo2W57naKO-lNtqQlG3PetpccTsjhadwQ_BBNxu7cdPzjYeF7-BaJDNwyBmn9E0Yfw2Gp8SUxktAVEhVMPW0_J_TwFNqgqW0oRtElyQaS5-khusefczw9fiU4B2o8NwwbDXZtwv8rXdPagBqIs8RDfvXbkOZ9l1D8EsJaw5b3x2PwAcW6yj3uQGOFzQ4NbpcpDnlUeVUU9hfR0g_qGobrJhO8VQy11CySfkgRC5HA-xBrW3A7RqPIoc40c44_PlxLRYl_-sS_JfjDGEspUDTUV401fL0WZPOM3mT91XEm7yX6fOgiKQ3lbPwN4bWnrDTFWF_fBCuc1fp6ctCCvmmvEAlyuEpjpLmPoj3DuzIdozCA8cilzMrQll1wv9bo_8OaV6uxlR7Plyk70EIq_GQpEpXN_X6t6OHQ1Rn6O0X5tLG5fJ-9VgIKDiOwTHE4cJjM_NYzFP9p4ofNZTysiTAu-cNNJW7up1s-7d7PncYY98ZE6NhNHgPPRm8nQGPymAZ5g2bDQtulezVKg5zBUVgSYccTP3Rxh3VkaIQOvmygcDIjc3wReDrnHHFUFmhMONdEVajvhZz3jb_proAmOhmPIKKVKYRdAwQWQtfhAFDgQJYMi8
[A2]Veronderstel ik, gebaseerd op de link met “news” in de voorlaatste paragraaf?
50
The effectiveness of nudging for social distancingPieter Van Dessel, Yannick Boddez
LIPLab (Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology), Ghent University
Pieter.VanDessel@UGent.behttps://osf.io/8r7hs/Online experimentGeneral populationInternational (UK)Insight in how people can be nudged to follow covid-19 social distancing guidelinesMay-June 2020NVTyesresearch report on OSF
When promoting wanted behavior such as social distancing during the Covid-19 lockdown, it is important to emphasize the personally relevant positive consequences of this behavior.
To promote adherence to covid-19 guidelines, making minor changes to the environment can be effective. However, it might be of key importance to take into account the cognitive determinants of behaviour (e.g., goals).
51
Inference and behavioral nudging to promote adherence to covid-19 guidelines
Pieter Van Dessel, Yannick Boddez
LIPLab (Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology), Ghent University
Pieter.VanDessel@UGent.behttps://osf.io/5t6hy/Field experimentGeneral populationBelgium (Flanders)Insight in how shops can better promote customers to follow covid-19 guidelinnesDecember 2020 - January 2021NVTyesongoing[A3]Mag “further” hier niet weg?
52
Alcohol consumption / drinking motivations during lockdownPierre Maurage, Zoé Bollen, Arthur PabstLouvain Experimental Psychopathlogy research group (LEP, uclep.be)pierre.maurage@uclouvain.behttps://uclouvain.be/addiction-confinementSurveyGeneral population
French speaking part of Belgium
Identification of the psychological factors (e.g., motivations, social isolation, anxiety) influencing alcohol consumption during lockdown
02/04/20 - 15/05/20Maybe (if data analyses are finished)YesYes (one in press, three submitted)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106772
We examined how drinking motives predict alcohol consumption under lockdown / College students substantially reduced consumption during lockdown / This reduction was particularly high among heavy drinkers / Enhancement and social motives predicted lower consumption during lockdown / Conversely, coping motives predicted higher consumption during lockdown
Since drinking motives predict consumption, their assessment could reduce the impact of future crises on alcohol use, by acting upstream at prevention (e.g., psychoeducation on alternative coping strategies) and clinical (e.g., prophylactic interventions towards individuals endorsing coping motives) levels.
53
Impact of restriction of visits on mental health of nursing home residents
Jessie DezutterMeaning Research Late Life jessie.dezutter@kuleuven.behttps://wprn.org/item/435652 survey (multiple waves)NH residents
Flemish speaking part of Belgium
insight in the impact of the TSV-rule on the mental health of nursing home residents/policy recommendations for NH-fieldApril 2020- September 2020Noyes
English paper under review, Dutch report at https://ppw.kuleuven.be/meaning-and-existence/projecten_en_publicaties/oudere-volwassenen-en-geriatrische-zorg
[A4]Deze zin staat wat verloren, omdat je niet echt specifiek de link met de covid-context maakt. Ook de term “international relations”, die toch ook politiek geladen is, wordt niet verder toegelicht in wat volgt.
