Citizens' Agenda: Summarised Answers
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List of Issues (alphabetical order)Example responsesSummary for Stage 2 Survey
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Cost of Living and Poverty: There were fears over the rising cost of living and the rising levels of poverty in Singapore. Responses addressed a wide range of issues which contributed overall to the feeling of inability to afford living in Singapore. These responses were similar to, and often included, concerns of inequality. However, it was clear from responses that there was a difference. This issue is related to affordability (can we pay for food, housing, healthcare, etc.); Inequality was related to the fairness of the system (Why does the economy advantage other people/discriminate against me?).How do we address the rising cost of living? How do we eliminate poverty and homelessness in Singapore? How is it we are such a rich country and yet there are so many poor people? Why do we need such high levels of taxes? Why are rents and housing costs so high? Why are so many of our elderly poor and how do we solve this? Cost of Living & Poverty: What should be done to address the rising cost of living. How do we eliminate poverty and homelessness in Singapore? Why are rents/housing costs so high? How is it we are such a rich country and yet there are so many poor people?
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CPF and Insurance: This issue centred around people's anxieties about providing for their retirement/old age. Central to the survey results was that people felt that the PAP government was trying to withhold their own savings from them; and that the PAP government kept changing the system every few years to make it harder for people to withdraw their own money from their CPF accounts. Others asked about alternative schemes or a re-think of the entire system from the ground up.What principles should the CPF operate on? How does the CPF actually functions, and why? Can we please have clarity and transparency over how the CPF works. Why can't we withdraw our own money? Is CPF citizens' savings or a tax, and why? How does CPF account for the changing nature of work, when most people have freelance jobs and work online? Can we have unemployment insurance and how would it work?CPF, Insurance, Welfare: Is the CPF our savings, or a government tax? What principles should the CPF operate on? What about the changing nature of work? Unemployment insurance?
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Demography: People asked about the changing demographics of society, including an ageing population and a declining birth rate, and the impact it would have on Singapore. Our systems are designed with a certain average age and a certain birth rate in mind - what happens as those assumptions are no longer valid? But should the state be acting to adapt Singapore to the new reality; or should it be intervening in society to preserve or even alter our demographics in a direction it feels more "desirable"?We have an ageing population and a declining birth rate - how (if at all) , should we adapt to this? How do we adapt to a shrinking workforce? How does changing demography affect all our fundamental assumptions about our economy, society, security, etc.? What should the role of the state be in shaping society - e.g. promoting nuclear families, CMIO, three or more children, etc.? How do we deal with overcrowding? Demography: How should we adapt to an ageing population and a declining birth rate? What should our ideal population be and why? Should the state intervene in our society?
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Destructive Politics: A number of responses felt that the biggest obstacle to progress in Singapore was the unconstructive attitude of the PAP government, rather than the issues themselves. They asked why the PAP government greeted constructive criticism, grassroots activism, and genuine attempts to work for a better Singapore with such unbridled hostility, and sought to suppress such thought, speech, and action through fear, oppression, and authoritarian regulations and action. They also asked why Singaporeans were being treated with condescension and contempt, why the PAP government saw Singaporeans as being stupid/unable to control our worst impulses, and infantalised through policies which assumed that Singaporeans had to be controlled otherwise we would cause racial, religious, etc. offense.How do we have honest, respectful, constructive conversations about the political process? How do we do this when we have so much censorship and authoritarianism? How do we create safe spaces to speak on controversial/difficult issues? Why won't the government engage us respectfully instead of cracking down all the time? How do we create a thriving arts scene in the face of so much censorship and controls over funding? What role should the media play in society? Why do we need a Sedition Act? Why do our laws assume we are incapable of making good decisions for ourselves and need to infantilise us?Destructive Politics: Why does the PAP government have such hostility towards honest criticism? How do we have respectful, constructive conversations/actions when the PAP censors/bans everything they disagree with? Why do they treat us like infants?
