Institution/ ConsortiumDateRegionPublisher(s)Strategic ConsiderationsOutcome
Estimated Annual Savings (USD)
Electronic Information Service National Programme (EIS)2019HungaryElsevierEIS placed a high priority during renewal negotiations on reaching a "read & publish" agreement which would facilitate a swift and full transition to open access. The proposals of Elsevier did not address the requirements of the Hungarian Negotiation Committee, therefore, EISZ Consortium will not renew the subscription to ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SciVal in 2019.Undisclosed
Florida State University2019United StatesElsevierFlorida State University Libraries sought to renegotiate the 20 year contract between Elsevier and the State University System. That deal cost FSU nearly $2 million annually, with cost increases of at least 4% per year. FSU believed this fee was disproportionate compared to other schools in the system.The FSY Faculty Senate voted unanimously in March 2018 to endorse the Libraries' plan to cancel its Elsevier "big deal". The Libraries will subscribe to a subset of Elsevier journals, based on faculty interest and usage data. The Libraries will rely on ILL and per-article purchases to fill any gaps.Undisclosed
FinELib2019FinlandTaylor & FrancisFinELib is a consortium of Finnish universities, research institutions and public libraries. It negotiates e-resource license agreements for the Finnish scholarly community. FinELib’s goal was to provide researchers with access to journals published by Taylor & Francis and an opportunity to publish their articles open access, available to everyone. The parties were unable to agree to terms. FinELib created an alternative access plan including tips on how researchers, teachers and students can access articlesfor journals no longer part of the libraries' collections. Suggested avenues include locating legal open access copies, ILL, and pay-per-article purchases.Undisclosed
Louisiana State University2019United StatesElsevierThe unsustainability of LSU’s serial expenditures led the LSU Libraries to develop a proposal modeled on that employed at Florida State University. That proposal envisioned breaking away from LSU’s big deal package with Elsevier, thereby cutting the Elsevier expenditure from $2 million to $1 million. To compensate for cancelled subscriptions, the Libraries proposed an enhanced document delivery service, along with redeployment of funding toward other, long-standing collection needs.On April 23rd, 2019, LSU’s Faculty Senate voted in support of a resolution on Elsevier. On May 20th, 2019, LSU’s Provost Stacy Haynie announced that LSU would follow through on the recommendations in the resolution. LSU”s current contract expires at the end of 2019, leaving the Libraries six months to prepare for this change.$1,000,000
Max Planck Society2019GermanyElsevierConsistent with the wider Projekt DEAL movement in Germany, the Max Planck Society sought to transition to a “publish and read” model covering open access publication of all scholarly articles by authors affiliated with German institutions and, at the same time, grant reading access for German institutions to the publisher’s entire portfolio of electronic journals still behind paywalls.The parties could not agree on terms consistent with Projekt DEAL's aims. Max Planck Society researchers will be assisted by librarians to address their content needs.Undisclosed
Temple University2019United StatesElsevierThe Elsevier license grew over a period of years to account for nearly 20% of the entire budget for library collections at Temple's Paley, Ambler, and Health Sciences Libraries. As a consequence, the funds available for book purchasing and other online resources important to the success of Temple’s scholars were being constrained to the point of untenability.The Libraries elected to subscribe to only a select list of heavily-used and cost-justifiable titles. Articles from cancelled journals will be obtained through a combination of historical access to ScienceDirect, rapid document delivery (2-8 hours), and conventional ILL (12-24 business hours).$450,000
Unit (The Norwegian Directorate for ICT and Joint Services in Higher Education & Research)2019NorwayElsevierNorway’s goal is that all publicly-funded Norwegian research articles should be made openly available by 2024, and the government has established guidelines and measures for open access to research articles. Institutions and consortia that negotiate agreements with publishers have been asked to ensure that these agreements promote open access without increasing total costs, and that the terms and conditions are open and transparent.BI cancelled its Elsevier Big Deal, electing to pay for ongoing access to approximately 70 of the most read journals at BI.Undisclosed
University of California System2019United StatesElsevierIn its renewal discussions with Elsevier, the University of California placed signifcant attention on securing universal open access to UC research while containing the rapidly escalating costs associated with for-profit journals.After protracted negotiations and multiple extensions, the two sides could not come to a deal. Under Elsevier’s proposed terms, the publisher would have charged UC authors large publishing fees on top of the university’s multi-million dollar subscription, resulting in much greater cost to the university and much higher profits for Elsevier.Undisclosed
