Andrews, Rhys and Rachel Ashworth. 2015. "Representation and inclusion in public organizations: Evidence from the UK civil service." Public Administration Review 75 (2): 279-288.Passive/ Active representationGender; EthnicityUKCivil serviceThis paper examines whether gender and minority ethnic representativeness are related to perceptions of inclusiveness and the experience of discrimination and bullying within U.K. civil service organizations. Findings suggest that gender representativeness and minority ethnic representativeness are both associated with an inclusive work climate, with each aspect of representativeness positively related to higher perceptions of inclusion and lower levels of discrimination and bullying.Public Administration
Andrews, Rhys, George A. Boyne, Kenneth J. Meier, Laurence J. O’Toole and Richard M Walker. 2005. “Representative Bureaucracy, Organizational Strategy, and Public Service Performance: An Empirical Analysis of English Local Government.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15 (4): 489–504.Active representationEthnicityUKLocal authoritiesThe researchers find that organizational strategy could moderate the effect of representative bureaucracy on organizational performance in public sector. They also find that representative bureaucracy decreases citizens’ perceptions of local authority performance.
Public Administration
Andrews, Rhys, Rachel Ashworth and Kenneth J. Meier. 2014. “Representative Bureaucracy and Fire Service Performance.” International Public Management Journal 17 (1): 1–24.Active representationGender; EthnicityUKFire serviceThe authors find that gender and minority ethnic representation is positively associated with the performance of fire authorities. Moreover, they find that the street-level representation is significant while the upper-level representation has not a critical mass effect.
Public Administration
Andrews, Rhys, Sandra Groeneveld, Kenneth Meier, and Eckhard Schroter. 2015. “Representative Bureaucracy and Public Service Performance: Where Why and How Does Representativeness work.” Presented at the Annual Conference of European Group for Public Administration, Toulouse, France.Active representationGender; Ethnicity; RaceUSA-This paper highlights the role of context in representative bureaucracy theory.It reviews the literatures on contextual factors and theorizes how they related to representatuve bureaucracy.
Public Administration
Atkins, D.N., Fertig, A.R. and Wilkins, V. “Risky Business: The Effects of Teacher Representation on Student Pregnancy Risk Behaviors.”Passive representationRace, Ethnicity, and GenderUSAEducationUsing Florida Department of Education Data and individual-level student outcomes from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), the researchers find that increasing representation of minority, high school teachers in four of Florida's largest school districts was associated with an increased likelihood of contraceptive use at last sex for minority students, condtional on reporting sexual activity in the 3 months prior to the survey.Public Administration
Atkins, Danielle N. and Vicky M. Wilkins. 2013. “Going Beyond Reading, Writing And Arithmetic: The Effects of Teacher Representation on Teen Pregnancy Rates.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23 (4): 771–790.Active representationRace/GenderUSAEducationMinority bureuacrats can have a positive effect beyond the scope of the organization. The results find that African-American, female teachers have a negative impact on the teen pregnancy rates. The authors also find that a critical mass is present at 20%.
Public Administration
Bauer, Gretchen. 2016. "‘What is wrong with a womanbeing chief?’ Women Chiefs and Symbolic and Substantive Representation in Botswana."  Journal of African and Asian Studies, 51(2):222-237.Active representationGenderBotswanaLocal governmentA study of the role of women as chiefs and local government officials in Botswana (Africa).Political Science
Bearfield, Domonic A. 2009. “Equity at the Intersection: Public Administration and the Study of Gender.” Public Administration Review 69 (3): 383–386.Passive representation; IntersectionalityGender; Ethnicity; RaceUSA-The paper argues that gender representation studies should embrace research focused on the intersection of multiple identity categories such as race and class.
Public Administration
Bradbury, Mark and J Edward Kellough. 2010. “Representative Bureaucracy: Assessing the Evidence on Active Representation.” The American Review of Public Administration 41 (2): 157–167.Active representationRaceUSACriminal justiceThe authors provide an analysis of the current representative bureuacracy research in policing and the criminal justice system. They find evidence of individual level active representation among police officers, judges, and corrections officers.
Public Administration
Bradbury, Mark D and J Edward Kellough. 2008. “Representative Bureaucracy: Exploring the Potential for Active Representation in Local Government.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 18 (4): 697–714.Passive representationRace USA-African-american administrators are more likely to support behaviors that benefits the interests of African-American citizens. However, attitude congruence between administrators and African-American citizens is the greatest predictor of a bureaucrat taking on the role of a representation in an organization, regardless of the bureaucrat's race.
Public Administration
Bradbury, Mark D., and J. Edward Kellough. 2008. "Representative Bureaucracy: Exploring the Potential for Active Representation in Local Government." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 18 (4): 697-714.Active representationRaceUSALocal governmentAfrican-American citizens and administrators are more likely to support policies that target the interests of the African-American groups than white ctizens and administrators do. Attitude congruence between African-American citizens and administrators is associated with the adoption of a representative administrative role.
Public Administration
Brown, Deryck R. 1999 "Ethnic politics and public sector management in Trinidad and Guyana." Public Administration & Development 19 (4): 367-379Passive representationEthnicityTrinidad, GuyanaGeneral public serviceThis article takes the view that managing ethnic and cultural diversity is tantamount to managing unproductive tensions that threaten to undermine confidence and morale among public affairs. This affects negatively on their levels of job satisfaction, the quality of the work environment, and performance. The article ultimately suggests the need for well-conceived confidence-building measures. The main conclusion is that while equality of opportunity must be guaranteed, the notion of a representative bureaucracy has many practical limitations.