Take-home message:
--> Our findings encourage the extensive efforts made by care staff to implement new modes of social contact during challenging times. More frequent engagement in social connectedness interventions was associated with less loneliness and less depressed feelings in residents, and especially video-calling may be protective when real-life contact is impossible.
 Continued activities with co-residents also provide important opportunities for social interaction, which may protect against feelings of loneliness.
 Investment in elderly care personnel is highly needed to take up whole person care, including attention for psychological well-being
 Safeguarding that residents are allowed to see at least one close contact is highly advised
 Taking precautions so that a minimum of social activities (meal sharing, television watching) can continue even during a lockdown might be important to protect against loneliness
54
Online study on sleep quality and daytime functioning during the Covid-19 pandemic
Peter Simor, Rebeca Sifuentes, Ariadna Albajara Saenz, Philippe Peigneux & colleaguesNeuropsychology and Functional Imaging Research GroupNo
55
Moderators of the impact of the lockdown on parental distressIsabelle Roskam & Moïra MikolajczakParental Burnout Reseach Labmoira.mikolajczak@uclouvain.be
https://uclpsychology.co1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_02LE6m47hjSYtr7
General population
French speaking part of Belgium
Identification of the situational and psychological moderators of the impact of the lockdown on parental distress April-July 2020NoYes[A5]Herformuleren voor meer duidelijkheid? Bedoel je dat mensen/volkeren eerder de neiging hebben om zichzelf (hier Britten) positiever te beoordelen dan “de Ander” (in dit geval Italianen)?
à The health crisis and lockdown does not impact all parents in the same way: it is a godsend for some, a nightmare for others. à PB can increase in any type of family and in any parent. What really influences the level of PB and the resulting child abuse is the parents' perception of the impact of the health crisis and lockdown on their parenting. à Certain situations deserve special attention: lockdown with young children, children with special needs or young adults... And parents who are teleworking AND facing increased workload because of the crisis.
For Policy-makers: à Putting support services in place for families with children with disabilities or behavioral problems; à Establish support services for families with children under the age of 4 (these children cannot look after themselves and their constant solicitations contribute to exhaustion of the parents and encourage acting out); à Putting in place supports for adolescents so that their frustration at being confined or semi-confined does not "backfire" on their parents.; à Asking employers to take steps to prevent increased workloads due to crisis or containment (having to telecommute AND care for children or teenagers at home is much more complicated when workloads increase); For employers:; à Taking active steps to prevent increased workloads due to crisis or containment (having to telecommute AND care for children or teenagers at home is much more complicated when workloads increase); For Media: à do not focus only on the negative aspects of the crisis but also on the opportunities (our research shows that subjective perception explains most of the variance of psychological distress during confinement, far beyond the objective situation of the parent and his family).
56
Impact of lockdown on future-oriented thinkingArnaud D'ArgembeauPsychology and Neuroscience of Cognition/University of Liègea.dargembeau@uliege.behttps://surveys.fplse.uliege.be/surveys/k.php?p=56survey (during vs after lockdown)General population
Belgium (French speaking) and Canada
Understanding how future-oriented thoughts are impacted by lockdown (the uncertainty and modifications of daily life that it generates)
March-July 2020NoYesongoing
57
Socio-emotional risk factors for anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic
Jonas Everaert, Reuma Gadassi, Jutta Joormann
Psychopathology and Affective Neuroscience lab (Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology)
jonas.everaert@ugent.beDaily diary studyGeneral populationInternational
We conducted a 28-day diary study to identify how cognitive (e.g., how people interpret ambiguous situations) and socio-affective (e.g., how much people engage in problem talk) processes work together to explain individual differences in the development of anxiety and depression during the first few weeks of the COVID-19 outbreak. We are also examining direct and indirect pathways through which consulted news media contribute to symptoms of psychopathology.
March-April 2020NoYes“ [A6]Shifted” waarom? Sinds wanneer? Is wat jullie aantonen echt een shift?