University of Oklahoma-Norman2019United StatesElsevier, WileyThe OU Libraries was tasked with reducing its journal commitments as part of a university administration-mandated permanent budget reduction. The Libraries elected to transition from the Elsevier and Wiley Big Deals in order to regain control of their remaining materials budgets and to strategically reallocate limited funding.Undisclosed
West Virginia University2019United StatesElsevier, SpringerWest Virginia University Libraries has been working toward bringing materials spending in line with the new budget realities that they have faced since 2016. One of the biggest challenges in this reduction in funds is managing “bundled” journals subscriptions that historically provided the university with more journal title subscriptions at less cost. Unfortunately, over time the inflationary costs of these bundle subscriptions have outpaced the size of the library budget.After a very lengthy research and negotiation process with Elsevier, WVU is moving to a new contract which unbundles the Big Deal package. This will mean a loss of new content for some, but not all, Elsevier journal titles. The Libraries additionally did a thorough analysis of usage and spending on the Springer package and have determined to unbundle it as well.Undisclosed
Université de Lorraine2018FranceSpringer NatureBetween 2007 and 2017 the price of Springer's journal package increased 60% to reach nearly 160,000 €. This pushed the Université de Lorraine to rethink the process of scientific communication towards more openness, more transparency and more cost efficiency. Université de Lorraine decided in 2018 to cancel its Springer package. Some of the savings were repurposed to financially support, in a partnership approach, several publishing initiatives that meet the principles of scientific quality, opennness, transparency and a governance centered on the academic community. These include OpenEdition, Erudit, Open Library of Humanities, Sci-Post, the French publisher EDP Sciences, as well as an open access overlay journal originating from its mathematics laboratory: the Epijournal de Géométrie Algébrique (Epiga).Undisclosed
Université de Strasbourg2018FranceSpringer NatureCentral to renewal negotiations, the library sought a 15% decrease in price, corresponding to the share of
content published in gold open access at Springer; a change in the structure of the agreement to reflect open access APCs, and the permanent rchival right for all titles.
The parties could not agree on a cost reduction formula and the bundle was terminated. The university decided to reinvest some of the savings to fund open science actions and initiatives. Undisclosed
Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP)2018ItalyElsevierThe ICTP Library observed that an ever-growing part of the Library budget allocated to pay for the bundle packages of journals of big publishers. This proved both unsustainable financially and undesirable from a collection development standpoint. In consultation with ICTP scientists, the Library attempted to negotiate a more flexible Elsevier package, with pricing commensurate to ICTP's size.The parties were unable to agree to terms and the package was cancelled. ICTP kept post-termination access rights to 53 titles to which it has historically subscribed, for contents published between 1995-2017. The Library has developed a resource for alternative legal full text sources, and is using this mechanism in concet with document delivery to obtain specific articles requested by patrons.Undisclosed
Bibsam Consortium2018SwedenElsevierThe Swedish government has placed a priority on the transition from subscriptions to open access by 2026. The that end, the Bibsam Consortium of Swedish universities and research institutes sought to negotiate immediate open access to all articles published in Elsevier journals by researchers affiliated to participating organisations, as well as a sustainable price model that enabled a transition to open access. Swedish researchers author 4,000 articles annually in Elsevier journals. In 2017, Swedish institutions spent €1.3 million on Elsevier article processing charges, plus €12 million on Elsevier subscription fees.Bibsam and Elsevier could not agree on terms. As a consequence, Bibsam elected not to renew the agreement. Elsevier content from 1995 to 2017 will be available, as per the termination terms of the license.€12 million
Creighton University2018United StatesWileyCreighton University Libraries (Reinert Memorial Alumni Library and the Health Sciences Library) evaluated its big deal packages as a result of flat budgets. The evaluation focused on titles that failed to provide appropriate value across a combined usage, cost per use, and programmatic basis.The libraries cancelled its big deal package in favor of a select ala carte approach.Undisclosed
University of Maryland2018United StatesTaylor & FrancisThe University of Maryland Libraries evaluated journal packages as a result of many years of a flat budget and the unsustainability of journal inflation for these multi-year commitments. The evaluation focused on cost, usage, cost per use, and other programmatic metrics to establish those titles with less overall value to the collection and campus needs. The multi-year package was broken up with 419 titles not renewed and 131 titles renewed on an a la carte basis.Undisclosed