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Discrimination: Recent instances of systemic and casual racism were on the minds of respondents. In general, there were concerns that Singapore was heavily discriminatory in many ways, from the very subtle to the overt and systemic, covering everything from economic discrimination and what many expressed frustration about was that the government was in a state of denial about this problem and insisted that their current policies were effective. Yet many responders argued that the government's policies were not only ineffective, but made the problem worse.How do we end all systemic and casual discrimination in Singapore? How do we protect of rights of racial, gender, LGBTQ, religious, etc. minorities? How do we end all discrimination in Singapore? Should the government intervene in people's lives to create an ideal society e.g. singles, unmarried couples? How do we ensure there are policies in place to protect women from sexual harrassment? How do we end official discrimination against family units (single parents, LGTBQ couples, etc.) that do not conform to the official ideal of a nuclear family? How do you respond to data showing that people from poorer/certain racial backgrounds are more likely to be punished/hung than richer people/people from other racial backgrounds for the equivalent crime? Why can't we have a proper debate about CMIO? Why is it legal to deny Indians housing or Malays senior leadership roles in the Armed Forces? Repeal 377A!Discrimination: How do we end all systemic and casual discrimination in Singapore? How do we protect of rights all minorities (class, race, gender, LGBTQ, religious, linguistic, etc.)? Does CMIO & other official discrimination make things worse?
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Drugs/Addictive Substances: Not a single person referred to drugs/additictive substances including nicotine and alcohol as a problem. Instead, anyone who mentioned drugs felt that the government's policies were the problem, describing them as inhumane, contradictory, and ideologically driven. Responders wanted an honest and consistent debate about drugs, a nuanced understanding of the issue, and consistency about the government's position. For example, why was vaping banned when cigarettes were not; why cannabinoids could not be used for healthcare when opioids could be; and the inhumanity of the death penalty.What principles should we base our drug policy on? Can we have a more humane and effective drug policy? Why are marijuana and vaping banned when nicotine and alcohol (which are more destructive) are not? Can we have a consistent policy towards drugs? How do you respond to data showing that people from poorer/certain racial backgrounds are more likely to be punished/hung than richer people/people from other racial backgrounds for the equivalent crime?Drugs/Addictive Substances: What principles should we base our drug policy on? Can we have a more humane and effective drug policy? Consistency: why are cannabinoids & vaping banned when opiates, nicotine, & alcohol (which are more destructive) are not?
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Economy and Jobs: Respondents were worried about being able to find jobs, especially jobs which had a living wage. They felt the pressures of the cost of living (see above) but these respondents were more focused on being able to find work in a tight labour market. They were also concerned about the changing nature of work, Singapore's economy, and Singapore's place in the global economy. In particular, people wanted to hear ideas for the future of Singapore's economy and how it could restructure/change/adapt.How should we develop Singapore's economy to meet the challenges of today and the future? What is your vision for the future of Singapore's economy? How do we ensure that Singaporeans are able to find meaningful work at a fair wage? How do we continue to grow Singapore's economy in a fair and equitable manner? How do we address inflation? How do we break our massive dependence on the state and GLCs and allow small businesses to grow and thrive? Can we have a minimum wage? Can/should we do away with expatriate pay packages? How do we push for a greener economy? Can we put less emphasis on education/paper qualifications? Economy and Jobs: How should we develop Singapore's economy to meet the challenges of today and the future? How do we grow Singapore's economy in a fair manner? How do we break the economy's dependence on the state? Can we have a minimum wage?
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Education: There was a lot of frustration with the current education system. Respondents felt did not prepare students adequately for the changing nature of the global economy; that it was too narrow and focused on specific skill sets which were becoming obsolete; that it was being mis-used to perpetuate a local elite and preserve the privilege of the political elite by disseminating propaganda and training students to accept subjugation by a local elite; that it was a failure due to the over-reliance on private tuition to supplement formal schooling; that the system was poor at identifying and nurturing talent (especially non-academic talent).How do we educate young people to prepare for a changing global economy? How do we meet the education needs of those who do not fit into the current system - people with artistic or athletic talents, or the differently abled? How do we help older people who want or need to gain new education? How should we fund education? How do we eliminate systemic discrimination in the education system against those from poorer, non-English speaking backgrounds? How do we eliminate our huge overreliance on private tuition/"enrichment" courses? How do we make universities more acccessible to underprivileged groups? How do we create a system which fairly evaluates people on the basis of their talents and moral character, rather than birth, wealth, or other unearned privilege? Why do we still stream students?Education: How do we educate people to prepare for a changing world? How do we meet the educational needs of those who do not fit into the current system? How should we fund education? How do we eliminate systemic discrimination in the education system?
