Initial Distal Precursor Extended Descriptions
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DLM Essential Element MiniMap
DLM Essential ElementTarget Linkage LevelProximal Linkage LevelDistal Precursor Linkage Level
Initial Precursor Linkage Level
How is the Distal Precursor related to the target?How is the Initial Precursor related to the target?DLM Familiar Text Links
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ELA.EE.RL.3.1ELA.EE.RL.3.1 Answer who and what questions to demonstrate understanding of details in a text.Can produce responses to questions seeking information on specific characters and what each of them did in a narrative by providing details on them.Can answer questions posed by others asking who and what about the key details in a familiar narrative.Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places and events.Can pay attention to either the entire object, a characteristics of the object, or an action which the object can perform after some verbal label has been attached to it.Distal Precursor: Learning to respond to questions about details in a story requires that students can recognize and remember people, objects, places, and events. Using the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level, teachers and students can work on this skill while engaging in shared reading about common settings (home, school) and the people, objects, and events that are associated with those settings. During shared reading, teachers can ask the students to "find the <person, object, place, event>" or "show me the <person, object, place, event>" using the materials gathered to go with the story or using the images/illustrations in the book itself.Initial Precursor: Learning to respond to questions regarding characters and their actions requires that students first understand simple relationships between objects and actions. In the context of reading literature, students can learn to attend to objects that are found in books during shared reading and begin to make connections between those objects and specific actions. Using DLM Familiar Texts at this level, teachers and students can work on this skill while they engage in shared reading about common daily routines and interact with objects that are used during those routines (e.g., using a brush to brush hair when getting ready for school).3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.3.2.aELA.EE.W.3.2.a. Select a topic and write about it including one fact or detailCan write about a specific topic using facts and details to describe the topic.Student can select a familiar topic to share about (may be from a set of options) and can use drawing, dictating or writing to share about it.Given a choice of two objects, uses eye-gaze, physical movement, gesture or vocalization to indicate choice.Turns own body, head, or otherwise directs own attention to objects or people.Distal Precursor: Selecting and writing about a topic requires students to successfully communicate a choice of topics. In the context of emergent writing, students at the Distal Precursor level can work on clearly communicating a choice between two familiar, preferred objects as a topic for writing. The key here is to practice communicating a choice before writing about the choice, rather than communicating a choice during an activity unrelated to writing. Students who master this level are able to clearly indicate a choice by intentionally reaching for, touching, looking at, or otherwise clearly indicating a choice.Initial Precursor: Writing about a specific topic using facts and details requires students to be able to attend to topics long enough to learn information about them. In the context of emergent writing, students working at the Initial Precursor level can work toward writing about topics by attending to objects or people that are presented as choices. While it may be unclear to the adult if the student is actually making an intentional choice, it is clear over time that the student is able to attend. The key here is to build attention to choices that are offered during a writing routine. As students begin to attend to the choices that are offered, it becomes possible to move them toward intentionally making a choice of a topic.3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.3.1ELA.EE.RI.3.1 Answer who and what questions to demonstrate understanding of details in a textCan answer questions posed by others regarding the concrete details of an informational text.Can identify the concrete details, such as individuals, events, or ideas in familiar informational texts.Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places and events.Can pay attention to either the entire object, a characteristics of the object, or an actioninwhich the object can perfrom after some verbal label has been attached to it.Distal Precursor: Learning to respond to questions regarding details in a text requires that students can recognize and remember people, objects, places, and events they encounter every day. In the context of shared reading of informational text, students can work on recognizing and remembering people, objects, places, and events ("show me..." or "find the ...") that appear in the texts and become familiar over time as a result of repeated reading and interaction. Teachers can work on this using the DLM Familiar Texts. These texts feature familiar contexts (e.g., home, school, or neighborhood) where students are likely to encounter people, objects, and events that either already are familiar to them or become familiar through repeated shared readings.Initial Precursor: Learning to respond to questions regarding details in a text requires that students attend to, recognize, and eventually answer questions about the characteristics of the objects they encounter each day. This might include understanding actions that can be completed with familiar objects (e.g., using a cup to drink). In the context of reading informational text, students can learn to attend to real objects that are paired with objects found in books during shared reading. Using the DLM Familiar Texts at this level, teachers and students can work on this skill while engaging in shared reading about familiar concepts and routines. Teachers can help students identify labels and actions that go with book-related objects they collect prior to reading.3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.3.4ELA.EE.W.3.4 With guidance and support, produce writing that expresses more than one ideaWrites more than one idea about a topic.Can use two words together when producing a written text.Sustains own attention to objects, pictures or multimedia for more than a fleeting moment.Turns own body, head, or otherwise directs own attention to objects or people.Distal Precursor: Writing multiple ideas about a topic requires students to pay attention to the topic long enough to learn about it. In the context of emergent writing, students can work on sustaining attention to objects, pictures, or multimedia when teachers introduce, talk about, and offer them as potential topics for writing. Teachers might start with familiar, favored objects, pictures, or multimedia and introduce new options over time as they work to help students sustain their attention to options before making a choice for writing.Initial Precursor: Writing about a specific topic using facts and details requires students to be able to attend to topics long enough to learn information about them. In the context of emergent writing, students working at the Initial Precursor level can work toward writing about topics by attending to objects or people that are presented as choices. While it may be unclear to the adult if the student is actually making an intentional choice, it is clear over time that the student is able to attend. The key here is to build attention to choices that are offered during a writing routine. As students begin to attend to the choices that are offered, it becomes possible to move them toward intentionally making a choice of a topic.3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model3rd Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.4.2ELA.EE.RI.4.2 Identify the main idea of a text when it is explicitly statedCan identify the overall, general topic of any brief (no more than a paragraph) familiar informationaltext.Can identify the concrete details, such as individuals, events, or ideas in familiar informational texts.When shown a familiar book ("familiar" means that the student has had several shared reading experiences with the same text), can name the objects shown in the pictures/tactile graphics or the objects representing the pictures in the book.Can indicate an object when it is referred to by name.Distal Precursor: Identifying the general topic or main idea of a text requires students to recognize and remember objects (and other details) included in the book that point to the general topic or main idea. One way to build this skill is to engage students in naming the objects that appear in illustrations or tactile graphics that appear in a book. Teachers might also choose to provide students with access to real objects that reflect the objects in the book and, during shared reading, associate the real objects with the illustrations or tactile graphics and main topic of the book. Using the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level, teachers and students can work on this skill because the books are set in familiar contexts and use everyday objects that teachers should be able to collect and use during repeated shared readings of the book.Initial Precursor: Identifying the general topic or main idea of a text requires students to first understand that texts can tell information about objects and other things. This starts with being able to recognize objects when they are referenced by name. In the context of shared reading, teachers can work on this skill by pairing real objects with the objects that appear in books. The DLM Familiar texts highlight familiar settings and routines that involve everyday objects that teachers can associate with the names/labels that are used in the books.4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.4.1ELA.EE.RI.4.1 Identify explicit details in an informational text.Able to identify explicit details in an informational text.Can identify the concrete details, such as individuals, events, or ideas in familiar informational texts.When shown a familiar book ("familiar" means that the student has had several shared reading experiences with the same text), can name the objects shown in the pictures/tactile graphics or the objects representing the pictures in the book.Can indicate an object when it is referred to by name.Distal Precursor: One way to build this skill is to engage students in naming the objects that appear in illustrations or tactile graphics that appear in texts. Teachers might also choose to provide students with access to real objects that reflect the objects in the text. During shared reading, the teacher can associate the real objects with the illustrations or tactile graphics and main topic of the text. Using the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level, teachers and students can work on this skill because the texts are set in familiar contexts and use everyday objects that teachers should be able to collect and use during repeated shared readings, which build familiarity with the text and the objects over time.Initial Precursor: Identifying specific details in a text requires students to first understand that texts can tell information about objects and other things. This starts with being able to recognize objects when they are referenced by name. In the context of shared reading, teachers can work on this skill by pairing real objects with the objects that appear in the texts they read. The DLM Familiar Texts highlight familiar settings and routines that involve everyday objects, which teachers can associate with the names/labels used in the text. Teachers can use these objects and texts during repeated shared readings until the objects and texts become familiar to the students.4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.4.1ELA.EE.RL.4.1 Use details from the text to recount what the text saysCan recount events from a narrative using details. Studentmay not be able to provide a complete summary or tell the details in temporal order but the details are accurate.Student can identify the explicitly-stated actions of characters in a story.Can identify the behavior and actions of specific characters in a familiar story.Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places, and event.Distal Precursor: Recounting what a text says requires students to remember the text and recall the details from it. At the Distal Precursor level, students are not expected to recount what a text says, but they are expected to identify the way familiar characters behave or the things characters do. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level specifically call out characters and the actions they perform. Teachers can help students at the Distal Precursor level learn to identify behaviors and actions of characters by engaging in repeated shared reading of the DLM Familiar Texts. During the initial readings of the book, teachers can describe the characters and what they do, and over time teachers can ask students to begin identifying the names of characters who perform each action.Initial Precursor: Recounting what a text says requires students to remember the text and recall the details from it. At the Initial Precursor level, this recollection can focus on recognizing familiar people, objects, places, and events. In the context of shared reading, this can involve identifying the same familiar character when they appear page after page, or identifying a real object that appears repeatedly in the story. The DLM Familiar Texts involve familiar routines involving people, objects, places, and/or events, which should be in the experience of most children. These routines provide teachers with a way to engage students in purposefully remembering and identifying these familiar things when they appear in the story.4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.L.4.2.aELA.EE.L.4.2.a Capitalize the
first word in a sentence
Capitalizes the first letter of
sentences.
