112 Exam3 Study Guide
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Term ClustersDefinitionWhat Unites ThemWhat We Learn
Pages 723-725These are all pre-World War II policies regarding assistance to other countries; they show US's reluctant willingness to help, but with strings attachedThe US was actively creating barriers to direct involvement during this time. But - these can also be seen as a form of preparation for the likely entrance of US into WW2
Neutrality Acts1935 - Designed to make it more difficult for the U.S to become entangled in European armed hostilities. Like prohibiting the sale of munitions.
Isolationism1935-1937 U.S did not want to interfere with war in Europe. The presitdent thought the U.S would have to because of their economic dominance.
Cash & Carry(1937)- Lawmkers required belligerents to pay cash for nonmilitary purchases and ship them on their own vessels
Lend-Leaselending of war equipment with out expecting a payback
AppeasementU.S. policy of offering concessions to foreign powers in order to avoid hostility
Pages 735-736All these terms are regulations to manage the wartime economy. During and after WWII there was a more apparent need for structure in terms of the economy and military.  The government attempted to provide more structure through Boards and Acts.  Demonstrates growing power of executive branch in wartime.
War Production Boardestablished in 1942 to oversee the economy during WWII. It enticed buisness corporations to meet increasing government orders by negotiating contracts that helped underwrite their costs, lower taxes, and guarentee large profits.
War Powers Act1973, Act that required the President to consult with congress withing 48 hours of deploying military forces and to obtain a decleration or war from Congress if troops remained on foreign soil beyond 60 days.
Office of Price AdministrationRaise in the price of goods. 28% in hopes of stabalizing regular economic goods.
National War Labor Board1942- Regulated wages, horus, working conditions. Government could take over plants if they did not agree.
Pages 759-766
Kennan Telegram8000 word telegram written in 1946 blaming the Soviets for stirring up international tensions and confirming that Stalin could not be trusted; written after Stalin's 46' speech to rally russians behind enhancing national securityPoses Stalin and Russia as a serious threat to capitalism and US democracy  The threat that Russian posed onto the US led to the growth the the executive branch and "imperial presidency"
Truman DoctrinePledged to contain expansion of communism in U.S foriegn policy
Marshall PlanSecretary of State George Marshall - 1947 - economic assistance. $17 billion for European recovery. Stalin saw it as a hostile attempt to gain influence in Eastern Europe.
NSC-68advises the president on military foriegn affairs and internal security. Has power over the national security advisor, secretaries of state, defense, army, navy, air force/anyone the preseident wanted to deligate under this group.
NATOApril 1949- U.S joined 11 European countries for peace-time military alliance. An attack on one country, meant an attack on all countries involved.
Berlin Airlift1949. "Operation Viltles" - U .S and British planes transported more than $2.5 million of supplies to West Britain
Pages 770-773Related because of returning veterans, changing social and LABOR conditions after the war. Shows move towards conservatism re: unions, but progressive stance on race. Shows that Congress and Truman's administration were not always in agreement about how to best benefit the economy or how to balance civil/labor rights with business growth
GI Bill A.K.A. Servicemans readjustment act. 1944. offerred educational oppurtunities for veterans as well as financial aid to facilitate readjustment.
Taft-Hartley ActIn 1947 Congress passed this act (over Truman's veto). It hampered the
ability of unions to organize and limited their power to go on strike if
larger, national interests were seen to be at stake.
"To Secure These Rights"October 29, 1947. Document placed the problem of what it called "civil rights shortcomings" within the context of the Cold War. It argued that racial inequality and unrest could only aid the Soviets in their global anti-American propaganda efforts. The report called for racial desegragation in the military, interstate transportation, and education, as well as extension of the right to vote.
Pages 774-778
McCarthyismTerm used to describe the harassment and persecution of suspected political radicals. Joseph McCarthy was the prominent figure who helped incite communist hysteria in 1950sFocus on the accusation, prohibition, and persecution of communism, starting in the 1940s and peaking in the early 1950s.
HUAC(House Un-American Activities Committee) : broadened the anti-Red probe from Washington to Hollywood in 1947. Wanted the accused to confess their Communist heresy publicly and to show contrition by naming their associates. After World War 2, HUAC conducted highly publicized investigations of Communist influence in government and the entertainment industry.
Smith Act1940, prohibited teaching or advocating the violent overthrow of the US government or belonging to any group with that aim
blacklistincluded those who did not comply with naming the accused communists, people who were put on this list were deprived of employment.
the RosenbergsCharged with espionage in helping the Russians, and considered conspirators of murder. After a long trial, they were both found guilty and received the death penalty.