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Electoral and Parliamentary Reform: Respondents were concerned with making the elections and Parliament representative of the popular will. To that end, they criticised the unfairness of the elections, especially GRCs, gerrymandering, and Town Council shenanigans; how Parliament was unrepresentative with the PAP winning 60-70% of the vote but over 90% of the seats; and how Parliament had become a rubber-stamp with minimal debate that sat for 1-2 days every month and bills whose passage was a foregone conclusion.Should the voting age be lowered to 18? Why or why not? How should we prevent interference with democratic electoral process? Why is every election so heavily gerrymandered? How do we make elections fair and reflective of Singaporeans' popular will - e.g. proportional representation or a second chamber (upper house)? How can we increase Singaporeans' awareness of, and education around, election issues? Is the GRC structure create the best and fairest electoral system? How do we move towards democratic reform?Electoral and Parliamentary Reform: What should the voting age be? How do we make elections fair and reflective of popular will? How do we reform Parliament for better representation & checks and balances (e.g. proportional representation, Upper House)?
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Environment: The impending climate crisis was an important issue for many, with emphasis on mitigation. Many asked how we would deal with Singapore's contribution to the causes of climate change (e.g. Singapore's oil and gas industry, land reclamation, lack of electric vehicles, etc.). Some respondents emphasised this in particular over the PAP government's seeming emphasis on dealing with the effects of climate change (e.g. measures to deal with rising sea levels) and its focus on consumer responsiblity (e.g. plastic straws) over industrial responsiblity (the oil and gas industry).How do we deal with the impending climate crisis? How do we take measures to mitigate climate change, rather than adapting to climate change? How do we decarbonise? How do we end our role in the oil and gas industry and instead develop and leverage on "future fuels" and meet the Paris goals? Why are we reclaiming so much land, and what is the impact of reclamation on the environment? How do we increase recyclability and decrease the use of single-use plastics?Environment: How do we deal with the impending climate crisis? How do we decarbonise? How do we end our role in the oil and gas industry? How do we meet the Paris goals? Why are we reclaiming so much land? How do we increase recyclability?
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Foreign Policy: Respondents focused on asking about Singapore's role in the world, our responsibilities as a first-world nation-state, and our relationship with our neighbours. Respondents were, in particular, critical of the antagonistic/condescending/exploitative attitude of the current government towards Singapore's neighbours, and asked how we could collaborate with them for mutual benefit instead.How do we ensure Singapore is prepared to deal with today's global state of affairs? Can we develop a clear stance on global issues raised at the UN? What is our role in Southeast Asia? How do we build a constructive, rather than exploitative, relationship with our neighbours?Foreign Policy: How do we ensure Singapore is prepared to deal with today's global state of affairs? Can we have a clear stance on issues raised at the UN? What is our role in Southeast Asia? How do we build constructive relationships with our neighbours?
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Heathcare: The cost and availability of healthcare was raised by many respondents. They also asked for more transparency over costs and expenditure; why certain areas (especially mental health) were not adequately treated and covered; and healthcare for the elderly and differently-abled. Some asked why, in such a rich and educated country, we could not even debate having a universal healthcare system.Is healthcare a human right? How do we ensure healthcare is available to all, regardless of ability to pay for it? What about issues that are currently not covered or not properly treated, e.g. mental health? Should any party (the state, insurers, or private companies) be making a profit from healthcare? Why can't the government make more data from healthcare available so that we can study the system and have more transparency? How do we provide better care for the elderly to live out their golden years in active dignity (e.g. retirement communities instead of being isolated at home, better social services).Healthcare: How do we ensure healthcare is affordable for all? What about issues that are currently not covered/ properly treated, e.g. mental health? Can we have more transparency in the healthcare sector? How do we provide better lives for the elderly?
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Housing and the HDB: The central issues were over the expiration of the 99 year leases; whether HDB residents were tenants or owners, and what their rights are; and the affordability of housing. As with other issues, frustration was expressed over the lack of clarity, transparency, and consistency of housing policies; and suspicion that policy-makers were benefiting from the manipulation of the housing market to their own benefit.What principles should our public/socialised housing be based on? How would you deal with the impending HDB 99-year lease crisis? How would you reform the housing system to create affordable housing for all? Are we HDB "owners" or "tenants"? What are the rights of HDB tenants? How do we ensure rents remain affordable? Housing/HDB: What principles should our public/socialised housing be based on? How would you deal with the impending HDB 99-year lease crisis? How would you reform the housing system to create affordable housing for all? Are we HDB "owners" or "tenants"?