Can indicate a knowledge that when a word is capitalized, the first letter in the word is in uppercase.Can recognize when a letter is uppercase and when it is lowercase.Student understands that we use letters to write words. We don't use numbers, punctuation, or other symbols, and we don't draw pictures to represent the referent.Distal Precursor: Before students can effectively use a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence, they must understand the difference between uppercase and lowercase letters. In the context of writing, teachers and students can work on distinguishing between uppercase and lower case letters as they select, write, or type letters to write about the topics the students select.Initial Precursor: Before students can effectively use a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence, they must learn that writing involves letters. Students working at the Initial Precursor level can begin learning about letters in the context of writing. Whether they use a standard pencil, keyboard, or alternate pencil (see module called Writing with Alternate Pencils at http://dlmpd.com/all-modules-in-alphabetical-order/) teachers can help students select or write letters about the topics selected for writing. Students can learn letters by using them, rather than first learning to identify letters and then using them to write. 4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.L.4.5.cELA.EE.L.4.5.c Demonstrate
understanding of opposites
Can demonstrate an understanding of words with opposite meaning (e.g. cold, hot, up, down)Can provide real-life examples of words connected to a use (describe people who are friendly)Can determine some of the relevant words for describing people, places, things, or events familiar to the student.Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places and events.Distal Precursor: Before students can demonstrate an understanding of words with opposite meanings, they have to understand the meaning and use of words. In the context of shared reading of informational texts, this means that students recognize familiar people, objects, places, and events and can identify or generate words that describe these things. Eventually, these "describing" words can be contrasted with words that have an opposite meaning. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level occur in settings that should be familiar to most students (home, school, neighborhood) and include people, objects, and events that are associated with those settings. Teachers can work on this linkage level during shared reading by helping students attend to and recognize the words that are used in the book to describe the people, objects, and events.Initial Precursor: Before students can demonstrate an understanding of words with opposite meanings, they must begin to recognize and remember words and familiar things (people, objects, places, and events) they encounter each day. In the context of shared reading, this can involve recognizing the same familiar objects, people, places, and events that appear repeatedly in an informational text. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level involve familiar routines involving people, objects, places, and/or events, which should be in the experience of most children. These routines provide teachers with a way to engage students in purposefully remembering, recognizing, and ultimately identifying these familiar things through pointing, looking, or otherwise signaling when they appear in the text.4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.4.9ELA.EE.RI.4.9 Compare details presented in two texts on the same topicCan compare informational texts on the same topic based on the specific details used to discuss the topicCan determine when two different informational texts on the same topic make a similar point or statement.Using their categorical knowledge, can make generalizations about the category to novel instances of that category.Can indicate an object when it is referred to by name.Distal Precursor: Comparing information across texts on the same topic requires students to understand how things are related to one another. Categorical knowledge is one way to understand relationships. In the context of shared reading, teachers can work on developing the student's ability to use categorical knowledge by stating a category and asking students to identify objects in the text (or real objects that have been paired with the text) that belong to the category. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level highlight the objects that are used in familiar routines and the broader categories for the objects (e.g., items you buy when you go shopping). Students can learn the names of objects and put them in categories (e.g., spoons are used for eating) and generalize that learned relation to other objects that fit in the same category (e.g., forks are used for eating).Initial Precursor: Comparing informational texts on the same topics requires students to understand that texts can tell information about objects and other things that can eventually be compared. This starts with being able to recognize objects when they are referenced by name. In the context of shared reading, teachers can work on this skill by pairing real objects with the objects that appear in texts. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level highlight familiar routines involving everyday objects that teachers can associate with the names/labels that are used in the books. Eventually, these objects can be compared across texts.4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.L.4.2.dELA.EE.L.4.2.d Spell words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of letter-sound relationships, and/or common spelling patternsCan use letter-sound knowledge to
spell words phonetically by including letters that represent sounds from the word
Can produce a string of letters (student attempts to write words) by combining random letters.Can recognize the sound of the letter of their first name in words they hear and see, and can correctly represent this letter when spelling words that start with the same letter.Student understands that we use letters to write words. We don't use numbers, punctuation, or other symbols, and we don't draw pictures to represent the referent.Distal Precursor: Research suggests that the first letter most children learn to recognize is the first letter of their first name. Over time, they learn to identify and use more letters and eventually associate those letters with sounds in decoding and spelling, but it is typical that this understanding starts with being able to recognize the sound of the letter of their first name. Teachers should work on this skill in the context of writing and each time there is a meaningful reason for students to write or recognize their name.Initial Precursor: Learning to use letter-sound relationships to spell words while writing requires that students understand that writing involves letters and words rather than pictures or other symbols. Students develop this understanding by using a pencil, keyboard, or alternate pencil to write about topics they select. Students working at the Initial Precursor linkage level are unlikely to identify any specific letters or letter-sound relationships, but they can work toward these skills by engaging in writing with letters on a regular basis.4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.4.2.bELA.EE.W.4.2.b List words, facts, or details related to the topicCan determine the words, facts, details, or other information that relate to a specific topic when preparing to writeCan determine some of the relevant words for describing people, places, things, or events familiar to the student.Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places and events.Can indicate an object when it is referred to by name.Distal Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. As such, it is important for students to move beyond knowing object names to recognizing when people, objects, places, and events are and are not familiar. In writing, students should be encouraged to select topics that are familiar. Teachers can support this by gathering photos, objects, and artifacts that are familiar to students and using these things as choices when students select topics for writing. Teachers can build on this understanding and reach toward the target by helping students identify people, objects, places, and events that are related to the familiar topic they select.Initial Precursor: It is important for students to know something about the topics they choose to write about. The target linkage level for this Essential Element requires students to select a topic and then determine information related to that topic. At the Initial Precursor level, students are expected to demonstrate that they are learning the names of objects related to topics they might write about. Teachers can work on this linkage level by gathering objects related to preferred topics (e.g., activities, events, people, places, shows) that students might like to write about. After selecting a topic, teachers can help students learn the names of the selected objects prior to writing.4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model4th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.5.1ELA.EE.RI.5.1 Identify words in the text to answer a question about explicit informationCan identify words or details to answer a question about explicit information presented in the textCan answer questions posed by others regarding the concrete details of an informational text.Can understand a familiar text read aloud or through oral or other media by answering questions posed by others.Can demonstrate an understanding that he or she can communicate their preference for an object (like, dislike) through either verbal or nonverbal means when asked yes/no questions about their preference.Distal Precursor: As students work toward being able to answer questions about details in text, teachers can use repeated shared readings of texts to make them familiar enough that students can learn to respond to questions about the text. Teachers can use a variety of texts—including the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level—about familiar contexts and routines. The familiarity of the text, the routines in the text, and the people, objects, and events related to those routines will help students respond to questions.Initial Precursor: Being able to respond to questions about details in a text can begin in shared reading with questions about personal preferences. For example, teachers could use a variety of texts—including DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level—that reflect familiar routines and objects. Teachers can gather the objects named in the texts and, during repeated shared readings, ask students to indicate whether they like or do not like objects as they are introduced in the text.5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.5.1ELA.EE.RL.5.1 Identify words in the text to answer a question about explicit informationCan produce responses to questions asking about explicit information contained in a narrative by determining specific words related to or comprising of informationCan identify the key elements in a story, including the main characters, setting, and the major events.Can identify the major events of a familiar story.Can indicate an object when it is referred to by name.Distal Precursor: As students begin to know the names of objects and begin to recognize details in familiar texts, they can work toward recognizing the things that happen in a story. Unlike the objects and people who are often pictured, identifying and remembering events often takes a different level of attention to the words in the text rather than the pictures or tactile information. At the Distal Precursor level, teachers can use repeated shared reading of texts to help students first learn the names of objects, people, and places in the story and then identify the major events in the story. The DLM Familiar Texts that are aligned with this linkage level feature characters who explore places, meet new people, and find things like missing animals. These are all examples of major events that students can learn to identify by attending to the words in the text during shared reading.Initial Precursor: Identifying specific words in a text in order to answer questions requires students to know the meanings of words and their relationship to the topic of the text. This starts with being able to recognize objects when they are referenced by name in a text or in an interaction about a text. In the context of shared reading, teachers can work on this skill by pairing real objects with the objects that appear in books. The DLM Familiar Texts that are aligned with this linkage level highlight familiar settings and routines involving everyday objects that teachers can associate with the names/labels used in the books.5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.5.2.aELA.EE.W.5.2.a Introduce a topic and write to convey information about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriatCan introduce a topic while writing an informational text and convey information about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as
appropriate
Can write about a specific topic using facts and details to describe the topic.Can demonstrate understanding of wh- questions.Given a choice of two objects, uses eye-
gaze, physical movement, gesture or vocalization to indicate choice.