Public Administration
Browne, Irene, and Joya Misra. 2003. “The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Labor Market.” Annual Review of Sociology29: 487–513.Passive representation; IntersectionalityGender; RaceUSA-This review discusses intersectionality in three central domains of research on labor market inequality: wage inequality, discrimination and stereotyping, and immigration and domestic labor. The findings show that race and gender intersect under certain conditions.Sociology
Burns, John P. 1980. ““Representative Bureaucracy” and the Senior Civil Service in Hong Kong.” Hong Kong Journal of Public Administration 2 (1): 2–20.Passive representationRegion; GenderHong Kong, ChinaCivil serviceThis research applies the theory of representative bureaucracy to a context that lacks democratic institutions, Hong Kong. It then analyzes the issues of localization and gender diversity of the Hong Kong bureaucracy.
Public Administration
Dee, Thomas S. 2004. “Teachers, Race, and Student Achievement in A Randomized Experiment.” Review of Economics and Statistics 86 (1): 195–210.Active representationRaceUSAEducationBased on the empirical data from Tennessee’s Project STAR class-size experiment, the researcher finds that gender congruence between students and teachers significantly increases the math and reading scores of both white and black students.Economics
Dee, Thomas S. 2005. “A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?” American Economic Review 95 (2): 158–165.Active representationRace; Ethnicity; GenderUSAEducationThis research presents the evidence that the racial, ethnic, and gender congruence between teachers and students have significant effects on teachers’ evaluation of student performance.Economics
Dee, Thomas S. 2007. “Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement.” Journal of Human Resources 42 (3): 528–554.Active representationGenderUSAEducationThis research finds that the gender congruence between teachers and students increases student performance, teacher perceptions of student achievement, and student engagement.Economics
Dresang, Dennis L. 1974. “Ethnic Politics, Representative Bureaucracy and Development Administration: The Zambian case.” American Political Science Review 68 (04): 1605–1617.Passive representationEthnicityZambiaCivil serviceBased on the case of Zambia, the researcher studies the influence of ethnic politics on the bureaucratic representation and organizational in public sector.Political Science
Driessen, Geert. 2015. "Teacher ethnicity, student ethnicity, and student outcomes." Intercultural Education 26 (3): 179-191.Active representationEthnicityUSAEducationThis study shows that there is as yet little unambiguous empirical evidence that a stronger degree of ethnic match be it in the form of a one-to-one coupling of a teacher to students with the same ethnic background, or a larger share of ethnic minority teachers at an ethnically mixed school, leads to predominantly positive results. Insofar positive effects were found, they apply to a greater extent to subjective teacher evaluations than to objective achievement outcome measures.Education
Einstein, Katherine Levine and David M. Glick. 2017. "Does race affect access to government services? An experiment exploring street‐level bureaucrats and access to public housing." American Journal of Political Science 61 (1): 100-116.Passive/ Active representationRaceUSAPublic housingThis paper explores responsiveness to putative white, black, and Hispanic requests for aid in the housing application process. In contrast to prior findings, public housing officials respond at equal rates to black and white email requests. The authors, however, find limited evidence of responsiveness discrimination toward Hispanics. Moreover, they observe substantial differences in email tone. Hispanic housing applicants were 20 percentage points less likely to be greeted by name than were their black and white counterparts. This disparity in tone is somewhat more muted in more diverse locations, but it does not depend on whether a housing official is Hispanic.Political Science
Esman, Milton J. 1999. "Public administration and conflict management in plural societies: the case for representative bureaucracy." Public Administration & Development 19 (4): 353.Active representationEthnicityIndia; South AfricaCivil service; Military serviceRecent experience with civil and military bureaucracies in India and South Africa, two highly pluralistic and conflict-prone societies, suggests that ethnically representative bureaucracy, though by no means trouble-free, contributes to the legitimacy of government by demonstrating that members of all ethnic communities can and actually do participate in the administration of public affairs. Public Administration
Gidengil, Elisabeth and RichardVengroff. 1997. “Representative Bureaucracy, Tokenism and the Glass Ceiling: The Case of Women in Quebec Municipal Administration.” Canadian Public Administration 40 (3): 457–480.Passive representation GenderCanadaLocal governmentThe analysis is based on data drawn from all 259 of Quebec's urban municipalities, between the period of 1985 and 1995. Over the past decade, the number of women heading municipal departments in Quebec's cities has more than doubled. It is hard to avoid the conclusion, however, that the glass ceiling is still very much in place. Women are most likely to have advanced beyond a token presence in those cities where the top municipal jobs are the least desirable. Agency stereotyping helps perpetuate the glass ceiling.There is no support for the supply or socialization theses as alternative explanations for these findings. Finally, the glass ceiling seems to be stubbornly resistant to government actions to dislodge it.Public Administration
Gravier, Magali and Camille Roth, 'Practices of representative bureaucracy in the European Commission. A longitudinal study of the composition of the Commission's staff'. Presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Conference, Chicago, 7-10 April 2016.Passive representationNationaityEuropean UnionEuropean CommissionThe paper presents an analysis of the European Commission’s recruitment policy from the point of view of ‘geographical balance’, using the theory of representative bureaucracy. It is based on recruitment data obtained from the Commission describing the evolution of the composition of its staff by nationality and grade for the period 1980 and 2013. Previous studies had analyzed the Commission’s recruitment policy design, but not the implementation of this policy design. This study fills in this gap showing to which extend the policy design leads to the intended results or not. Against the fundamental assumption underpinning the theory of RB according to which underrepresented populations wish or at least accept more representation in public administrations, it could be that organizations like the EU experience, in some cases, an inversion of this rationale with populations not interested in representation.
Public Administration
Grissom, Jason A. and Christopher Redding. 2015. "Discretion and disproportionality: Explaining the underrepresentation of high-achieving students of color in gifted programs." AERA Open 2 (1): 1–25Active representationRaceUSAEducationWe investigate the predictors of gifted assignment using nationally representative, longitudinal data on elementary students. We document that even among students with high standardized test scores, Black students are less likely to be assigned to gifted services in both math and reading. We then investigate the role of teacher discretion, leveraging research from political science suggesting that clients of government services from traditionally underrepresented groups benefit from diversity in the providers of those services, including teachers. Black students indeed are referred to gifted programs, particularly in reading, at significantly lower rates when taught by non-Black teachers, a concerning result given the relatively low incidence of assignment to own-race teachers among Black students.Education
Grissom, Jason A., and Lael R. Keiser. 2011. “A Supervisor Like Me: Race, Representation, and the Satisfaction and Turnover Decisions of Public Sector Employees.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30 (3): 557-580.Active representationRaceUSAEducationThe authors analyze the impact of representation among managers on personnel satisfaction and turnover. Race congruence among upper and street-level bureuacract results in improved job satsifaction and less turnover. Race congruence is also associated with intangible and tangible benefits including salary.