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill2018United StatesWileyIn 2018, the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill (UNC) Library undertook an evaluation of e-journal titles that originally were part of a multi-year contract with Wiley. The evaluation centered on both use and cost-per-use.In the 2018 evaluation, UNC identified 295 journals from the Wiley package for cancellation. The journal package was cancelled and individual titles were retained on an a la carte basis.Undisclosed
Consortium on Core Electronic Resources in Taiwan (CONCERT)2017TaiwanElsevierThe Science & Technology Policy Research and Information Center’s Consortium on Core Electronic Resources in Taiwan (CONCERT) covers 70 national as well as private universities, 51 Sci-Tech universities, 36 colleges, 15 junior colleges, 30 R&D organizations and 18 government organizations. CONCERT attempted to lower Elsevier's subscription fees, decrease annual price increases, and increase flexibility with respect to cancelling specific titles.More than 75% of Taiwan’s universities libraries cancelled access to Elsevier journals.Undisclosed,r1-1.php?Lang=en
George Mason University2017United StatesTaylor & FrancisUndisclosedUndisclosed
Kansas State University2017United StatesSpringer NatureAfter close evaluation of cost and usage statistics, Kansas State University (KSU) Libraries determined that most of the titles in the Springer Nature package had only been used a handful of times in the prior three years.Kansas State Libraries cancelled the Springer Nature journal package. The Libraries identified select individual journal titles from the package for renewal using criteria based on cost of title, usage, cost per use and costs of interlibrary loans. Of the cancelled set, a significant number of full-text articles from these journals are available with a one-year embargo through aggregators or databases to which the Libraries subscribe. KSU also retains the past publications for which they have paid. Any needed articles to which KSU faculty and students don't have access can be requested through interlibrary loan and are usually available within 24 hours.Undisclosed
National Council for Science, Technology and Technological Innovation (CONCYTEC)2017PeruElsevierCuts in federal government funding, high subscription costs, and the growing availability of free alternative copies of articles on the Internet rendered CONCYTEC’s ongoing subscription to the Elsevier package untenable. This was complicated by Peru’s economic growth, which pushed it out of the Hinari band of discounts for developing nations.Federal licenses covering Scopus and ScienceDirect were not renewed.$3.3 million
Université Laval2017CanadaCambridge University Press, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Springer NatureThe constant increase in journal prices, the currency fluctuation as well as budget constraints forced Université Laval Library to revaluate its journal acquisition strategy. In that context, Laval started an in-depth analysis of its collection based on some key criteria such as use (downloads) of the journals, subscription costs, main journals in which Laval researchers publish and the most cited journal. Laval also conducted a large survey to better understand the needs of its community (professors, graduates and post-graduate students).As a result of its analysis, Laval cancelled its Springer Nature “big deal” subscription but maintain access to 500 titles that were identified as priority journals. Laval cancelled its Lippincott Williams & Wilkins “big deal” subscription. Laval cancelled its Cambridge University Press “big deal” subscription, but the publisher made an offer that allowed us to maintain access to the 2016 collection at an affordable price.Undisclosed
University of Calgary2017CanadaOxford University Press, Taylor & FrancisA combination of rising serials costs and a weak exchange rate prompted the University of Calgary library to perform an in-depth analysis of their journal acquisitions strategy in 2017. Key criteria included understanding the journals in which Calgary researchers publish, as well as which are cited and read; availability through other means; subscription cost increases well above inflation, and problematic licensing terms.1,800 titles were initially cancelled, including 885 from Taylor & Francis and 295 from Oxford University Press. Subsequently, arrangements were made to restore access to 345 of these titles, including 304 from Taylor & Francis and 34 from Oxford University Press.$1.2 million
Creighton University2017United StatesSpringer NatureCreighton University Libraries (Reinert Memorial Alumni Library and the Health Sciences Library) evaluated its big deal packages as a result of flat budgets. The evaluation focused on titles that failed to provide appropriate value across a combined usage, cost per use, and programmatic basis.The libraries cancelled its big deal package in favor of a select ala carte approach.Undisclosed