Distal Precursor: One way to help students learn to write an informational text is to help them brainstorm ideas about the topics they select. Teachers can work on this by asking students basic questions about the topic they select. These questions might begin with yes/no personal preference questions (e.g., "Do you like <topic>?"). As students grow more successful in responding to these questions, teachers move to other "wh-" questions (e.g., "What do you do with <topic>?", "How do you use <topic>?", "Where do you find <topic>?").Initial Precursor: Introducing and writing about a topic requires students to successfully communicate a choice of topics. In the context of emergent writing, students at the Initial Precursor level can work on clearly communicating a choice between two familiar, preferred objects as a topic for writing. The key here is to practice communicating a choice before writing about the choice, rather than communicating a choice during an activity unrelated to writing.5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.5.2ELA.EE.RL.5.2 Identify the central idea or theme of a story, drama or poemCan identify the theme of a story, which includes a short, concise sentence about the overall meaning of the narrativeCan identify and recall how characters' actions affect the consequences that occur in the story afterwardsCan identify the behavior and actions of specific characters in a familiar story.Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places, and eventDistal Precursor: Identifying the theme of a text requires the readers to remember and recall details from the text, including details regarding the things the characters do. At the Distal Precursor level, students are not expected to identify the theme, but they are expected to identify the way familiar characters behave or the things characters do in familiar texts. The DLM Familiar Texts at this linkage level specifically call out characters and the actions they perform. At the Distal Precursor level, teachers can help students learn to identify behaviors and actions of characters by engaging in repeated shared readings of the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level. During the initial readings of the book, teachers can describe the characters and what they do, and over time teachers can ask students to begin identifying the names of characters who perform each action.Initial Precursor: Identifying the theme of a text requires the readers to remember and recall details from the text. At the Initial Precursor level, this recollection can focus on recognizing familiar people, objects, places, and events. In the context of shared reading, this can involve recognizing the same familiar characters when they appear page after page or recognizing real objects that appears repeatedly in the story. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level involve familiar routines including people, objects, places, and/or events that should be in the experience of most children. These routines provide teachers with a way to engage students in purposefully remembering and recognizing these familiar things when they appear in the story.5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.5.2ELA.EE.RI.5.2 Identify the main idea of a text when it is not explicitly statedCan identify the main idea for a paragraph in an informational text that lacks an explicit statement of the topicCan identify the concrete details mentioned in beginner level informational texts.Can identify illustrations or tactile
graphics/objects that reflect aspects of a familiar text, such as setting, characters, or action if it is a story or a person, place, thing, or idea if it is an informational text.
Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places, and event.Distal Precursor: Identifying the main idea of an informational text requires the readers to remember and recall details from the text and to recognize information that is related to the main idea. At the Distal Precursor level, students are not expected to identify the main idea, but they are working toward recognizing illustrations or tactile graphics or objects that reflect different aspects of familiar people, places, things, and ideas that appear in an informational text. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned to this linkage level include information about familiar context and routines. They also feature graphics that relate directly to the people, places, things, and ideas that are included in the text. Teachers might work on this linkage level by naming the person, place, thing, or idea and asking students to identify the illustration, tactile graphic, or object that reflects or goes with it.Initial Precursor: Identifying the main idea of an informational text requires the readers to remember and recall details from the text. At the Initial Precursor level, this recollection can focus on recognizing familiar people, objects, places, and events. In the context of shared reading, this can involve recognizing the same people, objects, places, or events when they appear page after page. In some cases, this may involve recognizing the objects a teacher has gathered to go with the information in a text that is read repeatedly in a shared reading format. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level involve daily routines including people, objects, places, and/or events, which should be in the experience of most children. These routines provide teachers with a way to engage students in purposefully remembering and recognizing these familiar things when they appear in the story.5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.5.2.bELA.EE.W.5.2.b Provide facts,
details, or other information
related to the topic
Student is already able to identify
facts and details related to topic from a set of choices. Now they are able to provide written facts, details and/or information about a topic
Can identify the specific details, such as the people, places, things, and events, that occur within a specific personal experience.Can determine some of the relevant words for describing people, places, things, or events familiar to the student.Can recognize when he or she encounters familiar people, objects, places, and event.Distal Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. When students are familiar with the topics they choose, they can begin working to use words that describe the people, places, things, or events that relate to the topic. In the context of writing, teachers can work with students to select from a range of familiar topics and then identify or produce words that could be used to describe the people, places, things, or events they might write about.Initial Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. As such, it is important for students to move beyond knowing object names to recognizing when people, objects, places, and events are and are not familiar. In writing, students should be encouraged to select topics that are familiar. Teachers can support this by gathering photos, objects, and artifacts that are familiar to students and then using these things as choices when students select topics for writing. Teachers can build on this understanding and reach toward the target by helping students identify people, objects, places, and events that are related to the familiar topic they select.5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model5th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.6.3ELA.EE.RL.6.3 Can identify how a character responds to a challenge in a story.Student can correctly identify how a character responds to a challenge that is presented within a storyCan identify how a character's actions make them feel OR can identify how the character's desires or feelings lead to an action.Student can identify the explicitly-stated actions of characters in a story.Can perform requested actions on objects. ("Kiss it. Throw it.").Distal Precursor: Understanding the way a character responds to a challenge that is presented in a story requires students to identify the actions of characters. Students working at the Distal Precursor level are working to identify the actions of characters that are explicitly stated and often illustrated in familiar stories. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level highlight characters and the actions they perform. Teachers can use these and other books in repeated shared readings to help students become familiar with the story, the characters, and the actions characters perform. Teachers might support students in acting out the things characters do or might show them what the actions look like as they occur in the book.Initial Precursor: Understanding the actions a character takes or the way a character responds to a challenge requires students to understand actions. At the Initial Precursor level, students are working to demonstrate their understanding of basic action words that appear in texts. During repeated shared readings, teachers can help students interact with objects that relate to the book and perform actions with those objects. For example, the DLM Familiar Texts that are aligned with this linkage level are situated in familiar settings (e.g., home, school, neighborhood) and include clearly described objects and actions. Teachers can gather the objects named in the book and use them during repeated shared readings to help students begin to understand the actions of characters in the story.6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.6.5ELA.EE.RI.6.5 Determine how the title fits the structure of the textCan understand how the title indicates
information about or fits the structure of an informational text
Can determine if an informational text is providing information about events, giving directions, or providing information on a topic.Can identify the concrete details, such as individuals, events, or ideas in familiar informational texts.Demonstrates receptive understanding of the action words that accompany familiar games or routines.Distal Precursor: Determining how the title fits the structure of a text requires students to be able to identify details in the text that ultimately define the structure. Teachers can help students learn to identify the concrete details in familiar texts through repeated shared readings. Using texts like the DLM Familiar Texts that align with this linkage level, teachers can build student familiarity with the details in the text.Initial Precursor: Determining how the title fits the structure of a text requires that students understand relationships between two or more things. Students at the Initial Precursor level can work on understanding early relationships by identifying action words that accompany familiar routines. Teachers can help students develop this understanding through repeated shared readings of texts like the DLM Familiar Texts that align with this linkage level. During these repeated shared readings, teachers can highlight the routines in the book and name and/or act out actions that go with the routines.6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.L.6.2.bELA.EE.L.6.2.b Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on letter-sound relationships and common spelling patternsCan use letter-sound knowledge to
spell words phonetically by including letters that represents ounds from the word
Can use spelling patterns (e.g., rimes) in familiar words to spell new words.Can produce a string of letters (student attempts to write words) by combining random letters.Can recognize the sound of the letter of their first name in words they hear and see, and can correctly represent this letter when spelling words that start with the same letter.Distal Precursor: As students learn more about selecting topics, generating ideas, and using the alphabet to write, they begin to string together letters into word-like strings. They are not yet demonstrating understandings of letter-sound relationships, but they consistently write or select strings of letters when asked to write about the topics they choose.Initial Precursor: Research suggests that the first letter most children learn to recognize is the first letter of their first name. Over time, they learn to identify and use more letters and eventually associate those letters with sounds in decoding and spelling. Teachers can work on the Initial Precursor skill by asking students to sign their name to their writing each time they write.6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.6.3ELA.EE.RI.6.3 Identify a detail that elaborates upon individuals, events, or ideas introduced in a textCan determine when specific details provided in an informational text expand and elaborate on other details in the same textCan determine whether a concrete detail is related to an individual, event, or idea discussed in an informational text.Can provide real-life examples of words connected to a use (describe people who are friendly).Can determine some of the relevant words for describing people, places, things, or events familiar to the studen.tDistal Precursor: As students learn to identify words that describe the people, places, things, or events that appear in familiar texts, they can work toward extending that understanding to the ways words can be used to describe things in everyday life. Teachers can support this through shared reading of texts about topics that use familiar words to describe people, places, things, or events in the story. During these shared readings, teachers can help students connect the words in the text to their real-life experiences.Initial Precursor: Determining which details elaborate on other details in a text requires students to understand that some words describe or elaborate on others. Students working at the Initial Precursor level can work toward this understanding by identifying words that describe people, places, things, or events in familiar texts. Teachers can support this through repeated shared readings of books like the DLM Familiar Texts. The Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level focus on familiar contexts and include descriptions of the people, objects, places, and events associated with the context.6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.6.2ELA.EE.RI.6.2 Determine the main idea of a passage and details or facts related to itCan determine which details contained within a paragraph of an informational text provide an important contribution to the