Public Administration
Grissom, Jason A., Emily C. Kern, and Luis A. Rodriguez. 2015. "The “representative bureaucracy” in education: Educator workforce diversity, policy outputs, and outcomes for disadvantaged students." Educational Researcher 44 (3): 185-192.Passive representationRace; Ethnicity; and GenderUSAEducationThis article synthesizes the main ideas from the bureaucratic representation literature and demonstrates their applicability to schooling outcomes—including discipline, gifted assignment, special education, and student achievement—with the goal of opening up new avenues for education research into the mechanisms linking demographic similarity among educators and students to schooling outputs and outcomes.Education
Grissom, Jason A., Jill Nicholson-Crotty, and Lael Keiser. 2012. “Does My Boss's Gender Matter? Explaining Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover in the Public Sector.”Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory22 (4): 649-673.Active representationGenderUSAEducationTeachers are more satisfied when they work with a principal of the same gender. However, male teachers have higher predicted turnover rates with female principals.
Public Administration
Grissom, Jason A., Jill Nicholson‐Crotty, and Sean Nicholson‐Crotty. 2009. "Race, region, and representative bureaucracy." Public Administration Review 69 (5): 911-919.Active representationRaceUSAEducationThe agency regional context can moderate active representation by affecting the "salience of race". The results find that black teachers produce better results for black students in the south.
Public Administration
Groeneveld, Sandra and Steven Van de Walle. 2010. “A Contingency Approach to Representative Bureaucracy: Power, Equal Opportunities and Diversity.” International Review of Administrative Sciences 76 (2): 239–258.The theory of representative bureaucracy---This research argues that representative bureaucracy should be analyzed regarding power, equal opportunity, and diversity management, and the influence of representative bureaucracy is contingent on the fit between the three dimensions and specific context.
Public Administration
Gunasekara, Ravindra. 2016. "Representative Bureaucracy: Some Reflections of the Colonial Civil Service Administration in Sri Lanka." Professor G.W. Indrani’s Felicitation Volume, Department of Economics, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya. pp 21-35.Passive representationEthnicitySri LankaCivil serviceThis paper examines the representative characteristics of the colonial bureaucracy following the structural and functional adjustments introduced to the early civil service administration of Sri Lanka. In this process, the main focus given towards redefine the concept of representative bureaucracy following the broad interpretations available over the notion of representation and concluded into two interrelated formations as passive and active representative bureaucracy in which bureaucrats share same demographic origins and policy outputs produce benefit for the people. Even though in a colonial context of administration, this study observed some commendable steps taken to ensure the passive-representative features of bureaucracy mainly through the system of recruitments and promotions, local administration and the process of Ceylonization of the Civil Service in Sri Lanka.Public Administration
Hamidullah, Madinah F., Norma M. Riccucci, and Sanjay K. Pandey. 2015. "Women in city hall: Gender dimensions of managerial values." The American Review of Public Administration 45 (3): 247-262.Passive/ Active representationGenderUSALocal governmentThis study examines gender dimensions of managerial values at the local level of government. We test for alternative explanations, in particular whether the organization and profession are socializing forces with similar or larger influence on managerial values. The findings suggest that women not only differed from men on the values of equity, long-term outlook, sense of community, and representation, but also differed with respect to the values of efficiency, effectiveness, and expertise.Public Administration
Hindera, J. 1993. "Representative bureaucracy: Further evidence of active representation in the EEOC district offices." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3 (4): 415-429.Passive/ Active representationRaceUSAEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionHindera summarizes passive representation for black, Latinos, and whites in the EEOC. The author also finds that increased representation determines the resources allocated to that group.
Public Administration
Hindera, John J. 1993. “Representative Bureaucracy: Imprimis Evidence of Active Representation in the EEOC District Offices.” Social Science Quarterly74 (1): 95-108.Active representationGender; RaceUSAEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionAfrican-American representation is positively linked to the policy outcomes for African-American citizen. This impact appears in both male and female groups
Public Administration
Hong, Sounman. 2015. "Ethnic diversity in public organizations and public service performance: Empirical investigation." In Academy of Management Proceedings. 2015 (1): 11334. DOI:10.5465/AMBPP.2015.235Active representationEthnicityUKPolice serviceThis study finds that an increase in the share of ethnic minority officers is associated with a significant decrease in the number of crime incidents in the area under these forces’ jurisdiction during the 10-year period. It is argued that this benefit may come from greater organizational integrity and an improved ethical climate fostered by increased representativeness and diversity. This argument is supported by providing suggestive evidence that ethnic diversity is associated with a lower rate of corruption allegations by the public, a higher rate of police whistle-blowing, and better citizen attitudes, particularly regarding fair treatment.Public Administration
Hong, Sounman. 2016. "Representative bureaucracy, organizational integrity, and citizen coproduction: Does an increase in police ethnic representativeness reduce crime?" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35 (1): 11-33.Active representationEthnicityUKPolice serviceIn 1999, the U.K. government set force-specific 10-year targets for recruiting new police officers from ethnic minorities. Using these targets as instrumental variables, this study finds that this policy mandating an increase in the share of ethnic minority officers in a given force is associated with a decrease in the number of crimes in the area under the force's jurisdiction during the 10-year period.Public Administration
Hong, Sounman. 2017. "Does Increasing Ethnic Representativeness Reduce Police Misconduct?" Public Administration Review 77 (2): 195-205.Active representationEthnicityUKPolice serviceThis article shows an association between an increase in police force ethnic minority representation and a subsequent reduction in police misconduct. An increase in representativeness is also shown to be associated with a decrease in the share of black complainants but not with a change in the ethnicity of those subject to complaints. This evidence suggests that diversifying a bureaucratic workforce to reflect the community it serves may effectively catalyze bureaucratic integrity. In turn, improved organizational integrity influences bureaucrats’ attitudes and behaviors toward minority citizens, resulting in greater satisfaction among minority constituents.Public Administration
Hoobler, Jenny M., Grace Lemmon, and Sandy J. Wayne. 2011. “Women's Underrepresentation in Upper Management: New Insights on a Persistent Problem.” Organizational Dynamics 40 (3): 151-156.Passive representationGenderUSACompaniesBoth male and female managers harbored familywork conflict biases toward female employees, and that these biases substantially impeded women’s career progress.