58
Impact of cognitive risk and resilience factors on development of depression & anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic
Rudi De Raedt, Jutta Joormann, Jonas Everaert, Alvaro Sanchez
Psychopathology and Affective Neuroscience lab (Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology), Ghent University
malvika.godara@ugent.beMulti-wave diary studyGeneral populationInternational
We examine risk and resilience factors impacting emotion regulation strategies and development of mood and anxiety disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also examine the impact of uncertainty and information-seeking behavior on development of depression and anxiety during the pandemic.
March - May 2020NoYes
59
The Effects of Attention Training on Emotion Regulation and Stress Related Complaints During COVID-19
Rudi De Raedt, Ernst Koster, Kim Rens
Psychopathology and Affective Neuroscience lab (Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Pyshcology), Ghent University
kim.rens@ugent.besurvey and cognitive attention trainingGeneral populationDutch speakingValidation of a new online treatmant and it's impact on emotion regulation and stress related symptomsApril - August 2020NoYes[A7]Wat bedoel je met “now” (nowadays, of specifieker in de huidige covid19-context?)
60
Exploration of relationship between parental distress and post-traumatic symptoms in children
Adélaïde Blavier, Stéphanie Chartier, Alicia Gallo, Manon DelhallePsychotraumatology, ARCh Research Unit, Department of Psychology ULiegAdelaide.Blavier@uliege.besurvey (multiple waves)General populationNoYes
Chartier, S., Delhalle, M., Baiverlin, A., & Blavier, A. (accepted). Parents' peri-traumatic stress and sense of parental competence in relation to covid-19 containment measures: What impact on their children's peri-traumatic distress? European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
61
Effects of COVID-19 on the work of undertakersAdélaïde Blavier, Laetitia Di PiazzaPsychotraumatology, ARCh Research Unit, Department of Psychology ULiegeAdelaide.Blavier@uliege.besurveyUndertakersNoYesongoing[A8]Tegenover wie? In welke context? Vb. inreizende Italianen in de UK, of…?
62
Analysis of children's representations of coronavirus/covid-19 from their drawings
Adélaïde Blavier, Alicia Gallo, Stéphanie Chartier, Laetitia Di Piazza, Manon DelhallePsychotraumatology, ARCh Research Unit, Department of Psychology ULiegeAdelaide.Blavier@uliege.besurveyGeneral populationNoYesongoing
63
Automatic evaluations of social distancing behaviorMassimo Koester, Agnes Moors
Research Group of Quantitative Psychology and Individual Differences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
massimo.koester@kuleuven.beOnline Survey + Online IAT
International (Prolific)
This study aims to investigate if implicit attitudes already changed in light of the COVID outbreak. In particular we are testing if implicit attitudes towards keeping physical distance from others have become more positive than attitudes towards being physically close to others. We furthermore aim to investigate if such a shift in attitudes can be explained by the values people attach to their own health, to the health of others and to the quality of their relationships.
June - July 2020NoYes[A9]Is dit ook nog deel van de studie, of een hypothese?
64
The impact of school strategies and home environment on learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, in children with and without developmental disorders
Elke Baten, Fieke Vlaeminck, Marjolein Mues, Annemie Desoete, Petra Warreyn
Research in Developmental Disorders Lab (Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology), Ghent University
elke.baten@ugent.be
https://www.ugent.be/pp/ekgp/nl/onderzoek/onderzoeksgroepen/oss/deelnemers/onderzoek-corona.htm#thuisonderwijs--wat-gaat-goed-en-wat-niet--wat-is-de-impact-van-de-coronamaatregelen-op-leren-
survey
(parents of) children between 5 and 18 year old (attending primary or secondary school)
Flanders (Dutch speaking)
The aim is to examine what does and doesn’t work in terms of distance teaching, while taking home environments into account. We furthermore want to investigate the longer-term impact of distance teaching, by identifying factors of the home learning period that might be positively or negatively related to getting behind at school six months after the reopening of the schools. Differences between children with and without developmental disorders are closely considered.