paragraph's main idea
Can determine which details in a paragraph of an informational text are important.Can identify the concrete details, such as individuals, events, or ideas in familiar informational texts.Can demonstrate a receptive understanding of the property words that describe the objects that accompany familiar games or routines.Distal Precursor: Determining the details that contribute to the main idea of a text requires students to identify and remember the details in a text. Teachers can help students learn to identify the concrete details in texts by starting with repeated shared readings that help students become familiar with books. Using texts like the DLM Familiar Texts that align with this linkage level, teachers can help students learn to identify the details in a familiar text.Initial Precursor: Determining the details that contribute to the main idea of a text requires students to develop early understandings of the relationship between words and their use. Students at the Initial Precursor level can work on understanding early relationships by identifying objects based on description or property words used to describe them. Teachers can help students develop this understanding through repeated shared reading of texts like the DLM Familiar Texts that align with this linkage level and feature familiar routines. During these repeated shared readings, teachers can highlight the routines in the book and the objects that are used in the routines while helping students distinguish among items based on descriptive or property words that describe them.6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.6.2.aELA.EE.W.6.2.a Introduce a topic and write to convey ideas and information about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriateCan introduce an informational topic while writing and extend by writing about ideas and information related to the topicCan select a topic for writing an informational text and then find information that is either tactile, visual, or multimedia for use when writing the text.Can demonstrate understanding of wh- questions.Given a choice of two objects, uses eye-gaze, physical movement, gesture or vocalization to indicate choice.Distal Precursor: One way to help students learn to write an informational text is to help them brainstorm ideas about the topics they select. Teachers can work on this by asking students to select a topic for writing and then ask them basic questions about the topic. These questions might begin with yes/no personal preference questions but, as students grow more successful, can include the "wh-" questions that are the focus of this linkage level.Initial Precursor: Selecting and writing about a topic requires students to successfully communicate a choice of topics. In the context of emergent writing, students at the Initial Precursor level can work on clearly communicating a choice between two familiar, preferred objects as a topic for writing. The key here is to practice communicating a choice before writing about the choice rather than communicating a choice during an activity unrelated to writing.6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.6.2.bELA.EE.W.6.2.b Provide facts, details, or other information related to the topicStudent is already able to identify facts and details related to topic from a set of choices. Now they are able to provide written facts, details and/or information about a topicCan select a topic and use drawing, dictating, or writing to compose a message with at least one fact or detail about the selected topic (message may require some interpretation as student may not be using phonetic spelling or complete simple sentences).Can identify a photograph or object that is personally relevant to the student from a set of personally relevant and irrelevant photographs or objects and provide a specific detail about it.Can determine some of the relevant words for describing people, places, things, or events familiar to the student.Distal Precursor: Students can work toward being able to identify facts and details that are relevant to a topic and write about them by selecting familiar, personally relevant photographs or objects and identifying details that relate to them. In the context of writing, students at the Distal Precursor level can select from an array of personally relevant pictures or objects when choosing a topic to write about. Then they can determine details about the topic to write about.Initial Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. When students are familiar with the topics they chose, they can begin working to use words that describe the people, places, things, or events that relate to the topic. In the context of writing, teachers can work with students to select from a range of familiar topics. After selecting a topic, the teacher can present words that the student can use to describe or "talk" about the topic before writing using letters. 6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model6th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.7.3ELA.EE.RL.7.3 Determine how two or more story elements are relatedCan ascertain the relations between some of the story elements of a narrative, such as characters, settings, or major eventsStudent can correctly identify how a character responds to a challenge that is presented within a story.Can identify how a character's actions make them feel OR can identify how the character's desires or feelings lead to an action.Can understand adjectives in others' speech.Distal Precursor: One specific way that students can begin understanding the relationships between elements of a story is to identify the relationship between a character's actions and feelings. During shared or guided reading, teachers can help students identify when character feelings are explicitly stated and look for actions that are related to those feelings.Initial Precursor: As students work toward being able to determine the relationships between elements of a story, they have to learn a great deal about language. One starting point is understanding adjectives and the way they describe characters, settings, or major events in a story. Adjectives often distinguish story details from one another, which is one form of a relationship. In the context of repeated shared reading, teachers can use texts, including DLM Familiar Texts, that feature familiar settings and explicitly describe people, objects, and events associated with the settings. As teachers read the text with students, they might gather objects that match those from the book or use the illustrations to support students in understanding the describing words that are used. Students might demonstrate this understanding by selecting the appropriate words or attending longer to some choices than others.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.7.2ELA.EE.RI.7.2 Determine two or more central ideas in a textCan determine more than one main idea in an informational textCan identify the main idea for a paragraph in an informational text that lacks an explicit statement of the topic.Can identify the concrete details mentioned in beginner level informational texts.Can pair an object with a picture, tactile graphic, or other symbolic representation of the object.Distal Precursor: Identifying the main ideas of a text requires the readers to remember and recall details from the text. At the Distal Precursor level, students are not expected to identify the main idea, but they are expected to identify the details even when a book is being read for the first time. Teachers can support the development of this understanding through guided readings (anchor-read-apply) with clearly stated, concrete details.Initial Precursor: Identifying the main ideas of a text requires the readers to remember and recall details from the text. At the Initial Precursor level, students are working on learning to relate spoken words or symbols with photos or tactile graphics/objects that represent details. Teachers can address this during repeated shared readings of texts such as the DLM Familiar Texts that describe people, objects, and events that can easily be represented by objects and other symbolic representations.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.7.2ELA.EE.RL.7.2 Identify events in a text that are related to the theme or central ideaCan determine the events that provide for the foundation of the theme in a narrativeCan identify what the overall goal or main idea of a single episode is in a narrative by inferring from the characters, settings, and actions.Can identify elements in a story (characters, other key details in the text) when asked.Can pair an object with a picture, tactile graphic, or other symbolic representation of the object.Distal Precursor: Identifying the events that provide the foundation for the theme of a text requires the reader to remember and recall the events and differentiate them from all of the other details in the text. Students at the Distal Precursor level are not expected to determine which events provide the foundation for the theme, but they are expected to remember and recall the events and other key details from the story, even when the story is being read for the first time. Teachers can support the development of this understanding through guided readings (anchor-read-apply) with clearly stated story elements.Initial Precursor: Identifying the events that provide the foundation for the theme of a text requires the readers to remember and recall the events themselves. At the Initial Precursor level, students are working on learning to relate spoken words or symbols with photos or tactile graphics/objects of the events in the story. Teachers can address this during repeated shared readings of texts like the DLM Familiar Texts that describe events that can be represented by objects and other symbolic representations.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.7.3ELA.EE.RI.7.3 Determine how two individuals, events or ideas in a text are relatedCan determine the specific relationship between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or other details in an informational textCan find two points made by an author of an informational text that relate to each other.Can determine which of the points that the author makes in an informational text are the most important.Using their categorical knowledge, can make generalizations about the category to novel instances of that category.Distal Precursor: Recognizing and remembering the details in a text is a critical component of being able to recognize the relationships between details. As students begin to recognize and remember details, but before they can determine the specific relationship between them, they can work toward determining which details are the most important. Teachers can work on this during shared readings by asking students to identify all of the details and then identify the details that are most important.Initial Precursor: Determining how two or more details in a text are related requires students to understand how things are related to one another. Categorical knowledge is one way to understand relationships. In the context of shared reading, teachers can work on developing student ability to use categorical knowledge by stating a category and asking students to identify objects in the book (or real objects that have been paired with the book) that belong to the category. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level highlight the objects that are used in familiar routines and the broader categories for the objects (e.g., items you buy when you go shopping). Students can learn the names of objects and put them in categories (e.g., spoons are used for eating) and generalize that learned relation to other objects that fit in the same category (e.g., forks are used for eating).7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.7.5ELA.EE.RI.7.5 Determine how a fact, step, or event fits into the overall structure of the textTaking the structure of the text into account, the student can identify how a fact, step, or event fits into the textCan understand how the title indicates information about or fits the structure of an informational text.Can identify the concrete details mentioned in beginner level informational texts.Comprehends that all objects have some function or action typically associated with it (object action).Distal Precursor: Determining how a fact, step, or event fits into the structure of a text requires students to be able to remember the facts, steps, and events. Teachers can help students learn to identify these concrete details in familiar texts through shared or guided readings of texts with a clear structure (e.g., sequence, compare/contrast, chronological order).Initial Precursor: Determining how a fact, step, or event fits into the structure of a text requires students to understand that things have a purpose. Students working at the Initial Precursor level can work on early understandings of the function of things by demonstrating an understanding of the purpose of objects. In the context of repeated shared readings, teachers can help students develop this understanding by selecting books like the DLM Familiar Texts that explicitly reference objects and their function. During the repeated readings, teachers might gather actual objects that match the book, act out how they are used, and otherwise describe their function. As students build their understanding of the objects' functions, they can begin selecting the objects that match functions or acting out the function when presented with the object.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.L.7.2.aELA.EE.L.7.2.a Use end punctuation when writing a sentence or questionCan use appropriately the various types of end punctuation in his or her writingCan demonstrate an understanding that some type of punctuation needs to occur after each sentence and can recognize the different types of end punctuation.Points to the first word, in the upper left when asked, "Show me where I should start reading".Comprehends that all objects have some function or action typically associated with it (object action).Distal Precursor: In the context of writing, using appropriate ending punctuation is an extension of the concepts about print that students learn as they are emerging in their understandings of reading and writing. One specific form of print concept knowledge is understanding that print starts in the upper-left corner when reading and writing. Teachers can work on this skill during writing instruction by asking students to "show me where to start writing" or "show me where you'll start writing." When students use alternate pencils or keyboards, teachers can say, "Show me were the first word will go."Initial Precursor: Using correct ending punctuation requires an understanding of the symbols themselves as well as their use. Students working at the Initial Precursor level are working toward the understanding that symbols such as ending punctuation have a function. They are doing this by identifying that objects have functions. In the context of writing, teachers can work on this by presenting preferred objects as potential topic choices. After a student selects the object, the teacher can present an array of functions and help the student identify and communicate about the function that matches the selected object. Teachers might also help students begin to identify the function of objects by presenting the tools (objects) used during writing (e.g., pencil, keyboard, paper, alternate pencil, switches) and work with students to match those tools with their function during writing.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.L.7.2.bELA.EE.L.7.2.b Spell words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of letter-sound relationships and/or common spelling patternsCan use letter-sound knowledge to
spell words phonetically by including letters that represent sounds from the word
Can use spelling patterns (e.g.,rimes) in familiar words to spell new words.Can produce a string of letters (student attempts to write words) by combining random letters.Can recognize the sound of the letter of their first name in words they hear and see, and can correctly represent this letter when spelling words that start with the same letter.Distal Precursor: As students learn more about selecting topics, generating ideas, and using the alphabet to write, they begin to string together letters into word-like strings. They do not yet demonstrate an understanding of letter-sound relationships, but they consistently write or select strings of letters when asked to write about the topics they choose.Initial Precursor: Research suggests that the first letter most children learn to recognize is the first letter of their first name. Over time, they learn to identify and use more letters and eventually associate those letters with sounds in decoding and spelling. Work on the Initial Precursor skill by asking students to sign their name to their writing each time they write.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.7.2.aELA.EE.W.7.2.a Introduce a topic and write to convey ideas andinformation about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as
appropriate
Can introduce an informational topic while writing and extend by writing about ideas and information related to the topicCan select a topic for writing an informational text and then find information that is either tactile, visual, or multimedia for use when writing the text.Can demonstrate understanding of wh- questions.Given a choice of two objects, uses eye-gaze, physical movement, gesture or vocalization to indicate choice.Distal Precursor: After students have learned to successful chose a topic for writing, they need to work on generating writing ideas about the topic. Teachers can work on this by asking students basic questions about the topic they select. These questions might begin with yes/no personal preference questions (e.g., Do you like <topic>?). As students grow more successful in responding to these questions, teachers move to other "wh-" questions (e.g., What do you do with <topic>? How do you use <topic>? Where do you find <topic>?).Initial Precursor: Selecting and writing about a topic requires students to successfully communicate a choice of topics. In the context of emergent writing, students at the Initial Precursor level can work on clearly communicating a choice between two familiar, preferred objects as a topic for writing. The key here is to practice communicating a choice before writing about the choice, rather than communicating a choice during an activity unrelated to writing.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.7.2.bELA.EE.W.7.2.b Provide facts, details, or other information related to the topicStudent is already able to identify facts and details related to topic from a set of choices. Now they are able to provide written facts, details and/or information about a topicStudent adds information to writing (writing is meant inclusively here - writing, drawing, or dictation) that helps to strengthen the overall message.Can use functional words (describe a noun's function/use) to describe common persons, places, objects, or eventsCan determine some of the relevant words for describing people, places, things, or events familiar to the student.Distal Precursor: After successfully and intentionally choosing a topic that is familiar, students then need to work on generating ideas to write about the topic. This can include selecting words that describe the people, places, objects, and/or events related to the topic. Teachers can support this by offering familiar topics and then presenting an array of words (through pictures, spoken words, and/or objects). As students select words, teachers can talk with students about the words before students begin writing with letters.Initial Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. When students are familiar with the topics they choose, they can begin working to use words that describe the people, places, things, or events that relate to the topic. In the context of writing, teachers can work with students to select from a range of familiar topics and then identify words (presented through pictures, objects, or spoken/signed choices) that could be used to describe people, places, things, or events they might write about.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.7.2.dELA.EE.W.7.2.d Select domain-specific vocabulary to use in writing about the topicStudent is able to select domain-
specific words to use for writing about a topic
Can identify words in speech or text that are domain-specific words (i.e., words that are specific to a content area or discipline).Using their categorical knowledge, can make generalizations about the category to novel instances of that category.Can demonstrate understanding that specific members comprise a broad category.Distal Precursor: Selecting domain-specific words when writing about a selected topic requires students to understand how words relate to specific domains. Students can work toward this understanding by applying knowledge of words from familiar categories. In the context of writing, students can select a topic for writing and then work to generate words in categories related to the topic. Teachers can help students work on this during writing by offering students selections of words and helping students identify the words that do and do not fit into categories related to the selected topic.Initial Precursor: Using domain-specific words when writing about a selected topic requires students to understand the relationship between words and domains being studied. This can begin with an understanding of words that fit into broad categories. Teachers can work on this during writing by supporting students in selecting a topic to write about. Then, teachers can present a list of words (pictures, objects, spoken/signed words) and work with students to identify those that do and do not belong to a category related to the topic.7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model7th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.8.2ELA.EE.RL.8.2 Recount an event related to the theme or central idea, including details about character and settingCan relate an event with details about specific characters and settings that help the reader to infer the theme or central idea of a narrativeCan identify the theme of a story, which includes a short, concise sentence about the overall meaning of the narrative.Can identify early elements of story
grammar; can point to pictures or objects or use speech to identify the characters or objects in a simple story.
Can identify the next step or event in a sequence from a familiar routine.Distal Precursor: Relating story events with details about characters and the settings to infer the theme or central idea of a narrative requires the integration of understanding of many story elements. Students working at the Distal Precursor level are working to identify the story elements that they will eventually learn to use to infer the theme or central idea. Teachers can work on this during shared or guided readings (anchor-read-apply) as they set purposes related to identifying and remembering story elements like settings, events, and characters.Initial Precursor: Relating story events with details about characters and the settings to infer the theme or central idea of a narrative requires the integration of understanding of many story elements. This requires students to identify details, and students at the Initial Precursor level can work toward these skills by engaging in repeated shared readings of books that focus on familiar routines. Teachers can use the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level to help students attend to the steps or events in familiar routines and learn to identify what step comes next at different points in the routine.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.8.3ELA.EE.RL.8.3 Identify which incidents in a story or drama lead to subsequent actionCan identify the impact that certain events have in a narrative, such as causing subsequent events to occurCan recall the causes of major actions included in a story.Student can correctly identify how a character responds to a challenge that is presented within a story.Comprehends that all objects have
some function or action typically associated with it (object action).