Business Administration
Hseih, Chih-Wei, and Elizabeth Winslow. 2006. “Gender Representation in the Federal Workforce.” Review of Public Personnel Administration26 (3): 276–294.Passive representationGender; RaceUSAFederal agency Women are represented in total federal positions, but they are underrepresented in higher level positions. This trend varies among racial groups.
Public Administration
Kanter, R. M. 1993. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Book.Gender differencesGenderUSACorporationThe book shows how the careers and self-images of the managers, professionals, and executives, and women looking for a way up, are determined by the distribution of power and powerlessness within the corporation.
Business Administration
Kelly, Rita Mae, and Meredith A. Newman. 2001. “The Gendered Bureaucracy: Agency Mission, Equality of Opportunity, and Representative Bureaucracies.” Women and Politics22 (3): 1–34Active representationGenderUSALocal governmentAgency policy type has a significant impact on the employees' views about affirmative action and equal opportunity policies. Also, male and female administrators have different views on policy supports.
Public Administration
Kennedy, Brandy A. 2013."Sorting through: The role of representation in bureaucracy." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23 (4): 791-816.Active representationRaceUSA-Using Q-sort analysis, this studyexploreshow bureaucrats see their role as representatives andwhat isthe effects of descriptive representation and organizational setting.Results suggest that there are four perspectives on representative bureaucracy: leaders, traditional bureaucrats, identity empathizers, and diversity advocates.
Public Administration
Kennedy, Brandy A., Adam M. Butz, Nazita Lajevardi, and Matthew J. Nanes. 2017. "Race and Representative Bureaucracy in American Policing." Springer International PublishingPassive/ Active representationRaceUSAPolice serviceThis book applies passive and active representative bureaucracy theory to American police departments to examine incidences of police brutality and use of deadly force particularly against racial minoritiesPublic Administration
Kennedy, Brandy. 2014. "Unraveling Representative Bureaucracy A Systematic Analysis of the Literature." Administration & Society46 (4): 395-421.Passive/ Active representationGender; Race; Class; Religion; Region; EducationUSA-This article provides an overview about how previous scholars have defined and measured representative bureaucracy.
Public Administration
Kim, Pan Suk. 1993. “Public Bureaucracy and Regionalism in South Korea.” Administration & Society 25 (2): 227–242.Passive representationRegionSouth KoreaCivil serviceThis research describes and analyzes the regional representation in public bureaucracy in South Korea.
Public Administration
Kingsley, John Donald. 1944. Representative Bureaucracy. Yellow Springs: Antioch Press.Active representationSocial classUKCivil serviceThis is a book about the British civil service. The author defines representative bureaucracy as a bureaucracy which represents the dominant classes in society.Political Science
Lim, Hong-Hai. 2006. “Representative Bureaucracy: Rethinking Substantive Effects
and Active Representation.” Public Administration Review 66 (2): 193–204.
Active representation---This research reviews the substantive effects of passive representative bureaucracy. The author argues that people should go beyond the passive-active distinction and identify the direct and indirect sources of the effects of passive representation.
Public Administration
Lim, Jaegeum, and Jonathan Meer. 2015. “The Impact of Teacher-Student Gender Matches: Random Assignment Evidence from South Korea.” No. w21407. National Bureau of Economic Research.Active representationGenderSouth KoreaEducationFemale students perform better when they assigned to female teachers. There is little impact on male students.Education
Mansbridge, Jane. 1999. "Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent “Yes”." The Journal of politics61 (3): 628-657.Passive representationRace; GenderUSA-Disadvantaged groups gain benefits from descriptive representation, when there are group mistrust and uncrystallized interests, better communication and experiential knowledge of representatives. Also, historical political subordination and low de facto legitimacy as well as costs in other values are related to descriptive representationPolitical Science
Marvel, John D. and William G. Resh. 2015. "Bureaucratic discretion, client demographics, and representative bureaucracy." The American Review of Public Administration 45 (3): 281-310.Active representationRace; EthnicityUSAEducationThis paper examines whether the amount of discretion that minority bureaucrats have is positively related to the percentage of an organization’s clients who are from the same minority group. It argues that there are three reasons to expect a positive relationship: client demand, managerial deference to bureaucratic expertise, and bureaucratic appropriation. The findings suggest that a positive relationship exists for African American bureaucrats, but not for Hispanic bureaucrats.Public Administration
Marx, David M. and Jasmin S.Roman. 2002. “Female Role Models: Protecting Women’s Math Test Performance.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (9): 1183–1193.Passive representationGenderUSAEducationThis research finds that female role models can buffer female students’ math performance from the undermining effects of situational factors.Psychology
Meier, Kenneth J and Daniel P Hawes. 2009. “Ethnic Conflict in France A Case for Representative Bureaucracy?” The American Review of Public Administration
39 (3): 269–285.
Active representationEthnicityFranceCivil serviceThis article applies the theory of representative bureaucracy to France, which is a nation rejecting the concepts of ethnicity or race. Based on the empirical analysis of French violent protests, the researchers argue that the French bureaucracy would earn more public support if it adopts representative bureaucracy.
Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J and John Bohte. 2001. “Structure and Discretion: Missing Links in Representative Bureaucracy.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 11 (4): 455–470.Active representationEthnicityUSAEducationThis study examines the role employee discretion plays in linking passive and active forms of representation in a sample of six hundred school districts in Texas. Specifically, the authors argue that active representation is enhanced in organizations that vest greater discretion in their employees. Our study reveals that minority student performance improves under organizational structures that promote, rather than limit, minority teacher discretion.
Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J and Tabitha SM Morton. 2015. Representative Bureaucracy in a Cross-national Context: Politics, Identity, Structure and Discretion. Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar pp. 94–112.The theory of representative bureaucracy---This chapter tries to develop a framework to test the linkage between passive and active representation in a cross-national context. It particularly emphasizes the influence of politics, identity, structure and discretion.
Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J, Robert D Wrinkle and Jerry L Polinard. 1999. “Representative
Bureaucracy and Distributional Equity: Addressing the Hard Question.” The Journal of Politics 61 (04): 1025–1039.
Active representationEthnicityUSAEducationBased on the data from 350 school districts over 6 years, this research finds that representative bureaucracy can benefit both minority and nonminority students.Political Science
Meier, Kenneth J. 1975. “Representative bureaucracy: An empirical analysis.” The American Political Science Review, 526-542.Passive representationClassUSACivil serviceMeier summarizes passive representation by race, class, and gender in the Civil Service. The authorfinds that as the rank increases in the civil service representation of women, non-whites, and the working class decreases.Political Science
Meier, Kenneth J. 1993. “Controlling Bureaucracy: Ethics and Participation” In Politics and the Bureaucracy: Policymaking in the Fourth Branch of Government,ed. Meier, Kenneth J. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole, 193-224.Passive reprsentationRace; Gender; Education; Region, etc.USAFederal bureaucracyThe book skims over policymaking in the bureaucracy and focuses mainly on the federal bureaucracy. Chapter 7 contains a discussion of controlling bureaucracy and the theory of representative bureaucracy.Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J. 1993. “Latinos and Representative Bureaucracy Testing the Thompson and Henderson Hypotheses.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3 (4): 393–414.Active representationEthnicityUSAEducationBased on the data from twelve school districts in Florida, this research finds the effect of active representation among Latino teachers. It also finds that street-level bureaucrats are more active in representation effects than upper-level bureaucrats. Also, it confirms that a critical mass of administrators of one group is the premise of active representation among the administrators.
Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J. 1993. “Representative Bureaucracy: A Theoretical and Empirical Exposition.” In Research in Public Administration, Vol. 2, ed. James Perry. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1-35.Active representationRace--This is a theoretical piece that presents a series of hypotheses that promote or discourage active representation in the bureaucracy.
Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J. 1993. Politics and the Bureaucracy: Policymaking in the Fourth Branch of Government. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole.--USA-The book skims over policymaking in the bureaucracy and focuses mainly on the federal bureaucracy. It emphasizes bureaucracy as the fourth branch of American government.
Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J. and Amanda Rutherford. Forthcoming. The Politics of African-American Education: Representation, Partisanship, and Educational Equity. Cambridge University Press.Passive/ Active representationRaceUSAEducationThis book stresses that African-American representation in school districts is more often than not a result of political structures. The influence of partisanship, electoral strucutral, election rules, and school board structure on representation are analyzed in this book.
Poitical Science; Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J., and Jill Nicholson-Crotty. 2006. “Gender, Representative Bureaucracy, and Law Enforcement: The Case of Sexual Assault.” Public Administration Review 66 (6): 850-860.Active representationGenderUSALaw enforcementReprensentation of female law enforcement is related to an increase in the number of reported sexual assaults and the number of arrests. The authors theorize that representatio in this case can occur as increased passive representation influences some chang ein behavior among clients
Public Adminstration
Meier, Kenneth J., and Joseph Stewart. 1992. “The Impact of Representative Bureaucracies: Educational Systems and Public Policies.” The American Review of Public Administration 22 (3):157-171.Active representationRaceUSAEducationRepresentative bureaucrats incluence only public policy outcomes. In general, street-level bureaucrats (teachers) show more impacts than manageral-level bureacrats (principals).
Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J., and Kendall D. Funk. 2016. "Women and Public Administration in a Comparative Perspective The Case of Representation in Brazilian Local Governments." Administration & Society 49 (1): 121-142.Passive/ Active representationGenderBrazilLocal governmentWomen elected leaders increase the probability that women will be hired to public agencies, in the context of Brazilian local governments. In addition, women elected officials and public administrators are also associated with the adoption of more womenfriendly policies.Public Administration
Meier, Kenneth J., Eric Juenke, Robert D. Wrinkle, & J. L Polinard. 2005. “Structural Choices and Representational Biases: The Post‐Election Color of Representation.” American Journal of Political Science, 49(4): 758-768.Passive/ Active representationRaceUSAEducationThe authors connect substantive representation to electoral structure. Findings indicate that Latino representation is a function or population and election structure, while black representation is mainly determined by population. For both Blacks and Latinos, substantive representation is related to ward systems. Political Science
Moldovan, Octavian. 2016. “Representative Bureaucracy in Romania? Gender and Leadership in Central Public Administration." Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 48: 66-83.Passive representationGenderRomaniaCentral public administration institutionsThe paper shows that the overall situation of women in the decision-making positions in Romanian central public administration institutions has improved considerably in 2011, suggesting the desideratum of gender equity. However, data provides partial evidence for the existence of sectorial segregation, as at the higher administrative ranks there are more men than women in institutions with Basic functions, while the reverse is true for Socio-cultural institutions.
