TCO Materials and Facilities in Europe
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publicationPartnerContactDeposition SystemsProcessesMaterialsTCO-Characterization toolsPartneravaillable materialsspecific special propertiesprocess
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publicJülichJürgen Hüpkes, j.huepkes@fz-juelich.deVISS 400 (VAAT) inline sputtering system, 40x40 cm²RF, (pulsed) DC, AC, reactive and non-reactive sputtering, planar and rotatable targetsZnO:Al, Ag, SiOxNySpectrometer (Perkin Elmer) with integrating sphereJülichZnO:Alµ = 45 cm²/Vs, rho = 3e-4 Ohmcmin-line sputtering, 40x40 cm², 300°C
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Lesker Sputtering System, 6 inch cathodes, 10x10 cm²RF, DC, reactive, non-reactiveZnO, ITO, Ag, TiO2,..Angular resolved scattering measurement (ARS), texture etched ZnO:Alµ = 40 cm²/Vs, rho = 5e-4 Ohmcm, adjustable 300nm-1µm wide craters, as light scattering front TCO in Si-TF cellsin-line sputtering, 300°C., see above, in-line etching in HF/HCl, (HF only availlable on 10x10 cm²)
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VAAT Clustertool with Sputter chamber, triple sourcesRF, DC, Ion-etcher, co-deposition, Ion-beam-assisted sputteringZn(Mg)O:(Al,Ga), Agin-house developed light scattering measurement setuphigh mobility ZnOµ = >70 cm²/Vs, damp heat stablesputtering + special annealing at 650 °C, with or without etching
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Annealing ovenAnnealing in Vacuum, Air, Forming gas,…Hall, 4-point probeSiONnucleation layer for ZnO on float glassreactive sputtering from SISPA® targets
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climatic chamberDamp Heat degradationMicroscopy (AFM, SEM, TEM)
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ion beam for substrate or film treatmentAnode layer ion source, 1-3 kV
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publicIPP (Prague)Milan Vanecek, vanecek@fzu.czchemical bathhydrothermal growthZnO nanorods and nanocolumnsoptical spectroscopy, photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS)Pragueordered arrays of ZnO nanocolumns
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3 different RIE systemsreactive ion etchingZnO layersSEM, AFMordered arrays of nano/micro holes in ZnO layer
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Raith e-LINEelectron beam lithographyZnO layers
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publicAIT-Austrian Institute of Technologytheodoros.dimopoulos@ait.ac.atLeybold 450C sputter tool, nine 4-inch sources and two 3-inch. DC and RF magnetron sputtering; reactive sputtering ; planar targets Al:ZnO
i-ZnO
Sn: In2O3
SnO2
UV-VIS spectrophotometerAITSn:In2O3rho=1.5e-4 Ohm cm (RT deposition)DC sputtering
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Electrochemical
deposition
AUTOLAB potentiostat;
rotating electrode
AZO/metal/
AZO multilayers
Microscopy
(AFM, SEM)
Al: ZnOrho=1.0e-3 (RT deposition)DC sputtering
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Spray pyrolysis4-point probe measurements;
Hall measurements
AZO/Au/AZOrho=1e-4 Ohm cm
large stability in thermal treatment in air
DC sputtering
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E-beam and optical
lithography
ZnO and AZO
nanorods
ZnO and AZO
nanorods
highly oriented, large aspect
ratio NRs on AZO substrate
Electrochemical
deposition
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Ion-beam etching
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Annealing in vacuum
or in different gasses
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publicECN (Eindhoven/Petten)Wim Soppe soppe@ecn.nlAJA Sputtering system; 4 sputtersources of 4"; substrate size 15.6x15.6 cm; RF and pulsed DC power supplies with spark suppression RF, (pulsed) DC, reactive and non-reactive sputtering, planar targets; Controlled heating of the substrates to temperatures between room temperature and 400ºCAZO, ITO, Ag, AlSpectrometer with integrating sphereECNITOresistivity: ~ 4E-4 Ohm.cmRF Sputtering at room temperature
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Hall, 4-point probe, Kelvin probe, sheet resistance mapping tool; spectral elipsometerAZOresistivity: ~ 3E-2 Ohm.cm (Only used for back contacts)
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climatic chamberDamp Heat degradationMicroscopy (AFM, SEM, TEM)
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publicUL (Ljubljana)Marko Topič, marko.topic@fe.uni-lj.siSpectrophotometer with integrating sphere (PerkinElmer 950)UL (Ljubljana)
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ARS (angular resolved scattering system) with different lasers 450 nm to 1310 nm, for higher accuracy
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publicEPFLNicolas Wyrsch, nicolas.wyrsch@epfl.chMRC sputtering system 30x30 cm²RF sputteringZnO:Al, IO:H, ITOSpectrometer (Perkin Ellmer) with integrating sphereEPFLZnO:BVarious grain size, roughness and conductivity
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Univex sputtering system, 6"RF sputteringZnO:Al, ITO, TiO2, …Anglular resolved scattering measurement (ARS), ZnO:AlFlat and texture etched
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Leybold sputtering system, 6"ZnO:BHall, 4-point probeITO
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LPCVD system, 20x20 cm², 40x50 cm²LPCVDZnO nanorodsMicroscopy (AFM, SEM, TEM)
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chemical bathhydrothermal growth
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climatic chamberDamp Heat degradation
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RIE systemsreactive ion etching, TCO plasma treatment
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SophiaTECNALIAOihana Zubillaga
oihana.zubillaga@tecnalia.com
PVD magnetron sputtering (DC, DC pulsed, MF)ITO, Ag, TiO2Spectrometer with integrating sphereTecnaliaITO on polymeric substrates
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Electrical resistance measurement
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Scratch resistance, hardness
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SEM, AFM, Raman, profilometer
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Accelerated aging (damp heat, thermal cycling, UV)
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publicCIEMAT (Spain)José Herrero, jose.herrero@ciemat.esIn-line sputtering system 25x25 cm2RF, MF, DC sources ZnO:Al, In2O3:SnSpectrometer with integrating sphere
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Static sputtering system 10x10 cm2RF, MF, DC sources Sn2O3:Sb, TiO2:Nb, AgHall, 4-point probe
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Annealing ovenFlowing gas atmosphereAFM, XRD, XRF
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Climatic chamberDamp Heat degradation
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public ENEA (Portici-Naples)Maria Luisa Addonizio, maraluisa.addonizio@enea.it Elettrorava LP-MOCVD deposition system, 30x30 cm2low pressure-metal organic chemical vapour depositionZnO:B layersUV-VIS-NIR spectrometry with integrating sphere, Variable angle spectrometryENEA-Porticitextured ZnO:Bµ = 46 cm²/Vs, rho = 1e-3 Ohmcm MOCVD process, 150°C
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MRC sputtering system, 30x30 cm2 RF, ( pulsed) DC, reactive (PEM control) and non-reactive sputtering, magnetron planar cathode ZnO:Al layers, Ag, TiO2 Angular resolved scattering measurements (ARS)RIE etched ZnO:Boptimized U-type texture RIE argon etched
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RIE systemreactive ion etchingZnO layersEllipsometryZnO:Al
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Annealing ovenAnnealing in vacuum and air Hall, 4-point probe
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SEM, AFM
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XRD diffraction
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