Distal Precursor: Identifying the impact events have on subsequent events in a narrative includes the ability to identify how challenges impact characters and their responses. Teachers can work on this during shared or guided readings (anchor-read-apply) as they set purposes related to identifying challenges and character responses to them.Initial Precursor: Identifying the way one event causes another requires students to understand the impact things have on one another. At the Initial Precursor level, students work toward this understanding by learning to identify the relationship between familiar objects and their function. Teachers can use the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level to work on this skill during repeated shared readings. The texts feature familiar routines and explicitly reference objects and their function. Teachers might gather the objects that are referenced in the book and act out or otherwise help students experience the functions that are associated with each object. Students can then work to identify the objects that match the function or the function that matches the object.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.8.5ELA.EE.RI.8.5 Locate the topic sentence and supporting details in aparagraphStudent can identify the topic sentence and identify the details in the paragraph that support the topic sentence. There is a slight shift here from previous nodes as the student will need to use some text searching skill to locate the topic sentence and supporting details (they will need to use their knowledge of structural elements
of informational texts to accomplish this)
Can determine which key details in an informational text support the main idea of the whole text or a section of it.Able to identify explicit details in an informational textWhen supplied with a member of a
category, can determine if the member belongs in the category
Distal Precursor: The target for this Essential Element includes identifying the topic sentence and the details in the paragraph that support the topic sentence. Accomplishing this requires students to identify the details presented in a text. Students working at the Distal Precursor level are working toward identifying explicit details in an informational text. Teachers can support this through guided reading (anchor-read-apply) lessons that focus on reading to identify the details as they occur in a text. Initial Precursor: Identifying the topic sentence and the details that support it requires students to understand the relationship between the topic and information in the text. Students working at the Initial Precursor level can work toward understanding these relationships by recognizing whether or not something belongs in a category. Teachers can work on this during repeated shared readings. The DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level explicitly include objects or characters that are part of a category and others that are not. Teachers might gather objects that are included in the story and, through repeated shared readings that help students become familiar with the text and the objects, help students learn which objects do and do not belong to the stated category.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.8.3ELA.EE.RI.8.3 Recount events in the order they were presented in the textCan recall and describe the events and details in an informational text in the same order as they appeared in the texCan identify the relationship between multiple concrete facts or details in a literature or informational text.Can identify the concrete details mentioned in beginner level informational texts.Can identify the next step or event
in a sequence from a familiar routine.
Distal Precursor: Recalling and describing the events and details in a text in the order they appear in the text requires that students can identify the details. Students at the Distal Precursor level are expected to identify the concrete details in a text. Teachers can support this through guided reading (anchor-read-apply) lessons that focus on reading to identify the details as they occur in a text. After they can successfully identify details, they can begin working toward sequencing relevant details.Initial Precursor: Recalling the sequence of events in a story begins with being able to identify the next steps (first-next) in everyday, familiar routines. Students working at the Initial Precursor level can work toward this understanding during repeated shared readings. Whether teachers use the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level or other texts that features a familiar routine with a clear sequence of events, they can use the repeated shared readings as a way to help students learn the steps in the routine and identify what comes next as each step is encountered in the book.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.8.2.aELA.EE.W.8.2.a Introduce a topic clearly and write to convey ideasand information about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriateCan introduce an informational
topic while writing and extend by writing about ideas and information related to the topic
Can select a topic for writing an informational text and then find information that is either tactile, visual, or multimedia for use when writing the text.Can produce the most appropriate response to wh- questions concerning free play, storybooks, snack time, sequence cards, and puppet play; Can produce semantically appropriate responses to comprehension questions intermittently asked throughout the reading of a story [Can demonstrate understanding of wh- questions].Given a choice of two objects, uses eye-gaze, physical movement, gesture or vocalization to indicate choice.Distal Precursor: One way to help students learn to write an informational text is to help them brainstorm ideas about the topics they select. Teachers can work on this by asking students basic questions about the topic they select. These questions might begin with yes/no personal preference questions (e.g., Do you like <topic>?). As students grow more successful in responding to these questions, teachers move to other "wh-" questions (e.g., What do you do with <topic>? How do you use <topic>? Where do you find <topic>?).Initial Precursor: Selecting and writing about a topic requires students to successfully communicate a choice of topics. In the context of emergent writing, students at the Initial Precursor level can work on clearly communicating a choice between two familiar, preferred objects as a topic for writing. The key here is to practice communicating a choice before writing about the choice rather than communicating a choice during an activity unrelated to writing.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.8.2.bELA.EE.W.8.2.b Write one or more facts or details related to the topicStudent is able to put facts or details identified about a topic into writingStudent is already able to identify facts and details related to topic from a set of choices. Now they are able to provide written facts, details and/or information about a topic.Can use perceptual words (describe a noun's features) to describe common persons, places, objects, or events.Can determine some of the relevant words for describing people, places, things, or events familiar to the student.Distal Precursor: As students work toward being able to include facts and details about the selected topic when writing, it is helpful for them to have the skills to elaborate on the words they plan to include. One way to do this is to ask students to select a topic, communicate some ideas (people, places, objects, and events) they might write about, and then use words that describe the ideas to elaborate on them.Initial Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. When students are familiar with the topics they choose, they can begin working to use words that describe the people, places, things, or events that relate to the topic. In the context of writing, teachers can work with students to select from a range of familiar topics and then identify words (presented through pictures, objects, or spoken/signed choices) that could be used to describe the people, places, things, or events they might write about. 8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.8.2.cELA.EE.W.8.2.c Write complete thoughts as appropriateStudent is able to produce a complete thought in writing. Up to this point, students may produce writing that requires some interpretation or context tou nderstand (e.g., frg lgs = frogs use their legs to jump). By this node students are able to create a complete thought (e.g., Frogs jump). The produced thought may not be grammatically correct (i.e., The frogs can jump), but still conveys a complete thought or ideaCan use two words together when producinga written text.Can produce utterances comprising of two words.Can produce single word utterances.Distal Precursor: In the context of writing, students can work on linking together two or more words when brainstorming ideas to write relative to a selected topic. Teachers can support this by providing students with word banks or other augmentative and alternative communication supports with words related to the selected topic.Initial Precursor: In the context of writing, students can work on communicating words (utterances) about the topic they have selected. Teachers can support this by providing students with word banks or other augmentative and alternative communication supports with words related to the selected topic.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.8.2.dELA.EE.W.8.2.d Use domain specific vocabulary related to the topicCan include domain-specific vocabulary when writing an informative textStudent is able to select domain-specific words to use for writing about a topic.Using their categorical knowledge, can make generalizations about the category to novel instances of that category.When supplied with a member of a category, can determine if the member belongs in the category.Distal Precursor: Selecting domain-specific words when writing about a selected topic requires students to understand how words relate to specific domains. Students can work toward this understanding by applying knowledge of words from familiar categories. In the context of writing, students can select a topic for writing and then work to generate words in categories related to the topic. Teachers can help students work on this during writing by offering students selections of words and helping students identify the words that do and do not fit into categories related to the selected topic.Initial Precursor: Using domain-specific words when writing about a selected topic requires students to understand the relationship between words and domains being studied. This can begin with an understanding of words that fit into broad categories. Teachers can work on this during writing by supporting students in selecting a topic to write about. Then, teachers can present a list of words (pictures, objects, spoken/signed words) and work with students to identify those that do and do not belong to a category related to the topic.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.8.2.fELA.EE.W.8.2.f Provide a closingCan produce a conclusion for a text he or she is writingCan write a concluding sentence, statement, or section of a written text to bring together all the information presented in the text.Can produce a universal ending in writing (e.g., the student can write "the end").As a result of the experience with a routine, the student is able to identify the end or completion of a routine.Distal Precursor: As students work toward writing a meaningful conclusion, they can use more universal endings to mark the end of their writing. For example, students can write "the end" to mark the completion of the things they write.Initial Precursor: As students work toward understanding conclusions as endings when writing, they need to work on developing understandings of the end or completion of familiar routines. In the context of writing, teachers can help students understand this by marking the end of the writing routine with a gesture or symbol indicating "finished" and then carrying that over to other routines across the day.8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model8th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.9-10.2ELA.EE.RL.9-10.2 Recount events related to the theme or central idea, including details about character and settingCan relate two or more events with details about specific characters and settings that help the reader to infer the theme or central idea of a narrativeCan determine the details that provide for the foundation of the theme in a narrativeCan identify what the overall goal or main idea of a single episode is in a narrative by inferring from the characters, settings, and actions.Can identify the next step or event in a sequence from a familiar routine.Distal Precursor: Relating story events with details about characters and the settings to infer the theme or central idea of a narrative requires the integration of understanding of many story elements. Students working at the Distal Precursor level can work toward this by working to identify the main idea of a single episode in a story. Teachers can work on this during shared or guided readings (anchor-read-apply) using texts that have one or more clear episodes with a setting, characters, and actions that can be used to infer the main idea of the episode.Initial Precursor: Relating story events with details about characters and the settings to infer the theme or central idea of a narrative requires the integration of understanding of many story elements. This requires students to identify details, and students at the Initial Precursor level can work toward these skills by engaging in repeated shared readings of books that focus on familiar routines. Teachers can use the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level to help students attend to the steps or events in familiar routines and learn to identify what step comes next at different points in the routine.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.9-10.5ELA.EE.RL.9-10.5 Identify where a text deviates from a chronological presentation of eventsCan identify where a text deviates from a chronological presentation of eventsThe student will identify an element of the story that undergoes change(s) from beginning to end (e.g., character or setting).Student can identify the beginning and end of an unfamiliar story.Can identify the next event in a sequence from a familiar story.Distal Precursor: Figuring out when events in a story are represented out of order requires students to understand sequence. Students working at the Distal Precursor level can work toward this understanding by learning to identify the beginning and ending of a story. Teachers can work on this during shared or guided readings (anchor-read-apply) using texts that have a clear sequence of events with an obvious beginning and ending.Initial Precursor: Figuring out when events in a story are represented out of order requires students to understand sequence. Students working at the Initial Precursor level can start working on sequence by identifying the next steps in familiar routines. In the context of repeated shared readings, teachers can use the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level to help students attend to the steps or events in familiar routines and learn to identify what step comes next at different points in the routine.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RI.9-10.3ELA.EE.RI.9-10.3 Determine
logical connections between individuals, ideas, or events in a text
Can ascertain the logical relationship or interaction between two or more
individuals, events, ideas, or other details in an informational text
Can identify the relationship between
multiple concrete facts or details in a
literature or informational text.