Public Administration
Molina Jr, Angel Luis. 2016. "A manager is a manager is a manager? Race and managerial impact on organizational performance." Public Organization Review 16 (1): 39-53.Passive/ Active RepresentationRaceUSAEducationEmphasizing the impact of network engagement on organizational performance, this exploratory study addresses this important research deficiency. A critical component of the analysis presented is the differential impact of administrative engagement with internal and external networks on minority and status quo clientele outcomes. The findings have important implications for studies of managerial networking, equity, and representation in public organizations.Public Administration
Morabito, Melissa and Tara O’Connor Shelley. 2015. "Representative bureaucracy: Understanding the correlates of the lagging progress of diversity in policing." Race and Justice 5 (4): 330-355.Passive representationRace; GenderUSAPolice serviceUsing a national sample of 1,478 police jurisdictions, this study further explores the correlates of diversity of women and racial minorities using a framework informed by representative bureaucracy theory. Findings suggest that the same factors are not predictive of representation of women and racial minorities.Public Administration
Murdoch, Zuzana, Jarle Trondal, and Benny Geys. 2016. "Representative bureaucracy and seconded national government officials in the European Commission." Regulation & Governance 10 (4): 335-349.Passive/ Active representationGender; Age; Education; Geographical originEUEuropean CommissionUsing a variety of datasets, the authors unveil Commission SNEs' profiles (to assess their passive representativeness) and link these profiles to their role perceptions (to evaluate their potential for active representation). This illustrates that Commission SNEs' background characteristics do not match those of their constituent population (i.e. the EU27 population) – suggesting a lack of passive representativeness. However, we also find that SNEs from countries favoring stronger national rather than European regulatory and policymaking powers are more likely to see themselves as a representative of their home country government.Public Administration
Naff, Katherine C and K Jurée Capers. 2014. “The Complexity of Descriptive Representation and Bureaucracy: The Case of South Africa.” International Public Management Journal 17 (4): 515–539.Active representationGender; EthnicitySouth AfricaCivil serviceThis research applies the concept of descriptive representation to South Africa. The author analyzes the challenges in identity formation and their impacts on both passive and active representation.
Public Administration
Naff, Katherine C. 1998. "Progress toward achieving a representative federal bureaucracy: The impact of supervisors and their beliefs." Public Personnel Management 27 (2): 135-150.Passive/ Active representationRace; GenderUSAFederal bureaucracyPrevious research suggested that one reason greater progress was not being made in achieving a fully representative federal bureaucracy was that federal supervisors, who make hiring and promotion decisions on a day-to-day basis, did not support increasing workforce diversity. This paper updates and expands those findings by examining supervisors' responses to a recent governmentwide survey. It then examines the extent to which such attitudes have an impact on supervisors' efforts to hire Hispanics when they are aware that Hispanics are under-represented in their own work unit. Survey responses suggest that there is not widespread support for the concept of representative bureaucracy and that such attitudes may have an impact on their recruitment efforts. What is of more consequence in their recruitment activity, however, is their own race/national originPublic Administration
Naff, Katherine C., and John Crum. 2000. "The president and representative bureaucracy: Rhetoric and reality." Public Administration Review 60 (2): 98-110.Passive representation Race; GenderUSAFederal bureaucracyThere have been widespread perceptions among federal employees that the administrations' ideologies have had a direct impact on the opportunities of minorities, women, and white men for advancement. Using government-wide data from 1979 to 1996, this article examines whether such employment opportunities have varied in the manner suggested by these perceptions. We find little evidence of a correlation between the president's views on affirmative action and minority and female representation in the overall federal workforce. Moreover, the curtailment of promotion opportunities during the Reagan and Clinton administrations has affected all groups nearly equally. Potential presidential influence has been more notable in the representation of women and minorities in politically appointed and career senior executive jobs.Public Administration
Naff, KatherineCand John Crum. 2000. “The President and Representative Bureaucracy: Rhetoric and Reality.” Public Administration Review 60 (2): 98–110.Passive representationGender; EthnicityUSAFederal agencyBased on the government-wide data from 1979 to 1996, this research finds that presidential views nearly have not effects on federal bureaucratic representation.
Public Administration
Ng, Eddy S. and Greg J. Sears. 2015. "Toward Representative Bureaucracy: Predicting Public Service Attraction Among Underrepresented Groups in Canada." Review of Public Personnel Administration 35 (4): 367-385.Passive representationGender; Visible minorities; Aboriginal people;
Persons with disabilities; LGBT
CanadaPublic serviceThis study explores three questions: First, are there differences between the four employment equity (EE) groups in terms of their attraction to jobs in the public sector? Second, what are key work values that predict PS attraction? Third, do EE groups differ in terms of these key work values? Based on a large-scale survey of more than 12,000 final-year Canadian postsecondary students, results indicate that women, Aboriginals, and persons with disabilities report higher levels of PS attraction than visible minorities. Work values such as job security, commitment to social responsibility, benefits, and commitment to diversity were strongly associated with PS attraction, and EE groups differed in their evaluations of the relative importance of these work values.Public Administration
Nicholson-Crotty, Sean, Jason A. Grissom, Jill Nicholson-Crotty and Christopher Redding. 2016. "Disentangling the causal mechanisms of representative bureaucracy: Evidence from assignment of students to gifted programs." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 26 (4): 745-757.Active representationRace; EthnicityUSAEducationThis study suggests that black students are more likely to be referred to gifted services when taught by a black teacher but that increased presence of black teachers in the school other than the classroom teacher has little effect. The authors find some evidence that the classroom teacher effect is partially driven by teachers’ more positive views of own-race students. Our results do not suggest, however, that the positive impact of teacher-student race congruence on gifted assignment can be explained by differences in student test score performance or increased parental interaction with the teacher.Public Administration
Nicholson-Crotty, Sean, Jill Nicholson-Crotty, and Sergio Fernandez. 2017. "Will More Black Cops Matter? Officer Race and Police‐Involved Homicides of Black Citizens." Public Administration Review 77 (2): 206-216.Active representationRaceUSAPolice serviceSome studies suggest that increased representation reduces discrimination, while others suggest that it increases discrimination. The authors reconcile these perspectives using the concept of critical mass, which leads to the expectation that an increase in black officers will reduce the number of black citizens killed in encounters with police, but only once the proportion of black officers is sufficiently large.Public Administration
Park, Sanghee. 2013. “Does Gender Matter? The Effect of Gender Representation of Public Bureaucracy on Governmental Performance.” The American Review of Public Administration 43 (2): 221–242.Active representationGenderSouth KoreaCivil serviceBased on an unbalanced time-series data set for 25 years in South Korea, the author provides the empirical evidence of the influence of gender representation on governmental performance.