Phase 1: April 3 - April 17; Phase 2: May 7 - May 18; Phase 3: December 17 - January 18
NoYesongoing
65
Use of online consultation technology by mental healthcare professionals
Tom Van DaeleThomas More - Expertise Unit Psychology, Technology & Societytom.vandaele@thomasmore.behttps://bit.ly/coronapsysurveyMental healthcare professionalsInternational
This survey from the EFPA Project Group on eHealth focuses on the current use of online consultation technology by psychologists and other mental healthcare professionals in the context of the COVID-19 Coronavirus pandemic.The aim is to obtain an overview of current usage and main questions and concerns for adequately using online consultations. A first FAQ was derived based on preliminary analyses and can be found on http://ehealth.efpa.eu/covid-19/faq-on-online-consultations/
March - April 2020MaybeYespreprinthttps://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/26541[A10]Wie is deze “we” hier? Jij als individuele auteur of een onderzoeksgroep, of … en is dit dezelfde “we” als eerder in de tekst?
66
The impact of Covid19 on the city of AntwerpKris Van den BroeckUAntwerpen + Stad Antwerpenkris.vandenbroeck@uantwerpen.beOnline + paper and pencil surveyCitizens of Antwerp cityAntwerpInvestigating the impact from confinement and social isolation on mental wellbeingApril 6thNoYesreport in prep - embargo
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Covidenik / CovidetmoiVincent Lorant, Pierre Smith, Kris Van den Broeck, Eva Rens, Pablo NicaiseUCLouvain + UAntwerpenkris.vandenbroeck@uantwerpen.behttps://uclouvain.be/fr/instituts-recherche/irss/covid-et-moi.htmlOnline surveyGeneral population
International (Belgium and France)
Investigating the impact from confinement and social isolation on mental wellbeing / psychological distress (Measure: General Health Questionnaire 12 items)
Longitudinal study (March 2020, April 2020, June 2020, November 2020)
YesYesOne report; one paper published, one under review
https://alfresco.uclouvain.be/alfresco/service/guest/streamDownload/workspace/SpacesStore/62501702-e9e3-4b77-a513-a7d518dc8578/rapport_covidetmoi_vague1et2.pdf?guest=true frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.575553/abstract
[A11]Kan je deze eindreflectie nog iets concreter uitwerken, op basis van het belangrijke punt dat je in de introductie vooropstelt, nl. “the formidable challenge of developing sustainable forms of sociability-cum-social-distancing”
During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, about two thirds of young people (aged 16 to 25 years old) experienced ‘mental distress’, which includes a broad range of non-specific mental health problems //While little difference was found between students and non-students or those with or without a chronic condition, mental distress was higher among women, those experiencing loneliness or low social support, and those with a large change in social media use and some everyday activities //Young people and women report lower mental health compared to men and older age groups even in normal conditions, but the pandemic seems to be contributing to an even growing inequality
Young people experience high levels of mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings indicate that the mental distress was highest among women, those experiencing loneliness or low social support and those whose usual everyday life is most affected. The psychological needs of young people, such as the need for peer interaction, should be more recognized and supported.
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The lockdown and consumerist behaviours in Belgium Xavier NOËL, Florent WyckmansULBxnoel@ulb.ac.be
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COVID-19 It's in your handsAnn DeSmet, Pierre Gérain, Emelien LauwerierULB, UCLouvain, UGentann.desmet@ulb.behttps://your-covid-19-risk.com/Online survey, interventionGeneral populationInternational
Behavioral determinants of physical distancing; adoption of protective behaviours such as hand-washing, physical distancing, self-isolation
OngoingyesDaarnaast zou je in de inleiding ook al kunnen vooruitblikken op deze conclusie; is die een soort motivatie geweest voor jullie studie? Ik zou dat nog iets beter proberen kaderen, in het begin!
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Impact of children’s autobiographical memory on well-being during lockdown : What role for parental reminiscing ?
Christina Léonard, Marie Geurten, & Sylvie WillemsULiège - Psychology and Neuroscience of Cognition Unit christina.leonard@uliege.be survey and interviewGeneral population
Belgium (French part)
First, we assume that children with less detailed memories of events that had taken place during lockdown will have lower levels of well-being during lockdown. Moreover, we want to explore the possible role that parent-child discussions about the past might play in the relationship between autobiographical memory and well-being during lockdown .