University of Kansas2017United StatesSpringer NatureContinuing budget constraints, as well as the complicating factor of the merger between Springer and Nature, meant that KU could no longer continue with the package as negotiated by GWLA. The KU Libraries had to negotiate directly with Springer Nature, and determined the Springer package was no longer viable. The Libraries examined usage statistics and cost per use for Springer titles and surveyed faculty, asking them to identify the top journals that they use in their research, regardless of publisher, and the journals they perceive as most important in their discipline. The Libraries also worked with the KU Medical Library to ensure that important titles were retained, with equitable cost sharing between the libraries.The KU Libraries retained subscriptions to approximately 61 titles out of the 1633 that were part of the bundle. There is no cap on potential price increases for these titles, so the Libraries expect the list to continue to shrink. KU faculty are relying on aggregators, open access availability, and ILL for access to any cancelled titles that they need. The Libraries will continue to monitor any significant increases in the demand for, or cost of, ILL.$315,000
University of Massachusetts Amherst2017United StatesRoyal Socety of ChemistryThe University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries subscribed to the Royal Society of Chemistry package through the NERL consortium. For 2017, RSC proposed an increase of 12%. Through NERL negotiation, the increase was decreased to 10%. The Libraries determined this was still incommensurate with the value of the package.When the Libraries opted out of the package, RSC reached out directly to offer an 8% increase. The Libraries elected to cancel the package and subscribe to individual titles, with a net savings of $50,000. That figure includes copyright fees paid to obtain articles through interlibrary loan. $50,000
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill2017United StatesCambridge University PressIn 2017, the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill (UNC) Library undertook an evaluation of online journal titles that are part of a multi-year contract with Cambridge University Press. The evaluation centered on both use and cost-per-use.The 2017 evaluation identified nearly 200 journals from the Cambridge University Press collection that were candidates for cancellation. The journal package was cancelled and individual titles were retained on an ala carte basis.Undisclosed
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee2017United StatesSpringer Nature, WileyThe University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) Library assessed its current collection development policy based on cost, use, alternate availability, and feedback from faculty and students.The UWM Library cancelled journals packages from Springer Nature and Wiley. Additionally, individual titles from other publishers costing $187,338 were cancelled.$165,957
VSNU (the Association of Universities in the Netherlands)2017NetherlandsOxford University PressA core tenet of VSNU’s collection strategy has been to push to reach 100% open access by 2020. Any subscription packages negotiated by VSNU have to include a path toward this goal.VSNU and Oxford University Press were unable to reach an agreement that moved toward VSNU’s open access goal and was financially tenable. A handful of Oxford University Press titles were exempted from the cancellation.Undisclosed
West Virginia University2017United StatesWiley
Caltech2016United StatesSpringer NatureCaltech Library undertook a collections review process in the context of the necessity to reduce our expenditures for journals, databases and books by the amount of our reduced buying power due to cost increases. The library targeted cuts above this reduced buying power target to provide the library with some flexibility to restore or add journals based on additional information. Key elements of the review process included price, downloads, cost-per-download, Caltech authoring patterns, Caltech citation patters, and historical trendlines for these data points.The library cancelled the Springer "big deal", replacing it with a combination of ala carte title purchases and interlibrary loans.Undisclosed
Memorial University of Newfoundland2016CanadaCambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Springer Nature, WileyCurrency fluctuations and journal price increases rendered Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN)’s acquisition plan untenable. Librarians at MUN consulted with faculty and students; examined use, and cost data; and identified alternate access options.Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN) cancelled four “big deals” in early 2016, which collectively included close to 4,000 journals. MUN resubscribed to 220 of these titles on an ala carte basis. The Sage journal package is currently under evaluation.$800,000
Middle Tennessee State University2016United StatesElsevierMiddle Tennessee State's two year agreement with Elsevier for the "Freedom Collection" was up for renewal in 2016. At that time, the library did a major revision of its subscribed title list based on usage. That process yielded insights into low usage of Freedom Collection titles. Additionally, the library was frustrated with the complex model that involved maintaining a spend and various fees that made determining actual title costs difficult.