Pages 824-827Escalations of the Cold War under Kennedy
Bay of Pigs1961, Failed attempt by the Executive Branch and the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro's communist regime in Cuba. Hundreds of CIA trained Cuban nationals invaded Cuba and attempted to overthrow Castro by staging a coup, but were met with heavy resistance from Castro's forces and defeated. The event caused tensions to rise between the United States and the Soviet Union, and affirmed Castro's rule in Cuba.
Berlin Wall 1961, Soviets constructed a wall through the center Berlin after the United States sent additional troops to Western Europe. It was built to prevent East Berliners from fleeing to West Berlin and it was a symbol of a divided Germany, as well as a divided Europe.
Cuban Missile CrisisOctober 22, 1962. Soviets attempt to move nuclear warheads into Cuba to complete missiles. Kennedy employs naval blockade. defcon 2. Standoff ends with backdoor resolutions to disarm in Turkey and not arm Cuba.
Pages 834-836All of these terms are part of President Johnson's Great Society to develop Kennedy's unfinished fight against poverty. The Great Society is Lyndon Johnsons' vision of social, economic and cultural progress in the Unites States.President Johnson was very eager in combating the war against poverty. He created many more Acts between 1964-1968 to help try and end poverty and racial justice. However, the Great Society failed to meet liberal expections because it would take about $11 billion to lift every needy person above the poverty line. The Major Great Society Measures that Johnson took can be found on page 836 of our textbook.
Economic Opportunity Act 1964; Established War on Poverty agencies; Head Start, VISTA, Job Corps and Community Action Program. Provided job training and remedial education. This program helped reduce the proportion of poor people from 20% in 1963 to 13% five years later.
Medicare and Medicaid1965; Part of the Medical Care Act. Medicare provided health insurance for citizens 65 years and older and Medicaid provided health benefits for the poor.
National Arts & Humanities Act1965; Established National Endowment of the Humanities and National Endowment of the Arts to support the work of scholars, writers, artists and musicians.
Executive Order 11246 1965. Required employers to take affirmative action to promote equal opportunity and remedy the effects of past discrimination.
Executive Order 113751967, Expanded affirmative action regulations to include women
Pages 827-830List of military operations in Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionA resolution passed on August 7th, 1964; empowering the president to "repel any armed attacks against the forces of the United States and to prevent futher agression."  Congress provided Johnson with unlimited power to make military decisions regarding Vietnam. 
Operation Rolling ThunderOperation Rolling Thunder began in March 1965 as a retaliation against North Vietnamese forces flooding the south.  It was a bombing campaign over North Vietnam with infultration routes into the south along the Vietnamese boarders.  It lasted for more than 3 years as American planes dropped a million tons of bombs on North Vietnam.  In the end the operation proved ineffective as Vietnam stored most of its vital military resources underground and because they did not have big industrial targets since they were an agricultural country.   
My LaiSite of a massacre in March 1968. U.S. army soldiers attacked and killed hundreds of villagers. Many who were killed were women, children, and the elderly. News of the massacre became known the next year and only one soldier was convicted for the crime.
Tet OffensiveJanuary 31, 1968, offensive mounted by Vietcong and North Vietnamese forces against population centers in South Vietnam. The offensive was turned back, but it shocked many Americans and increased public opposition to the war.
Pages 837-839
SDS Student activist organization forrmed in the early 1960s that advocated the formation of a "New Left" (1962) The organization condemned mainstream liberal politics, Cold War Foreign Policy, racism, and research-oriented universities that cared little for their undergraduates.
Free Speech MovementThe (FSM); A nonviolent , civil rights group who held rallies in front of UC Berkeley in response to banned political activities at the university. They forced the universitie's administration to yield to their demands of amnesty and reform. They also inspired hundreds of demonstrations at different universities, culminating in 1968 at Columbia University with a violent protest for social change.
WeathermenA Group advocating the use of revolutionary violence, They went underground to avoid criminal prosecution.
New Left
countercultureYoung cultural rebels of the 1960's who rejected conventional moral and sexual values and used drugs to reach a higher consciousness. These "hippies" bonded together in their style of clothes and taste in music.
Civil Rights MovementDefinition / SignificanceTime Period?
Fair Employment Practices CommissionCommittee established to help African Americans gain a greater share of wartime industrial jobsJune 25, 1941. (I)
CORECongress of Racial Equality, emerged to attack racial exclusion in public accommodations, Christian organization, multi-racial eqality, wanted to create a brotherhood accross all races, many non-violent protests, sponsored the freedom ridersfounded in 1942(Time Period I,II,III,IV)Time Period Options
Double VAfrican American movement to achieve double victory during WQorld War II. Victory for African Americans fighting in the war, and victory for their civil liberties at home
Brown v. Board of EducationSupreme court overturned Plessy by unanimous decision (Chief Justice Earl Warren) the Court
concluded “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but
equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”. Didn’t end battle but added to the fire.