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Human Rights and Civil Liberties: A huge swath of responses dealt with the many ways in which human rights and civil liberties are suspended, abrogated, or even just ignored in Singapre. Respondents wanted basic human rights respected, both for themselves, for others, and for societies at large; and also respect for activists who fought for those rights. Respondents also asked for an honest debate about the death penalty; about Singapore signing the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; and open and honest debate around all these rights, when they have to be upheld and when they can be suspended.How do we protect human rights and civil liberties in Singapore, particularly against an oppressive government? How do we protect freedom of speech, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly? Why do we have so much censorship? Why do we need the death penalty when it is recognised as contravening human rights? Why is the death penalty applied so secretively and selectively? How do we acknowledge the value of activism and create a safer space for activists in Singapore? Why should our prisons be about punishment and not rehabilitation? How can we push for prison reform? Why do we not uphold human rights treaties (eg Rights of the Child) that we've signed? Why won't we sign the ICCPR?Human Rights and Civil Liberties: How do we protect human rights and civil liberties? Where is the line between freedom of speech and censorship? Why do we need the death penalty? How can our prisons be rehabilitative?
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Immigration and Refugees: Respondents asked why Singapore was inviting so many people in when the island is so crowded and why citizens were becoming a minority in their own country; about why some migrant workers appear to be treated better than citizens; about why other migrant workers were abused and exploitated; about whether wealthy immigrants raised living costs for citizens; about why Singapore refused to accept refugees when we invited so many immigrants in. In general, people asked where the line should be drawn between opportunity for migrants and fairness to locals.What is a fair immigration policy that balances the needs of Singaporeans with giving opportunities to foreigners? What should our policy on immigration be? How do we end xenophobia and hostility to foreigners? Why do we keep stuffing ourselves full of foreign workers yet refuse to take in refugees (especially when we are such a rich country)? What is our ideal population level and why? How should we treat foreign spouses and children?Immigration and Refugees: What is a fair immigration policy that balances the needs of Singaporeans with giving opportunities to foreigners? How do we end hostility to foreigners? Why do we refuse to take in refugees? What is our ideal population level?
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Inequality: Many respondents asked about the systemic and structural discrimination in Singapore that has led to haves and have-nots. These respondents were generally also concerned with the cost of living, but were more concerned with what they saw as the root cause, which is structural economic discrimination that cncentrated wealth in the hands of a narrow elite and closed off opportunity for those outside the elite to make fair wages. They asked how the system could be reformed to address this unfairness.How do we address the systemic and structural discrimination that has led to increased inequality between the rich and poor? How do we create a fair society that treats all people with respect? How is it we are such a rich country and yet there are so many poor people? Can we have a minimum wage? Can we have free and/or universal healthcare and/or education as a way of lowering inequality? How do we use the tax system to address inequality? Can we have a safety net for those less fortunate? What's your position on universal income?Inequality: How do we end the systemic and structural discrimination that has led to drastically increased inequality? How do we create a fair society that gives opportunity to all - Minimum wage? Social welfare? Universal income/healthcare?
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Infrastructure and Transport: A number of respondents asked about improving Singapore's infrastructure, in particular its transport infrastructure. One respondent asked specifically about public resources as a way to equalise opportunities for the less privileged, and specifically mentioned public libraries.How should we improve Singapore's transport, utilities, and other public infrastructure (e.g. libraries)? What is future of transport in Singapore, especially in relation to car ownership, public transport, and electric vehicles? How can public infrastructure help equalise access to opportunities?Infrastructure and Transport: how should we improve Singapore's transport, utilities, and other public infrastructure (e.g. libraries)? What is future of transport in SG, especially in relation to car ownership, public transport, and electric vehicles?