The library elected not to renew its multi-year Elsevier "big deal" agreement, concluding it was not fiscally sustainable. Annual ala carte subscriptions to select Elsevier titles provides a collection development path that is operationally simple and flexible.
Projekt DEAL2016GermanyElsevierThe DEAL Project represents more than 100 negotiation mandates by German universities. DEAL’s goal is bring about significant change to the status quo in relation to negotiations, content, and pricing. With respect to Elsevier, the consortium sought a contract that would provide permanent access rights to all Elsevier journals for all German universities and research organisations, including an automatic open access switch for all publications by German institutions and an acceptable pricing model based on publication quantity.More than 60 German institutions cancelled their Elsevier contracts at the end of 2016. An additional 13 are slated to terminate their agreements by the end of 2017.Undisclosed
Université de Montréal2016CanadaSpringer Nature, Taylor & FrancisThe Université de Montréal (UdeM) Libraries, faced with considerable budget constraints, evaluated the price-quality and price-use ratios for each of the titles available in the Springer Nature and Taylor & Francis bundles. These data were supplemented by a survey of the university community. The analysis established that only a small portion of the titles within these collections are needed for research and teaching at the university.
UdeM Libraries cancelled its Springer Nature “big deal” encompassing 2,266 journals, then subsequently renewed access to 150 of these titles. These 150 journals represented 42% of UdeM’s downloads of Springer Nature articles at the time of cancellation. The Libraries cancelled 2,231 of the 2,391 titles in the Taylor & Francis bundle.Undisclosed
University of Missouri2016United StatesSage, Springer Nature, WileyThe University of Missouri Libraries undertook a major review of its collections strategy in the face of financial constraints. The process factored in usage, access vs. ownership costs, alternative means of access, and burden-sharing across disciplines."Big deal" packages offered by Sage, Springer Nature, and Wiley were not renewed. The Libraries moved toward purchase of select individual titles from Sage, and toward smaller bundles from Springer Nature and Wiley.Undisclosed
California State University System2015United StatesWileyCalifornia State University’s twenty-three libraries serve nearly 500,000 students and scholars. The system attempts to spread costs of purchases across campus libraries in an equitable manner. During renewal negotiations, Wiley proposed a 10-12% price increase, which many individual campuses could not afford. This added expense was tied to the inclusion of a number of titles that usage data showed were seldom accessed.System wide access to Wiley’s collection of journals was terminated at the end of 2014.Undisclosed
Florida State University2015United StatesSpringer NatureFlorida State University (FSU) Libraries evaluated their collection based on several cycles of flat budgets and subscription price increases. This was complemented by analysis of arrangements made by other institutions. The analysis revealed that Springer Nature charged FSU several times more than it charges other Florida universities for the same exact product.FSU Libraries cancelled its Springer Nature package and purchased subscriptions to a number of the most heavily-used titles. All content published between 1997 and 2015 remain available as part of licensing terms. Some articles, starting in 2016, must be accessed through Interlibrary Loan.Undisclosed
Illinois Wesleyan University2015United StatesWileyAfter close evaluation of cost and usage statistics of its consortial deal with Wiley, IWU determined that many of the "core" package titles received low use and/or had high cost. Usage from access only titles was very low for most. IWU opted out of the consortial arrangement, assessed high-use titles for continuing as individual subscriptions, and opened select high-cost titles to unmediated on-demand article delivery.$26,000
University of North Texas2015United StatesAmerican Institute of Physics, American Society of Civil Engineers, Cambridge University Press, Institute of Physics, Wiley, Springer NatureThe University of North Texas (UNT) Library conducted a multiyear analysis of cost per use, usage of each title within a package, inflation, availability via other means, perceived value, and relevance to the institution’s interests. The UNT Library created a matrix that ranked each resource according to these and related criteria.The Library cancelled packages from several publishers.$1.6 million
University of Oklahoma2015United StatesOxford University PressThe University of Oklahoma (OU) Libraries conducted a review designed to realign journal commitments based on community needs, usage data and content availability. The analysis determined that OU’s cost per use for Oxford University Press titles range from $.04 to $855 per title.The OU Libraries cancelled the Oxford University Press collection in favor of a combination of ala carte title purchases and alternate availability of journals via full text databases and/or free delayed access.Undisclosed