Public Administration
Peters, B. Guy, Patrick von Maravi and Eckhard Schröter. 2015. Politics of Representative Bureaucracy: Power, Legitimacy and Performance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Active representationMultipleCross-nationalMultipleThis book consists of nine chapters of theoretical analysis of representative bureaucracy in a cross-national context.
Public Administration,+B.+Guy,+Patrick+von+Maravi+and+Eckhard+Schr%C3%B6ter.+2015.+Politics+of+Representative+Bureaucracy:+Power,+Legitimacy+and+Performance.+Cheltenham:+Edward+Elgar+Publishing.+%22&ots=IqzJPCyYDD&sig=y4kTUoNaZcioOFTHnU0B-scDJUo#v=onepage&q&f=false
Peters, B. Guy, Patrick von Maravić, and Eckhard Schröter. 2015. "Politics of Representative Bureaucracy: Power, Legitimacy and Performance." Edward Elgar Publishing.Passive/ Active/ Symbolic representationRace; Ethnicity; and GenderCross-national-What is the relationship between the composition of the public sector workforce and the nature of the society it serves? Taking a comparative and analytical perspective, the authoritative and accessible chapters illustrate the salience of representative politics in diverse societies. The book explores the wide variety of practice based on different political systems, administrative structures, and cultural settings, and discusses topical issues of public bureaucracies worldwide.Public Administration
Pitkin, Hanna Fenichel. 1967. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.Passive/ Active representationUSA-This book is about an idea and a concept of representation. The book mainly conducted conceptual analysis.Political Science
Pitts, David W. 2005. “Diversity, Representation, and Performance: Evidence about Race and Ethnicity in Public Organizations.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15 (4): 615-631.Diversity management; Active representationRace; EthnicityUSAEducationIn an analysis of Texas schools, Pits explores the influence of diversity and representation on student outcomes. The results find the diversity among managers is unrelated to performance while representation is positively related to performance. Among teachers, diversity has some effect on performance and representation has a negative impact.
Public Administration
Pitts, David W. 2007. "Representative Bureaucracy, Ethnicity, and Public Schools Examining the Link Between Representation and Performance." Administration & Society39 (4): 497-526.Active representationEthnicityUSAEducationEthnic representation is associated with organizational performance as a whole. Street-level representation has greater impacts than managerial level representation.
Public Administration
Rabovsky, Thomas, and Hongseok Lee. 2017. "Exploring the Antecedents of the Gender Pay Gap in US Higher Education." Public Administration Review. DOI: 10.1111/puar.12827Active representationGenderUSAHigher educationThis study uses data on public and private nonprofit research universities to evaluate the antecedents of salary differences between male and female full-time assistant professors. They hypothesize that female representation among the associate and full professor ranks, as well as in executive management positions will be negatively associated with gender pay gap differences. Findings support the hypotheses, although the impacts for many of the variables differ between public and private institutions.Public Administration
Rauhaus, Beth M. 2015. "Five Assessing Public Sector Reform Impacts on Domestic Violence Service Delivery." Wagadu: a Journal of Transnational Women's and Gender Studies, 14 (1): 1-29.-Gender-Domestic violenceThis research applies the theoretical notions of representative bureaucracy and the feminization of poverty to explore how states may adequately address the needs of women in cases of domestic violence and how partnerships with nongovernmental units may meet the needs of vulnerable populations. This work contributes to a growing understanding of how gendered public service delivery may be impacted by public sector reform measures such as having a representative bureaucracy and creating partnerships with non-governmental units to deliver services adequately.Public Administration
Riccucci, Norma M and Judith R Saidel. 1997. “The Representativeness of State-level Bureaucratic Leaders: A Missing Piece of the Representative Bureaucracy Puzzle.” Public Administration Review57 (5): 423–430.Passive representationGender; Race; EthnicityUSAPolitical appointeesWomen and people of color are not well represented in higher level positions in state governments across the United States. Also, women and people of color achieved lower levels of representation than previous have suggested
Public Administration
Riccucci, Norma M. and Marcia Meyers. 2004. "Linking Passive and Active Representation: The Case of Frontline Workers in Welfare Agencies." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 14(4): 585-597. 

Active representationRace; GenderUSAWelfareThe researchers find some evidence of a link between passive and active representation in welfare agencies based on race and gender. However, the effort to link passive and active representation in welfare agencies is a complex and complicated task, precisely because of the ambiguous ways in which “representation” has been conceptualized in the welfare bureaucracy.

Public Administration
Riccucci, Norma M., and Gregg G. Van Ryzin. 2016. "Representative Bureaucracy: A Lever to Enhance Social Equity, Coproduction, and Democracy." Public Administration Review, doi:10.1111/puar.12649Passive/ Active/ Symbolic representation---This study aims to validate and extend the previous efforts in the literature of representative bureaucracy. While discussing passive, active, and symbolic representation, this study illustrates how research can contribute to the theory of representative bureaucracy and provide practical implications.