May 7, 1954 (end of Time Period II and into III)I. before 1945
Montgomery bus boycottMontgomery, Alabama the Women’s Political Council (middle-class/professional black women) petitioned the city commission to improve bus service, not give up seats to whites. 12/1/1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up seat--> arrested--> rallied civic, labor, religious groups-->boycott buses. White officials arrested leaders of Montgomery Improvement Association(coordinated the protest). Year of violence Supreme Court ruled in favor of desegregation.1945-1955 (Time Period II)
Emmett Tillblack fifteen yr. old boy killed in Mississipi for flirting with a white woman, two killers were acquitted by an all white jury, racist climate in the South created by WCC and KKK1955(Time Period II)II. 1945-1955
Little RockIn 1957 nine black teenagers attempted to desegragate central highsschool in little rock, arkansas,pursuant to a fedral court order
Lunchcounter sit-insNAACP organized sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in Oklahoma City-->protestors seat themselves in a certain spot and refuse to remove until demands are met or forcibly removed. 1960-->4 students at North Carolina A&T Univ sat at white only counters in Woolworth and Kress department stores.1958 (III)III. 1956-1965
Freedom Ridesto test whether facilities in the South, from Virginia to Louisiana, were complying with the 1960 Supreme Court ruling that outlawed segregated bus and train stations serving passengers who were traveling interstate. 1961 (Time Period III)
BirminghamFreedom Movement where King and the SCLC joined Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth's in its battle against employment discrimination, segregation in public accommodations, and police brutality. In early May, 1963, President Kennedy sent an emissary to negotiate a peaceful solution that granted concessions to Birmingham blacks and ended the demonstrations. 1961 (III)IV. after 1965
March on WashingtonRally by civil rights organizations in Washington D.C. that brought increased national attention to the movement. It included 250,000 black and white peaceful protestors.  There were 2 speakers in particular who caught attention; they were John Lewis and Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th 1963 III. 1956-1965
Civil Rights ActWide-ranging civil rights act that, among other things, prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and employment and increased federal enforcement of school desegregation.7/2/1964
Freedom SummerLaunched in Mississippi by SNCC, CORE, SCLC, an the NAACP.  There were 800 volunteers involved, mainley white college students who worked on voter registration drives and in freedom schools to imporve education for rural black youngsters.  1964 III. 1956-1965
Selma MarchAfter state troopers shot and killed a black voting rights demonstrater, Freedom Summer marched from Selma, Alabama to the capital of Montgomerty to petition Governer George Wallace to end violence and allow blacks to vote. When the peaceful protesters got to Selma, police responded by arrests and beating. Also, when Freedom Summer was leaving Selma the sheriff's forces sprayed them with tear gas and beat them. After the Selma March, President Johnson took action by signing into law the Voting Rights Act of 1965.III. 1956-1965
Voting Rights Act1965 act banned the use of literacy tests for voter registration, authorized a federal lawsuit against the poll tax, empowered federal officials to register disfranchised voters, and required seven southern states to submit any voting changes to Washington before they went into effect. Altogether it eliminated many obstacles for African Americans voting rights in the South and resulted in increased black participation in the electoral process.1965 (III)
Black Panther PartyFounded 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to advance the black power movement; linked their cause to revolutionary movements around the world, dressed in black leather/black berets/carrying guns appealed to black men. Established day care and health facilities, but had violence w/police. In 1970s the government destabilized the group-->reduced its influence.IV. after 1966
American Indian MovementAmerican Indians suffered from inadequate housing, high alcoholism rates, low life expectancy, unemployment, lack of education. Seeking to assert “red” pride, AIM protestors occupied the abandoned prison island of Alcatraz until 1971; 1972 AIM occupied headquarters of Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs in D.C. and held many other protests.
Chicano movementA group of students met at the University of California at Santa Barbara and formed the "Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano De Aztlan (MEChA). Their goals included using the term Chicano instead of Mexican American as a sign of cultural nationalism and political consciousness, creating Chicano studies departments at colleges and universities, and organizing other MEChA groups in the U.S1969 (IV)
Stonewall RiotPolice regularly cracked down on the Stonewall Tavern in NYC's Greenwich Village. June 27 = riot. "a kind of liberation, as the gay brigade emerged from the bars, back rooms, and bedrooms of the Village and became street people."1969 (IV)
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