Calculations for Infographics re Oregon Clean Energy Investments
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For every $1 Million it invests in SOLAR ENERGY, Oregon will reap the following benefits:
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BenefitAmountCompared to same $ invested in fracked gasCompared to same $ invested in coalNotes and further explanationCalculationsCitations
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Direct Jobs in Oregon5.40.81.9Direct jobs: The workers who build and install the solar panels.
Currently, without a single oil refinery in-state and only one soon-to-be-closed coal plant, many of the jobs we fund with our energy spending are created out-of-state.
n/aWorld Bank, 2011. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOGMC/Resources/Measuring_the_employment_impact_of_energy_sector1.pdf
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Indirect Jobs in Oregon4.42.93Indirect effects. Manufacturing and service jobs that supply intermediate goods for building retrofits or panel manufacturing, such as lumber, steel, and transportation.n/aWorld Bank, 2011. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOGMC/Resources/Measuring_the_employment_impact_of_energy_sector1.pdf
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Induced Jobs in Oregon9.31.48 - 2.31.96 - 3.9Induced effects. The local diner and coffee shop that can stay in business because solar installers can spend their paychecks there.n/a1) World Bank, 2011. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOGMC/Resources/Measuring_the_employment_impact_of_energy_sector1.pdf 2) University of Massachusettes PERI, https://grist.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/job_creation_for_investment_-_garrett-peltier.pdf
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MWh electricity20,00016,6669,804A dollar goes a lot further when spent on solar, which means lower electricity bills. In 2017, LCOE of solar was only $50/MWh, whereas fracked gas cost $60/MWh and coal cost $102/MWh.$1,000,000/($50/MWh) = 20,000 MWh. $1,000,000/($60/MWh) = 16,666 MWh. $1,000,000/($102/MWh) = 9,804 MWh. 2017 Lazard LCOE calculations. https://www.lazard.com/perspective/levelized-cost-of-energy-2017/
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Homes powered1,6671,389817A typical household in POrtland uses about 1,000 kWh per month1,000 kWh/month x 12months/year =
12,000 kWh/year x 1 MWh / 1,000 kWh =
12 MWh per home / year
https://www.oregon.gov/energy/Data-and-Reports/Documents/2013%20Energy%20101%20Presentation.pdf
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Metric tons CO2e avoided4,392n/an/aElectricity from solar has no ongoing carbon emissions associated with it on a per-MWh basis. The current carbon-intensity of OR's electricity supply is 0.3944 ton/MWh.Electricity bought for $1M at 8.98 ¢/KWh = 11,136 MWh.

CO2e intensity = 109.56 gCO2e/MJ (avg CO2e intensity of electricity in OR) → 0.3944 ton/MWh

11,136 MWh * 0.3944 ton/MWh = 4,392 metric tons
Carbon intensity of OR electricity: Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, https://www.oregon.gov/deq/FilterDocs/cfp-electrutil.pdf. Cost of OR electricity, U.S. EIA, U.S. EIA, https://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.php?t=epmt_5_6_a
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Equivalent cars removed from roads955n/an/aPer the above calculation, the total reduction in emissions when switching from OR's current average carbon intensity of its electricity to solar is 4,392 mt/yr per million USD. The average passenger car in the U.S. emits 4.6 mt/yr/car.(4,392 mt/year) / (4.6 mt/year/car) = 955 carsU.S. EPA https://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/greenhouse-gas-emissions-typical-passenger-vehicle
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Healthcare costs avoidedn/a$14,922 to $240,534 when switching from fracked gas to solar. $393,059 to $1,703,786 when switching from coal to solar.The average price of electricity across sectors in Oregon in 2018 was 8.98 ¢/KWh. At that price, $1 million buys 11,136,000 KWh. The healthcare costs of coal for electricity are estimated at between 3.53 ¢/KWh and 13.92 ¢/KWh. The healthcare costs of fracked gas for electricity are estimated at between 0.134 ¢/KWh and 2.16 ¢/KWh.EE in OR achieves: 3,538,000 KWh per year per million $.
COAL LOW SCENARIO: 3.53 cents/KWh (converted from 2.9 cents/KWh in 2007 USD) --> $0.0353/KWh x 3,538,000 KWh = $124,891. COAL HIGH SCENARIO: 15.30 cents/KWh (converted from 13.92 cents/KWh in 2011 USD). --> $0.1530/KWh x 3,538,000 KWh = $541,314. GAS LOW SCENARIO: 0.134 cents/KWh (converted from 0.11 cents/KWh in 2007 USD) --> $0.00134/KWh x 3,538,000 KWh = $4,470. GAS HIGH SCENARIO: HIGH: 2.16 cents/KWh (converted from 2 cents/KWh in 2013 USD) --> $0.0216/KWh x 3,538,000 KWh = $76,420
COAL LOW SCENARIO: http://www.ourenergypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/hidden.pdf. COAL HIGH SCENARIO: http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/energy/information/otherinfo/Documents/RPS%20Cost%20Cap%20Regulation%20Public%20Record/RPS%20Cost%20Cap%20Exhibits/6%20Full-cost-accounting%20of%20coal%20Harvard%20report.pdf. GAS LOW SCENARIO: http://www.ourenergypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/hidden.pdf. GAS HIGH SCENARIO: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412012000542?via%3Dihub
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