Can identify the order in which two events occur in an informational text.As a result of the experience with a routine, the student is able to identify the end or completion of a routine.Distal Precursor: The target linkage level for this Essential Element focuses on understanding the connections between individuals, ideas, or events in a text. Sequence is one type of connection students can focus on in texts. Students working at the Distal Precursor level can work toward understanding connections by sequencing two or more events that appear in an informational text. Teachers can work on this during shared or guided readings (anchor-read-apply) using texts that have two or more events with a clear order.Initial Precursor: The target linkage level for this Essential Element focuses on understanding the connections between individuals, ideas, or events in a text. Sequence is one type of connection students can focus on in texts. At the Initial Precursor level, students can work toward this by engaging in repeated shared readings of texts about familiar routines and learning to identify the end of those routines.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.9-10.3ELA.RL.9-10.3 Determine how characters change or develop over the course of a textCan determine the changes or development that occurs in a specific character in a narrativeCan describe the internal (motivations, feelings) and external traits (appearance) of a character.Student can identify the feelings of
characters when explicitly stated in familiar stories.
Can demonstrate an understanding that categories are broad and contain varying subgroups differing on their characteristics (furniture = chairs, tables, couches, etc.).Distal Precursor: Understanding how a character changes or develops over the course of a text includes understanding how the feelings of characters change. Students working at the Distal Precursor level are expected to work toward this understanding by identifying the feedback of characters when that information is explicitly stated in a familiar text. Teachers can work on this using repeated shared readings of the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level or other texts that explicitly state the feelings of characters.Initial Precursor: Understanding how a character changes or develops over the course of a text requires students to understand when things are the same or different. Students working at the Initial Precursor level can work on developing this understanding by identifying objects in a text that belong to categories and subcategories. Teachers can engage students in repeated shared readings of DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level and other texts that specifically include sets of objects that belong to broader categories (e.g., school supplies) and subcategories (e.g., writing tools).
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
50
ELA.EE.L.9-10.2.cELA.EE.L.9-10.2.c Spell most single-syllable words correctly and apply knowledge of word chunks in spelling longer wordsCan use letter-sound knowledge to
spell words phonetically by including letters that represent sounds from the word. Can produce conventional spellings for single syllable words including some words with long vowels in which the vowel sound is broken up in the written word by placing the -e associated with long vowel sound at the end
Student accurately selects (from a complete alphabet array on a keyboard or other AT device) or writes the correct initial sound that corresponds with a word.Can produce a string of letters (student attempts to write words) by combining random letters.Can recognize the sound of the letter of their first name in words they hear and see, and can correctly represent this letter when spelling words that start with the same letter.Distal Precursor: As students learn more about selecting topics, generating ideas, and using the alphabet to write, they begin to string together letters into word-like strings. They do not yet demonstrate an understanding of letter-sound relationships, but they consistently write or select strings of letters when asked to write about the topics they choose.Initial Precursor: Research suggests that the first letter most children learn to recognize is the first letter of their first name. Over time, they learn to identify and use more letters and eventually associate those letters with sounds in decoding and spelling. Teachers can work on this Initial Precursor skill by asking students to sign their name to their writing each time they write.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.9-10.2.aELA.EE.W.9-10.2.a Introduce a topic clearly and use a clear organization to write about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriateStudent is able to produce an informational piece of writing in which the topic is clearly introduced and the details about the topic (may be visual, tactual, or multimedia) are presented within a clear organizational structureCan introduce a topic while writing an informational text and convey information about it including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriate.Can select a topic and use drawing, dictating, or writing to compose a message with at least one fact or detail about the selected topic (message may require some interpretation as student may not be using phonetic spelling or complete simple sentences).Can demonstrate an understanding that he or she can communicate their preference for an object (like, dislike) through either verbal or nonverbal means when asked yes/no questions about their preferences.Distal Precursor: As students work toward being able to write informational text that clearly introduces a topic and includes details about the topic, they can begin by selecting topics for writing and then writing at least one fact or detail about the topic. These facts can be communicated in writing or while students are communicating about the topic and generating ideas to write about it.Initial Precursor: As students work toward being able to write informational text that clearly introduces a topic, they can begin working on expressing preferences for different topics and preferences for different information to include when writing. Teachers can support this by gathering objects related to the topics students might choose. After the students express a preference for a specific topic, the teacher can then present objects related to the topic and ask students to indicate whether they would or would not like to write about the object.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.9-10.2.bELA.EE.W.9-10.2.b Develop the topic with facts or detailsCan develop a topic with facts or details related to the topicStudent is able to put facts or details identified about a topic into writing.Can use words that categorize (actually identify the category a noun belongs to) to describe common persons, places, objects, or events.Can use functional words (describe a noun's function/use) to describe common persons, places, objects, or events.Distal Precursor: As students work toward being able to develop a topic in writing using facts or details, it is helpful for them to have the skills to elaborate on information regarding people, places, objects, or events. Being able to categorize this information is one way to work on elaboration. For example, students could select their own topics for writing, talk about their ideas, and then name the categories for people, places, objects, or events in their writing. This means that a student who chooses to write about school might include the category and people and then include the names of people from school in his writing.Initial Precursor: As students work toward being able to develop a topic in writing using facts or details, they need to begin understanding how to expand upon ideas. At the Initial Precursor level, this could mean that students are encouraged to think about the function of things after they have selected their topic. For example, a student who chooses to write about school might select people to write about and then select words (presented by the teacher through symbols, objects, or spoken words/signs) that describe what those people do. After this, students then use letters (pencil, keyboard, or alternate keyboard) to write about the topic.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.L.9-10.2.cELA.EE.L.9-10.2.c Spell most single-syllable words correctly and apply knowledge of word chunks in spelling longer wordsCan use letter-sound knowledge to
spell words phonetically by including letters that represent sounds from the word. Can produce conventional spellings for single syllable words including some words with long vowels in which the vowel sound is broken up in the written word by placing the -e associated with long vowel sound at the end
Student accurately selects (from a complete alphabet array on a keyboard or other AT device) or writes the correct initial sound that corresponds with a word.Can produce a string of letters (student attempts to write words) by combining random letters.Can recognize the sound of the letter of their first name in words they hear and see, and can correctly represent this letter when spelling words that start with the same letter.Distal Precursor: As students learn more about selecting topics, generating ideas, and using the alphabet to write, they begin to string together letters into word-like strings. They do not yet demonstrate an understanding of letter-sound relationships, but they consistently write or select strings of letters when asked to write about the topics they choose.Initial Precursor: Research suggests that the first letter most children learn to recognize is the first letter of their first name. Over time, they learn to identify and use more letters and eventually associate those letters with sounds in decoding and spelling. Teachers can work on this Initial Precursor skill by asking students to sign their name to their writing each time they write.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
54
ELA.EE.W.9-10.2.dELA.EE.W.9-10.2.d Use domain specific vocabulary when writing claims related to a topic of study or texCan use domain-specific vocabulary to strengthen claims in informative writing (student is both able to write claims at this stage and can
appropriately make use of domain specific vocabulary to enhance claims)
Can include domain-specific vocabulary when writing an informative text.Can identify words in speech or text that are domain-specific words (i.e., words that are specific to a content area or discipline).Can demonstrate an understanding that categories are broad and contain varying subgroups differing on their characteristics (furniture = chairs, tables, couches, etc.).Distal Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. When students are familiar with the topics they choose, they can begin to generate domain-specific words related to the topic. In the context of writing, teachers can work with students to select from a range of familiar topics and generate or identify domain-specific words related to the topic that they might write about.Initial Precursor: Selecting domain-specific words when writing about a selected topic requires students to understand how words relate to specific domains. Students can work toward this understanding by focusing on words within categories and subcategories. In the context of writing, students can work on this by selecting a topic as usual and then generating ideas to write about. Before writing, teachers can help them identify the categories and subcategories of words related to the topic. For example, a student might choose to write about a favorite movie. Then, the student works with the teacher to select or generate ideas for writing that include lists of characters and things that happen in the movie. Those things can then be sorted into categories (e.g., characters) and subcategories (e.g., adults and children).