April - May 2020NoYes
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Working conditions for employees forced to telework in the COVID19 context: impact on well-being at work, performance and work-home interference
Anne-Sophie Nyssen (ULiege) - Edwin Wouters, Guido Van Hal et dr. Veerle Buffel (Anvers) - prof. Piet Bracke (Ga nd)ULiege, University of Antwerp, Ghent University
Veerle.Buffel@uantwerpen.be, edwin.wouters@uantwerpen.be, guido.vanhal@uantwerpen.be, Piet.bracke@ugent.be
https://uantwerpen.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_03vj3yQy43k4awZ?Q_lang=FR
Online surveyStudentsInternationalThis study aims to map the effect that quarantine is having on the work and welfare of students27th April-May 2020MaybeYes
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ACADE-COVID: Work and welfare among academic staff within the university
Anne-Sophie Nyssen (ULiege) - Prof. Dr. Johan Bilsen, Dr. Iris Steenhout (VUB)
ULiege, Vrije Universiteit van BrusselsBilsen johan.bilsen@vub.be, iris.steenhout@vub.be
https://vub.fra1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_0ICsOWDvcwcCVkp?Q_Language=EN-GB
Online surveyAcademic staffBelgiumThis study aims to map the effect that working from home is having on the work and welfare of academic staffMay 2020MaybeMaybe
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ACADMIN-COVID: WORK AND WELFARE AMONG ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL STAFF WITHIN THE UNIVERSITY
Anne-Sophie Nyssen (ULiege) - Prof. Dr. Johan Bilsen, Dr. Iris Steenhout (VUB)
ULiege, Vrije Universiteit van BrusselsBilsen johan.bilsen@vub.be, iris.steenhout@vub.beUnder constructionOnline surveyPATO membersBelgium
This study aims to map the effect that working from home is having on the work and welfare of administrative staff, technicians and workers
June-?MaybeMaybe
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Self-reported distress in French-speaking Belgium at the end of the lockdown period
Wivine Blekic, Erika Wauthia, Mandy RossignolUMonswivine.blekic@umons.ac.be
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Bien-être et le vécu scolaire des élèves du secondaire durant la période de (dé)confinement
Ariane Baye, Liesje Coertjens, Benoît Galand et Dominique LafontaineUniversité de Liège et l’UCLouvain
Ariane.Baye@uliege.be; liesje.coertjens@uclouvain.be; benoit.galand@uclouvain.be; dlafontaine@uliege.be
https://uclpsychology.co1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_esx4c27SRdggt1j
Online Surveystudents in secondary education FWB
This study aims to map students' well-being during the lockdown. It also examines how they experience the distance education during this period
4th of June-30th of June
yes
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Welbevinden op school Nadine Engels, Jetske StrijbosVUB, Université de Liège & l’UCLouvainjetske.strijbos@vub.be
https://uclpsychology.co1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_b4pNOjJ7zZPR6f3
Online Survey
students in last 2 year of primary education & secondary education
Flanders
We willen graag weten hoe jij school beleeft tijdens de lockdown en nu de scholen geleidelijk herstarten. Ben je ouder dan 10 jaar? Dan kan je je ervaringen met ons delen via deze vragenlijst. Invullen kan op computer, tablet of smartphone tot 30 juni 2020, en duurt tussen 10 en 15 minuten.
15th of June-30th of Juneyes
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Impact of covid-19 lockdown on employees' work-family balance, social support, and burnout
Jesse Vullinghs, Tim Vantilborgh, Charles DriverWork and Organizational Psychology, VUB - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdamtim.vantilborgh@vub.be-Experience sampling studyTeaching staff
International (the Netherlands)
A dynamic systems approach to study how the imposed lockdown affected within-person changes in work-family balance, social support, and burnout. We examine if there is an impact of the lockdown and how this impact unfolds over time. We compare the impact to that of another type of work interruption, namely holidays
September2019 - Still ongoingNoMaybeongoing-Early 2020, the world was shocked by the COVID-19 pandemic. To stop the spread of the virus and alleviate pressure on healthcare systems, governments took measures such as the complete lockdown of cities and states. However, the side effects of these measures are not yet well understood. In this study we examine the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on employee wellbeing and specifically address the time course of these effects. We contribute to the literature by demonstrating that the COVID-19 lockdown was experienced as a stressor by the participants in our study, while demonstrating the rate of change and duration of these effects on employee wellbeing. Moreover, we test the causal order of the dimensions underlying burnout, thus contributing by showing how burnout develops over time. We tested our hypotheses in a sample of 120 employees, who’s work experiences we measured weekly over 35 weeks. We analyzed these data using Hierarchical Bayesian Continuous Time Dynamic Modeling (Driver & Voelkle, 2018a). Our results show that the lockdown has both positive and negative effects on employees’ wellbeing, yet the negative effects of the COVID-19 lockdown increase over the measured time period. Moreover, our results reveal complex feedback loops between the burnout dimensions, with emotional exhaustion driving increases in cynicism and decreases in professional efficacy, while cynicism simultaneously acted as an inhibitor by increasing professional efficacy.
