CO2 Lifecycle Analysis V7
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CO2 Analysis: Comparison of e-Golf vs Golf 1.6 TDI
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Short link to this spreadsheet -> please use extensively and help to spread the word - thank you! 👍😃 :
www.ceo-plus.ch/co2comparison
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Author: Roger Rusch, ceo plus, center for evolution in organizations, Twitter: @ceo_plus_ch
Link auf die deutsche Version
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BEV: Battery Electric Vehicle, ICE: Internal Combustion Engine
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CO2eq = all greenhouse gases (GHG) converted into CO2 equivalents
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How to use this spreadsheet: You can modify the values in the green fields. To do so, use this spreadsheet in a desktop browser or in the Google Spreadsheet app (modification not possible in mobile browsers). To download a chart to your computer, proceed as follows: click on chart -> click on 3 vertical points in top right corner -> Download as...
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Production of cars in:
DGo to results
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Usage of cars in:
GermanyGo to sources
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Mileage per year in km:
20’000Go to charts12’500miles
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Featured cars in this comparison
Germany
Source
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BEV:e-GolfPower consumption per 100km17.5kWh128.0
kWh/100 miles
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ICE:Golf 1.6 TDIDiesel consumption per 100km5.9Liter240.1MPG
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Type of fuel of Golf 1.6 TDIDiesel
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CO2 emissions from production of cars and battery for the e-Golf
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Production of e-Golf (without battery)CO2eq emissions from production of a vehicle of Golf class, at a weight (without battery) of approx. 1'300 kg4’240kg3
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Production of Golf 1.6 TDI4’240kg3
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Additional parts of ICE car25% more CO2eq emissions from production of ICE car: more complex drive-train & engine, higher demand for raw materials1’060kg3
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Battery per kWhCO2eq per kWh battery capacity of e-Golf battery134kg4a
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Entire battery
CO2eq from production of 35.8kWh battery for the e-Golf
4’797kg4b
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CO2 emissions from production of energy for vehicle operation (Electricity, Diesel)
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Electricity for BEV operation
CO2eq per kWh (German production mix)489.0g5
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Oil production upstream
CO2eq for production of 1 liter Diesel from 3.5 liter crude oil
389.0g
6a, 6b
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489.0Refining of oil to Diesel
Energy used per liter Diesel: 0.159kWh electr. + 5.135MJ crude oil
453.9g
7,8,9,10
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Distribution of DieselEnergy used/CO2eq per liter Diesel for transport to gas station and operation of gas stations97.8g10
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CO2 emissions during operation of vehicles resp. consumption/combustion of electricity/fuels
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Electricity consumptionCO2eq per kWh used0g
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Diesel consumptionCO2eq per liter Diesel combusted2’650g11, 12
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Efficiency/waste
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ElectricityEfficiency of high-voltage transmission to households95%13
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Efficiency of battery charging94%14
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RESULTS
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CO2 balance after driving 100 km (without production of cars and battery)
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e-GolfWell to Wheel9.6kg
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Golf 1.6 TDIditto21.2kg
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CO2 balance after 1 year and 20'000 km (without production of cars and battery)
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e-GolfWell to Wheel1’917kg
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Golf 1.6 TDIditto4’237kg
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Lifetime CO2 balance after 15 years and 300'000 km
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e-GolfWell to Wheel (incl. production of BEV and battery)37’786kg126 g/km202 g/mile
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Golf 1.6 TDIWell to Wheel (incl. production of ICE car)68’855kg230 g/km367 g/mile
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After 15 years/300'000 km, the e-Golf has produced only 55% of the CO2 of the Golf 1.6 TDI.