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.11-12.2.fELA.EE.W.11-12.2.f Provide a closing or concluding statementCan produce a conclusion for a text he or she is writingCan write a concluding sentence, statement, or section of a written text to bring together all the information presented in the text.Can produce a universal ending in writing (e.g., the student can write "the end").As a result of experience with a routine, the student is able to identify actions associated with the routine.Distal Precursor: As students work toward writing a meaningful conclusion, they can use more universal endings to mark the end of their writing. For example, students can write "the end" to mark the completion of the things they write.Initial Precursor: As students work toward understanding conclusions as endings when writing, they need to work on developing understandings of the end or completion of familiar routines. This begins with understanding the actions that are associated with the routine. In the context of writing, teachers can help students develop these understandings by offering choices of topics that reflect common and preferred routines. While brainstorming ideas related to the topic, teachers can encourage students to think about the actions associated with the routine.
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
9-10th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.RL.11-12.3ELA.EE.RL.11-12.3 Determine how characters, the setting or events change over the course of the story or dramaCan demonstrate an understanding of how the characters, settings, and events of a narrative progress or develop throughout the narrativeCan determine the changes or development that occurs in a specific character in a narrative.Can identify the key elements in a story, including the main characters, setting, and the major events.Using their categorical knowledge, can
make generalizations about the category to novel instances of that category.
Distal Precursor: Understanding how the characters, settings, and events progress or develop throughout the narrative requires students to identify the characters, settings, and events. Students at the Distal Precursor level are not expected to determine how these key story elements develop but rather to work to identify the elements. Teachers can used shared or guided readings to help students work toward identifying the key elements in texts they are reading for the first or second time.Distal Precursor: Selecting domain-specific words when writing about a selected topic requires students to understand how words relate to specific domains. Students can work toward this understanding by applying knowledge of words from familiar categories. In the context of writing, students can select a topic for writing and then work to generate words in categories related to the topic.
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
57
ELA.EE.RI.11-12.3ELA.EE.RI.11-12.3 Determine how individuals, ideas, or events change over the course of the textCan determine how the individuals, ideas, events, and other details change over the course of an informational textCan identify information that indicates the temporal order of ideas or events presented in an informational text.Can identify the order in which two events occur in an informational text.As a result of experience with a routine, the student is able to identify actions associated with the routine.Distal Precursor: Understanding how details change over the course of an informational text requires an understanding of sequence, as students must be able to determine what the detail was at two time points in order to determine how it changed. As such, students working at the Distal Precursor level are working toward identifying the sequence or order of events in a text. After they have successfully identified those events, they can work toward understanding how they are different and how that difference reflects change.Initial Precursor: Understanding how details change over the course of an informational text requires a student to identify the details. At the Initial Precursor level, students can work toward this by engaging in repeated shared readings of texts about familiar routines and identifying the actions associated with those routines. Using texts like the DLM Familiar Texts aligned with this linkage level, teachers can use repeated shared readings to interact with students regarding familiar routines and act out and talk about the actions associated with those routines.
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
58
ELA.EE.L.11-12.2.bELA.EE.L.11-12.2.b Spell most
single-syllable words correctly
and apply knowledge of word chunks in spelling longer words
Can use letter-sound knowledge to
spell words phonetically by including letters that represent sounds from the word. Can produce conventional spellings for single syllable words including some words with long vowels in which the vowel sound is broken up in the written word by placing the -e associated with long vowel sound at the end
Student accurately selects (from a complete alphabet array on a keyboard or other AT device) or writes the correct initial sound that corresponds with a word.Can produce a string of letters (student attempts to write words) by combining random letters.Can recognize the sound of the letter of their first name in words they hear and see, and can correctly represent this letter when spelling words that start with the same letter.Distal Precursor: As students learn more about selecting topics, generating ideas, and using the alphabet to write, they begin to string together letters into word-like strings. They do not yet demonstrate an understanding of letter-sound relationships, but they consistently write or select strings of letters when asked to write about the topics they choose.Initial Precursor: Research suggests that the first letter most children learn to recognize is the first letter of their first name. Over time, they learn to identify and use more letters and eventually associate those letters with sounds in decoding and spelling. Teachers can work on this Initial Precursor skill by asking students to sign their name to their writing each time they write.
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.11-12.2.aELA.EE.W.11-12.2.a Introduce a topic clearly and write an informative or explanatory text that conveys ideas, concepts, and information including visual, tactual, or multimedia information as appropriateCan write an informational piece that includes a clearly introduced topic as well as ideas, concepts, and information. Students may use visual, tactual, or multimedia information to convey information as appropriateCan introduce an informational topic while writing and extend by writing about ideas and information related to the topic.Can write about a specific topic using facts and details to describe the topic.Can demonstrate understanding of the wh- questions.Distal Precursor: As students work toward being able to write informational text that clearly introduces a topic and includes specific information about the topic, they can begin writing facts and details that describe the topic. These may be lists of words or phrases with two or more words, but there is a clear relationship between the words and the topic.Initial Precursor: One way to help students learn to write an informational text is to help them brainstorm ideas about the topics they select. Teachers can work on this by asking students to select a topic for writing and then asking them basic questions about the topic. These questions might begin with yes/no personal preference questions but, as students grow more successful, can include the "wh-" questions that are the focus of this linkage level.
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.11-12.2.bELA.EE.W.11-12.2.b Develop the topic with relevant facts, details, or quoteCan use at least one quote from one (or more) print sources to strengthen informational writingStudent is able identify a quote that provides relevant information about a topicCan use words that categorize (actually identify the category a noun belongs to) to describe common persons, places, objects, or events.Can use functional words (describe a noun's function/use) to describe common persons, places, objects, or eventsDistal Precursor: As students work toward being able to use quotes from print sources in their writing, they can work on writing in structures and for purposes that others set. In this case, students could select their own topics for writing but could be asked specifically to name the categories for people, places, objects, or events in their writing. For example, a student who chooses to write about school might include the category and people and then include the names of people from school in his writing.Initial Precursor: As students work toward being able to use quotes from print sources in their writing, they can start working to include forms of information others request in their writing. At the Initial Precursor level, this could mean that students are encouraged to think about the function of things after they have selected their topic. For example, a student who chooses to write about school might select people to write about and then select words (presented by the teacher through symbols, objects, or spoken words/signs) that describe what those people do. After this, students then use letters (pencil, keyboard, or alternate keyboard) to write about the topic.
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.11-12.2.cELA.EE.W.11-12.2.c Use complete, simple sentences, as well as compound and other complex sentences as appropriateCan write coherent, semantically accurate, and grammatically correct simple sentences. Can write coherent, semantically accurate, and grammatically correct compound sentences. Can write complex sentences that contain one independent clause with one or more dependent clauses and are grammatically correctCan write coherent, semantically accurate, and rammatically correct simple sentences.Can use two words together when producing a written text.Can produce utterances comprising of two words.Distal Precursor: As students work toward writing sentences about selected topics, they can first work on writing lists of single words and then phrases that combine two or more words related to the selected topic. Students may use supports such as word prediction. Words do not need to be spelled correctly, but students working at the Distal Precursor level should be working to link two or more ideas in writing.Initial Precursor: In the context of writing, students can work on linking together two or more words when brainstorming ideas to write relative to a selected topic. Teachers can support this by providing students with word banks or other augmentative and alternative communication supports with words related to the selected topic. After selecting a topic and generating words to communicate about the topic, students will then be supported in writing about the topic using letters (pencil, keyboard, or alternate pencil).
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.11-12.2.dELA.EE.W.11-12.2.d Use domain specific vocabulary when writing claims related to a topic of study or textCan use domain-specific vocabulary to strengthen claims in informative writing (student is both able to write claims at this stage and can
appropriately make use of domain specific vocabulary to enhance claims)
Can include domain-specific vocabulary when writing an informative text.Student is able to select domain-specific words to use for writing about a topic.Using their categorical knowledge, can make generalizations about the category to novel instances of that category.Distal Precursor: Successful writing requires the writer to know something about the topic. When students are familiar with the topics they choose, they can begin working to use words that describe the people, places, things, or events that relate to the topic. In the context of writing, teachers can work with students to select from a range of familiar topics and then determine words that could be used to describe the people, places, things, or events they might write about.Initial Precursor: Selecting domain-specific words when writing about a selected topic requires students to understand how words relate to specific domains. Students can work toward this understanding by applying knowledge of words from familiar categories. In the context of writing, students can select a topic for writing and then work to generate words in categories related to the topic.
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA.EE.W.11-12.2.fELA.EE.W.11-12.2.f Provide a closing or concluding statementCan produce a conclusion for a text he or she is writingCan write a concluding sentence, statement, or section of a written text to bring together all the information presented in the text.Can produce a universal ending in writing (e.g., the student can write "the end").As a result of the experience with a routine, the student is able to identify the end or completion of a routine.Distal Precursor: As students work toward writing a meaningful conclusion, they can use more universal endings to mark the end of their writing. For example, students can write "the end" to mark the completion of the things they write.Initial Precursor: As students work toward understanding conclusions as endings when writing, they need to work on developing understandings of the end or completion of familiar routines. In the context of writing, teachers can help students understand this by marking the end of the writing routine with a gesture or symbol indicating "finished" and then carrying that over to other routines across the day.
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Integrated Model
11-12th Grade DLM Familiar Texts - Year End Model
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ELA
Math