We find that the lockdown led to an increase in work-to-life spillover, a decrease in resources, and had a mixed impact on burnout symptoms (increase in cynicism and decrease in exhaustion). These effects worsened as the lockdown continued.
Governments need to carefully balance the need for a lockdown against the potential consequences on the wellbeing of employees.
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Resilience: at the level of employment and unemployment (in the long run: careers)
Ellen PeetersEllen.Peeters@ugent.be
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Hoe stel jij het in uw kot? Een vragenlijst naar het welbevinden tijdens de coronacrisis
Bart Soenens en Maarten Vansteenkistemaarten.vansteenkiste@ugent.be
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Research: The protective effects of social media use during quarantine
Lien faelens, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Rudi De Raedt & Ernst KosterDepartment of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent Universitylien.faelens@ugent.beonline surveyGeneral population (UK)UK
Given the strong heterogeneity in how physical distancing measures taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19 affected individuals, we wanted to investigate whether the complex interplay between multimedia use and indicators of (dys)functioning was contingent on personal or situational factors
May 2020MaybeyesUnder review
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COVID-19 restrictions: experience of parents of a child with ASD
Herbert Roeyers, Sarah Schaubroeck, Floor Moerman, Sofie Boterberg, Jasmine Siew, Arianna Zanattaasskleuters@ugent.Besurvey
Parents of toddlers (2-6 years) with ASD
Belgium (Flanders)
The spread of COVID-19 has resulted in unprecedented change to life as we know it, including, closure of
schools, community spaces and increased levels of teleworking. This is a stressful time for most families who will have to
adapt and adhere to new norms, but in particular, likely creates a unique set of challenges for children with Autism
Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their families. ASD is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by difficulties in
reciprocal social communication, restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, and atypical sensory responses. While
children with ASD often struggle with normative changes to their daily routine, sudden and drastic changes to school and
family life may be especially difficult to navigate. For example, adapting to homeschooling, cancellations in activities and
alterations in social contact with peers and teachers. Therefore it is important to understand what effect such changes to
daily life has had on children with ASD and their families. In particular, the impact on core ASD symptoms – specifically
restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviours, as well as secondary problems (e.g., sleeping). In addition, how parents
have adapted their behaviour in terms of involvement in caregiving tasks and quality of interaction with their children.
April-may 2020ongoing
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Attitudes and Feelings During COVID-19
Brent Hendrickx (masterstudent KUL, data collection for Belgium), Craig Smith (Vanderbilt University), Brian Parkinson (Oxford University, data collection UK)
Experimental psychology, emotion and social relations, Oxford universitybrent.hendrickx@psy.ox.ac.ukhttps://kuleuven.eu.qualtrics.com/.../SV_4HJZUIfxFZyBmLzonline surveyGeneral population
Flanders, Belgium + 13 other countries
Investigating the impact of the pandemic on people's thoughts and emotions across 13 countries (this survey is made by Craig Smith, Vanderbilt university)
26 nov - 15 decnonoongoing
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Depressive symptoms in higher education students during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A comparison of risk factors across various high- and middle-income countries.