East Tennessee State University2014United StatesWiley
Amherst College2013United StatesWiley
SUNY Potsdam2013United StatesAmerican Chemical Society, SageThe American Chemical Society sought to structure its agreement with the SUNY Potsdam Library to be consistent with the tiered pricing structure it deployed with other customers. The Library evaluated this proposal against past spending, usage, and how the proposal compared to what other institutions pay (based on usage, FTE, and budgets).The Library cancelled the American Chemical Society package in favor of a combination of subscriptions to other chemistry journals and specific ACS titles.Undisclosed
University of California System2013United StatesTaylor & FrancisThe Libraries on the ten UC campuses, in conjunction with the California Digital Library (CDL) evaluated specific publisher packages based on three primary criteria: price sustainability, cost to value, and quality of the journal collection across a broad range of disciplines.The University of California system discontinued its systemwide Taylor & Francis journals license in favor of local campus subscriptions to select titles. In 2016, the campuses and CDL re-entered into a new comprehensive deal with Taylor & Francis. The new agreement delivers equivalent content at a lower cost than before the cancellation. Other license terms include text and data mining rights, author rights to use their own work, article processing charge (APC) discounts for UC authors, deeply discounted print pricing (DDP), and an annual reporting of open access publication rates in Taylor & Francis journals.Undisclosed
Mississippi State University2012United StatesSpringer, WileyThe Library could no longer afford the annual increase of 5% and decided to return to a title-by-title subscription option based on usage.The Library elected to cancel the two packages and subscribe individually to approximately two hundred of the cancelled titles.
SUNY Buffalo2012United StatesTaylor & FrancisUndisclosed
New Mexico State University2011United StatesElsevier, SpringerThe NMSU Library's base budget did not receive a dedicated, annual increase in 20+ years. This, combined with increased subscription prices, pushed the Library to evaluate its collection in 2011. The Library’s evaluation criteria focused on cost-per-use, availability via licensed full text databases, departmental input, and price trajectory.The Library cancelled over 1,300 Elsevier and Springer titles.$535,114
St. John’s University2011United StatesCambridge University Press, Taylor & Francis, Wiley
Medical University of South Carolina2010United StatesWileyThe Medical University of South Carolina faced a major financial shortfall by 2010 that required journal cancellations. Criteria used for the Library’s analysis included use, ranking, renewal cost, availability from other sources, and relevance to School of Medicine programs.The Library cancelled access to its package of 1,800 Wiley titles in early 2010. It retained access to 76 core journals. The Library supplemented this with the purchase of article tokens to enable patrons to access single-copy articles.$125,000
Southern Illinois University2009United StatesElsevier, WileyThe Southern Illinois University undertook several years of materials reductions before contemplating an assessment of journal subscription packages. The Library’s analysis focused on the extent to which these deals resulted in access to a plethora of resources, the majority of which had minimal-to-no actual usage.The Library cancelled 244 Elsevier journals and 597 Wiley journals. The Library used ILL to fulfill requests for content from the cancelled titles.Undisclosed
University of Alabama at Birmingham2009United StatesElsevierThe Lister Hill Library of the Health Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham sought to reevaluate its licensing agreement with Elsevier in 2008. The primary driving factor was the financial unsustainability of the existing terms. The Library sought a flat-fee arrangement that greatly reduced its overall expenditure with Elsevier.Elsevier declined to lower its access fees, and the Library cut its subscriptions to nearly 4,000 titles.$700,000
University of Oregon2009United StatesWileyThe University of Oregon Libraries faced a 20% reduction in state funding in 2009. This necessitated an assessment of the Libraries collection. The Libraries looked at cost-per-use and worked with subject specialists to refine their priorities list.The Libraries cut 96 Wiley titles, for a savings of $166,103.$166,103
Lafayette College2008United StatesElsevierElsevier was unwilling to negotiate "small school" terms for a ScienceDirect package. Given Lafayette's size (2400 FTE), the cost of its existing Elsevier subscription package was prohibitive. Lafayette cancelled all Elsevier subscriptions and moved to a pay-per-view model. The library subsidizes all costs. Spending has been fairly consistent over 10 years and users are satisfied.$100,000