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Language: Respondents asked about language discrimination, especially against Malay (ostensibly the National Language) and Tamil. However, of the four respondents in Chinese, two specifically mentioned fears of the marginalisation of Chinese language and asked about its future in Singapore. Concerns were thus about the marginalisation of non-English languages, and by extension, those not fluent in English. Conversely, a respondent asked how we could be a single nation if we did not all speak a single unifying language. Some asked why we could not choose which languages to learn (why Chinese had to learn Chinese, Malays had to learn Malay, etc.). Why do we not all learn and speak our own National Language? If we don't have to learn it, why even have it as our National Language? Why is Mandarin only for ethnic Chinese, Malay only for Malays, etc.? Why are so many thngs translated into Chinese and English but not also into Malay and Tamil? What is the future of Chinese/Malay/Tamil in Singapore and for people who only speak that language or speak it as a first language? Are we a multilingual society or should we all speak the same first language?Language: Why do we not all learn and speak our own National Language? Why is Mandarin only for ethnic Chinese, Malay only for Malays, etc.? What is the future of Chinese/Malay/Tamil in Singapore? Should we all be forced to speak the same language?
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Leadership and Politics: Concerns about Singapore's future leadership were paramount for some respondents, who worried about the current political system actively preventing accurate information and diverse views from reaching leaders, and also preventing good people from being able to step up to leadership roles. Leadership and Politics: How do we find and select good leaders? What kind of leadership does Singapore need? What makes a good leader? How can we have good leadership when the governing party refuses to allow alternatives to gain experience or provide them resources to be a loyal opposition? Is Singapore a meritocracy? How do we move towards democratic reform? Can/should we have a multiparty democracy? How do we ensure that we have more diverse voices are heard during Singapore's policy-making process? How do we keep our leaders well-informed?Leadership and Politics: How do we find/select good leaders? What kind of leadership does Singapore need? How can we have good leadership when the PAP openly attacks good people who disagree? How do we have more diverse voices in our policymaking?
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National Service: The nature of National Service was the focus for some respondents. Rethinking National Service in the light of changes to Singaporean society, technology, and Singapore's security needs; Whether there are alternative ways to serve National Service for athletes, women, the differently abled, the differently talented, etc.; how new citizens could serve National Service in an appropriate way; and even whether National Service was necessary at all.How should we rethink National Service in terms of changing society, technology, security needs. Are there alternative forms of NS for those who are unwilling/unable to perform military service? What about athletes or other people who could serve the nation in other ways - should they be forced to do National Service? What about new citizens who are above NS age - how can they do their fair share (not necessarily military service, but something else)? Should we abolish National Service altogether?National Service: How should we rethink NS in terms of changing society, technology, security needs? NS for women? Alternative forms of NS for those unwilling/unable to perform military service - athletes, new citizens, religious/contientious objectors?
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Religion: Respondents asked for an honest, respectful debate about religion, instead of suppression of any and all debate. Some expressed fears about the rise of religious fundamentalism/extremism (in all major religions) and its impact on Singapore.What is the role of religion in our society? Should we permit religious exemptions to laws or alternative courts for certain religions? Should we permit certain practices solely because the practitioner claims religious freedom? How do we combat Islamophobia? How do we respond to the rise of religious fundamentalism/extremism (in all religions)?Religion: What is the role of religion in our society? Should we permit religious exemptions to laws or alternative courts for certain religions? How do we combat religious fundamentalism/extremism?
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Security: We received only one response which mentioned a security issue, and it read, in its entirety: "Rise of regional terrorism" with no further explanation (the response also mentioned other issues).The rise of regional terrorism.Security: What can be done about the rise of regional terrorism?
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Society: Respondents were concerned about the wellbeing of their families and of society in general. In particular, "quality of life" was a phrase that was repeated often. Respondents were critical about how life in Singapore was exhausting, harsh, and focused on external factors (wealth, possessions, qualifications) rather than meaningful, compassionate, and focused on internal factors (happiness, dignity, meaning). One key question which came up was how the PAP government had intervened heavily and often into society to shape an "ideal" society, yet a) life seemed worse; and b) the PAP government refused to own its failures, but instead continued to meddle in peoples' lives.How should we ensure that policies that protect the wellbeing of young children? How long should family leave be to ensure the best outcome for young children? How do the differently-abled lead lives of dignity and meaning? How do we improve quality of life for all? Why are Singaporeans so exhausted and stressed out, and what can we about this? How do we have a compassionate society which recognises the dignity of all individuals instead of one which treats citizens like economic "digits"? What values should we collectively uphold as a society? How do we ensure that the elderly do not get left behind? What should be the role of the state in shaping/intervening in society?Society: How do we improve quality of life for all? Why are Singaporeans so stressed out? How can we create a society that recognises the dignity of all individuals? What values should we collectively uphold? How far should the state intervene in society?