Public Administration
Riccucci, Norma M., and Judith R. Saidel. 2001. "The demographics of gubernatorial appointees: Toward an explanation of variation." Policy Studies Journal 29 (1): 11-22.Passive/ Active representationRace; GenderUSAState government This study identifies and analyzes a set of variables that could help answer the question: Under what conditions are governors more likely to appoint higher proportions of women and people of color to top-ranking executive branch positions? From the standpoint of representativeness, the demographic background of state policymakers increases the stakes of those who participate, particularly in terms of policy outcomes. Thus, it is especially important to identify the participants in state-level policy arenas and the factors that could predict their appointment.Public Administration
Riccucci, Norma M., Gregg G. Van Ryzin, and Cecilia F. Lavena. 2014. “Representative Bureaucracy in Policing: Does It Increase Perceived Legitimacy?” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 24(3): 537-551.Passive representationGenderUSALaw EnforcementThis study explores the impact of gender representation among police officers on citizens' perceptions. The results find that increased representation improves perceptions of agency job performance, fairness, and trustworthiness.
Public Administration
Riccucci, Norma M., Gregg G. Van Ryzin, and Huafang Li. 2016. "Representative Bureaucracy and the Willingness to Coproduce: An Experimental Study." Public Administration Review 76 (1): 121-130.Symbolic RepresentationGenderUSAEnvironmental policyUsing a survey experiment in which the first names of public officials are manipulated, the authors find a clear pattern of increasing willingness on the part of women to coproduce when female names are more represented in the agency responsible for recycling, particularly with respect to the more difficult task of composting food waste. Overall, men in the experiment were less willing to coproduce across all measures and less responsive to the gender balance of names.Public Administration
Roch, Christine H. and Jason Edwards. 2017. "Representative Bureaucracy and School Discipline: The Influence of Schools’ Racial Contexts." The American Review of Public Administration 47 (1): 58-78.Passive/ Active representationRaceUSAEducationThis article examines whether the racial context within local communities influences the assignment of disciplinary policies in public schools. First, it considers whether different policies may be assigned to similar target groups across varying racial contexts. Then, it considers whether the racial context moderates the transition from passive representation to active representation among bureaucrats. Using a sample of Georgia public schools, we find that schools rely more on more punitive disciplinary measures in school districts characterized by greater segregation and that this occurs especially among schools with sizable African American student populations. We also find that active representation appears to occur more often in segregated environments, perhaps because of the greater salience of race within these communities.Public Administration
Roch, Christine H., and David W. Pitts. 2012. “Differing Effects of Representative Bureaucracy in Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools.” American Review of Public Administration 42 (3): 282-302.Active representationRaceUSAEducationThis research explores the differing effects of representation in charters and traditional public schools. The results indicate that the effect of representaiton on discipline policies and performance appears to decrease in the charter school context. In addition, representation has different effects give the racial composition of the school.
Public Administration
Roch, Cristine. H., David W. Pitts, & Ignacio Navarro. 2010. "Representative bureaucracy and policy tools ethnicity, student discipline, and representation in public schools." Administration & Society 42(1): 38-65.Active representationRaceUSAEducationThis study explores the impact of representation in public school discipline policies. The authors find that more racial balance between teachers and students is related to the implementation of learning-oriented discipline policies rather than sanction oriented discipline policies.
Public Administration
Romzek, Barbara S., and J. Stephen Hendricks. 1982. "Organizational Involvement and Representative Bureaucracy: Can We Have It Both Ways?." American Political Science Review 76 (1): 75-82.Active representationRaceUSAFederal employeesThere is a different level of organizaitonal involvement in agencies with a substantive representation mandate and without mandate for representation.
Public Administration
Rosenbloom, David. H., & Jeannette G. Featherstonhaugh. 1977. "Passive and active representation in the federal service: A comparison of blacks and whites." Social Science Quarterly, 57(4): 873-882.Passive representationRaceUSACivil serviceThis study explores the differences in attitudes among white and Black federal officials. The study finds a gap in the attitudes between groups that parallels that in the general population. The study also finds that while the gap between white and black attitudes decreases as years of service increases, racial background still appears to significantly influence bureaucrats. Political Science
Selden, Sally Coleman. 1997. “Representative Bureaucracy Examining the Linkage between Passive and Active Representation in the Farmers Home Administration.” The American Review of Public Administration 27 (1): 22–42.Active representationRaceUSAFederal employeesAfrican American, Hispanic, and Asian American representation and the share of program resources allocated to those groups are significanlty related. However, the relationship between passive and active representation is not significant for Native Americans.
Public Administration
Simien, Evelyn M. 2007. “Doing Intersectionality Research: From Conceptual Issues to Practical Examples.” Politics & Gender3 (2): 264-271.Passive representation; IntersectionalityGender; RaceUSA-Intersections are related with multidimemsional conceptualizations and multiple comparisons. Political science scholars should address this complex process when studying representation.Political Science
Smith, Amy E. and Karen Monaghan. 2013. "Some Ceilings Have More Cracks: Representative Bureaucracy in Federal Regulatory Agencies." American Review of Public Administration 43 (1): 50-71.Passive representationGenderUSAFederal agency The study finds that women get into leadership positions in organizations working in “feminine” policy areas and where a woman holds the top level of leadership. In addition, the proportion of women in upper-level leadership positions is expected to increase in agencies with a higher risk of failure, particularly when such agencies are less visible.
Public Administration
Song, Miyeon. 2018. "Gender Representation and Student Performance: Representative Bureaucracy Goes to Korea." The American Review of Public Administration, 48 (4): 346–358. Active representationGenderSouth KoreaEducationGender representation matters in South Korea at the street-level, strengthening the external validity of the theory of representative bureaucracy. The positive link between female teachers and female student performance is greater when teachers have more discretion and interact more with each other. However, value consensus weakens the relationship between gender representation and student performance. Public Administration
Sowa, Jessica E. and Sally Coleman Selden. 2003. “Administrative Discretion and Active Representation: An Expansion of the Theory of Representative Bureaucracy.” Public Administration Review 63 (6): 700–710.Active representationRace; GenderUSAFarmer's Home AdministrationThis study looks at the effect of discretion on representation. The authors find that bureuacrats who perceive themselves as having increased discretion are more likely to pursue policies outcomes that support minority client interests.
Public Administration