Veerle Buffel, Sarah Van De Velde University of Antwerp, Ghent University (and C19-ISWS partners)
Veerle.Buffel@uantwerpen.be, Sarah.vandevelde@uantwerpen.be; edwin.wouters@uantwerpen.be, guido.vanhal@uantwerpen.be, Piet.bracke@ugent.be
online surveyHigher education students
26 countries and around 160 Higher eucation institutions
This study aims to map cross-national differences in depression and the related covid-specific stressor among higher education students during the first wave of the Covid Outbreack
Data is collected + first drafte is written
maybeyesongoing
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Disentangling depression in Belgian higher education students amidst the first COVID-19 lockdown
(April-May 2020)
Jeroen De Man, Veerle Buffel, Sarah van de Velde, Piet Bracke, Guido Van Hal, Edwin Wouters, for the Belgian COVID-19 International Student Well-being Study (C19 ISWS) team
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No man is an island: Psychological underpinnings of prosociality in the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak
Emanuele Politi, Jasper Van Assche, Gian Vittorio Caprara, & Karen PhaletKU Leuven, Ghent University, Univeristy Roma la Sapienzaemanuele.politi@kuleuven.behttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110534Online surveyGeneral population (UK)
Bonding and bridging forms of prosociality are analyzed and discussed, together with reccomandations on how to reinforce helping behaviours and preserve intergroup relations in the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak
May 2020 - December 2020YesYesPublishedhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110534In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, sustainable forms of collective resilience help societies coping cohesively with unprecedented challenges. In our empirical contribution, we framed collective resilience and cohesion in terms of prosociality. A study carried out in the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak in the UK (N = 399) articulated basic individual values, ideological orientations (i.e., authoritarianism and social dominance orientation), and core political values in a comprehensive framework to predict bonding and bridging forms of prosocial in- tentions, and prosocial behaviors directed towards vulnerable groups. According to our findings, people whose worldview incorporates collective and collaborative principles cared more about others’ welfare. Jointly, self- transcendence, equality, and accepting immigrants predicted more prosociality, whereas social dominance orientation predicted less prosociality. Over and beyond all other predictors, self-transcendence uniquely pre- dicted prosocial intentions and behaviors alike. To conclude, we suggest interventions to promote and sustain prosociality among people motivated by a larger array of life goals and worldviews.
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An integrated COVID-19 threat framework: General and immigrant-specific threat appraisals from an intergroup perspective
Emanuele Politi, Adrian, Lueaders, Antoine Roblain, Eva Spiritus-Beerden, Joel Anderson, Jasper Van Assche, Sindhuja Sankaran, Eva Green, Ilse Derluyn, An Verelst, Saskia De Jonghe, & Karen Phalet
KU Leuven, Ghent University, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université Clermont Auvergne, Australian Catholic University, Jagiellonian University of Kraków, University of Lausanne
emanuele.politi@kuleuven.besystematic review
General population, Immigrants, refugees, and ethnic minorities
We propose an exaustive taxonomy of COVID-19-related threats experienced by the general population and immigrant minority groups. From threat assessment we move to possible implications for intergroup relations and propose moderating factors leading threat to enhance prosociality and intergroup helping
November 2020 - ongoingYesYesUnder reviewPaper available on request The COVID-19 constitutes an unprecedented threat for individuals, communities, and entire societies, revealing intergroup inequalities in preparedness, exposure, and consequences. The present review completes extant knowledge on natural disasters and pandemic diseases with original cross-cultural and programmatic empirical research, to propose an integrated COVID-19 threat framework. Building up on a broad definition of threat that comprises individual, collective and socio-structural components, we merge micro-level analyses to group dynamics and intergroup relations. First, we conduct a literature review using streamlined methods of knowledge synthesis to distinguish between threats appraised by the general public and specific threats appraised by immigrants, refugees, and ethnic minorities. Second, we outline the social-psychological processes that from threat appraisals fuel either conflict or prosociality within and across groups. To conclude, we identify moderating factors to prevent or reduce social conflicts as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, promoting instead collective forms of resilience, social support and helping behaviours.
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Impact of lockdown on anxiety symptomsAlexandre Heeren UCLouvainalexandre.heeren@uclouvain.beOnline surveygeneral populationWe aim at identifying the impact of the lockdown the interplay between core anxiety symptoms
data is collected; we're now analyzing the data
YesYesIn preparationhttps://osf.io/9ehja/
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The impact of COVID-19 on the postdoc researchers at KU Leuven
Marta Walentynowicz, Martina D'Agostini, Johan VlaeyenKU Leuven University | Health Psychology marta.walentynowicz@kuleuven.besurveypostdocs of KULeuven
Belgian and International
The aim of this survey was to assess how the restrictions due to the coronavirus have impacted the life of postdoctoral researchers at KU Leuven. Based on this information, we hope to provide KU Leuven with valuable information which can be further used to improve the actions directed towards minimizing the impact of this pandemic on the postdoctoral researchers.
May - June 2020NoyesInternal report created
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