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Tax: Respondents focused on Singapore's regressive taxation. This was often accompanied by discussions about cost of living and inequality, but because of the number of responses relation to specific taxes (or the lack of specific taxes), we decided to break this out into its own issue.What principles should govern how we tax Singapore? Why is Singapore's tax system so heavily regressive? Why do we have no capital gains tax? Why is our income tax relatively low but our consumption tax so high? Should the tax system be used to promote social policy? Can we try universal income as a reverse tax?Tax: What principles should govern how we tax Singaporeans? Why is Singapore's tax system so heavily regressive? Why do we have no capital gains tax? Can we try universal income as a reverse tax?
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Technology, AI, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution: The unrelenting and rapid rate of technological change, its impact on society, and the potential of abuse of these technologies by governments and global corporations was a major theme. How do we utilise new technologies to make peoples' lives better while protecting their privacy and keeping the technology from being abused, especially by the state? How do we keep global companies accountable when they are out of reach of domestic laws? What principles should underpin how we approach technology and data privacy?Technology, AI, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution: How do we utilise new technologies to make peoples' lives better while protecting their privacy and keeping the technology from being abused, especially by the state and global corporations?
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The Future of Singapore and Singaporean Identity: Many respondents expressed a desire to hear ideas for Singapore's future direction. They felt that Singapore felt stuck in the current status quo, and that the current government had expressed no significant vision for the future - socially, culturally, economically, or politically. Respondents wanted to hear someone articulate a coherent and convincing vision for where Singapore could go and what we could achieve together.What is your vision for Singapore's society and what would you do to achieve it? Where is Singapore going? What should Singaporean identity be? Is the National Pledge a commitment or merely an aspiration, and why? What should our shared values be?The Future of Singapore and Singaporean Identity: What is your vision for Singapore's society & how would you achieve it? Where is Singapore going? What should Singaporean identity/values be? Is the National Pledge a commitment or merely an aspiration?
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Transparency and Accountability: This was a repeated theme that touched on nearly all other issues - that regardless of policies, there was no transparency at how the policies were arrived at, what data they were based upon, how and why it was implemented, the outcome/results, or what was learnt; and no accountability for those who failed or demonstrated incompetence at their jobs. This was a "meta-issue" in a way, in that it affected nearly every other issue and was widely cited as a reason for failures in other areas.How would you increase transparency and accountability from elected officials and civil servants, and work to prevent corruption and abuses of power? How do we increase independent scrutiny of public officials and expenditure of public funds/sovereign wealth funds? Can we have a Freedom of Information Act? How much pay do you think Ministers and other publicly-funded individuals should make and why? How do we deal with cronyism in Singapore, especially when it is legal? How do we restore/strengthen due process and checks and balances? How do we have viable and constructive opposition political parties when they are not allowed to develop? How do we de-politicise the People's Association, Town Councils, Residents Committees, Citizens Consultative Committees, and other ostensibly non-partisan organisations? Why were the Lee siblings able to allege "abuse of power" and yet not be prosecuted? How do we delink private companies from our governmental departments and organisations? Can we have a clear division between the military and civilian leadership?Transparency and Accountability: How would you increase transparency and accountability from elected officials/civil servants, and prevent corruption, cronyism, and abuses of power? How do we increase independent scrutiny of officials and expenditure?
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Workers' Rights and the Changing Nature of Work: Related to inequality and cost of living was the issue that workers had little bargaining power and little ability to negotiate with employers for better wages. Respondents felt that a major reason for inequality and cost of living issues was the lack of sufficient protections for workers, the erosion of existing protections, and in particular were upset about the exploitation of migrant workers. Some respondents asked about how workers would be able to protect themselves as the very nature of work changed and more people became freelance. How do we prevent workers from being exploited? How do we ensure labour laws are upheld? How do we protect migrant workers and prevent abuses? How do we stop discrimination, especially against women and minorities, in the workplace? Can workers have the right to organise? How do freelancers protect themselves in the changing economy? How do we ensure a work life balance in today's economy? Workers' Rights and the Changing Nature of Work: How do we prevent all workers, local and foreign, from being exploited/abused? Can workers organise independent unions? How do freelancers protect themselves?
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