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Break-Even: Duration until the e-Golf has equalized its CO2 surplus from battery production
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@ 20'000 km per year
Diff. per km: 116g. CO2 surplus from battery prod. equalized after
1.6
years
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@ 30'000 km per yearditto1.1
years
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Sources:
1) EPA / fueleconomy.gov
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2) Spritmonitor
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3) Handelsblatt: edison.handelsblatt.com/erklaeren/co2-das-bedeutet-der-bau-eines-autos-fuer-das-klima/22654280.html
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4a) BAFU (Swiss Bundesamt für Umwelt - quasi the Swiss EPA) / treeze Ltd, 2018: Study "Aktualisierung Umweltaspekte von Elektroautos"
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4b) It's probably wrong to charge the BEV with the entire emissions of the battery production: After not qualifying for vehicle use anymore, these batteries have a second life as stationary energy storages. The impressive longevity of BEV batteries is demonstrated particularly well by Tesla: Only little degradation (<10%) after several 100k km, and it is assumed today that a Tesla can drive > 1 million km with the first battery.
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5) German Umweltbundesamt - quasi the German EPA
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6a) ResearchGate: Global Carbon Intensity of Crude Oil Production: Ø 10.3g/MJ resp. 61.8kg/Barrel resp. 389g/Liter (www.researchgate.net/publication/327328315_Global_carbon_intensity_of_crude_oil_production)
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6b) US EIA: www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.php?page=oil_refining: 1 barrel (42 gallons) of crude oil = 20 gal. of gasoline + 12 gal. of diesel
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7) 30% of fuels in CH from Swiss refineries, 70% from european (Source: study "Energieetikette für Personenwagen"); Electricity mix EU: 296g CO2/kWh (Source: www.agora-energiewende.de/fileadmin2/Projekte/2018/EU-Jahresauswertung_2019/Agora-Energiewende_European-Power-Sector-2018_WEB.pdf); Refining of fuel in other countries with local power mix
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8) Department of Energy (DOE), USA, 2009 / Argonne National Lab, 2008: Estimation of Energy Efficiencies of US Petroleum Refineries:
1.585kWh resp. 5.706MJ of energy per liter of fuel (assumption: 10% as electricity, 90% as crude oil)

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9) CO2 of crude oil: 73.3kg/GJ (https://www.volker-quaschning.de/datserv/CO2-spez/index.php)
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10) Handelsblatt: edison.handelsblatt.com/e-hub/so-viel-strom-brauchen-autos-mit-verbrennungsmotor/20826274.html
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11) Öko-Institut eV / Dekra (www.dekra.de/de/umwelt-und-co2)
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12) AutoSmart: Fuel Consumption and CO2 (www.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/www.nrcan.gc.ca/files/oee/pdf/transportation/fuel-efficient-technologies/autosmart_factsheet_6_e.pdf)
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13) Wikipedia: de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Well-to-Tank
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14) Wikipedia: de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektroauto#Verbrauch_und_Wirkungsgrad
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Notes:In order to not complicate the calculation and preserve the traceability, the following simplifications have been applied:
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- Extrapolation of CO2 value for vehicle manufacturing (source 3) for larger vehicles than Golf class depending on vehicle weight
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- CO2 from upstream oil production depends on production country (Denmark 3.3g, Algeria 20.3g CO2eq/MJ crude oil) -> application of global Ø of 10.3g
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- Utilization ratio of crude oil is nearly 100% (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel etc.) -> application of CO2eq/liter crude oil for 1 liter of fuel
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- Source 8 states the energy needed for oil refining in US refineries. This value is also assumed for european refineries.
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- Source 10 states 0.1 kWh grey energy per liter of fuel for the operation of gas stations. Assumption of same amount for fuel distribution/transports.
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Grafik 1:
Comparison of CO2 emissions during entire life-cycle (15 years)
e-Golf in Germany (20'000km/year)
Golf 1.6 TDI in Germany (20'000km/year)
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Purchase & use of vehicles in Germany, Operation of EV with power mix: Germany, Life-cycle 15 years at 20'000km/year
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Production of vehicle4’2405’300
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Production of battery4’7970
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Production of electricity/fuel for 15 years / 300'000 km28’74916’650
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Usage/combustion of electricity/fuel046’905
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Grafik 2:
Accumulation of CO2 emissions in the course of entire life-cycle
(20'000km/year, use of vehicles in Germany)
e-Golf in Germany (20'000km/year)
Golf 1.6 TDI in Germany (20'000km/year)
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Prod. Vehicle + Batt.9’0375’300
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