Low level laser therapy (LLLT) / photobiomodulation (PBM) / red/NIR phototherapy studies - a comprehensive database
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Database team: Vladimir Heiskanen (FI), Jolien Robijns (BE), Hannah Serrage (UK) and Reem Hanna (UK/IT). Correspondence: valtsu.heiskanen@gmail.com Short link to this database: www.bitly.com/PBM-database
2
CategoryFirst authorCountryYearJournalTitleStudy typeNotesλ
nm
Φ
mW
E
W/cm2
Q
J
H
J/cm2
At
sec
NResults: positive / unclear/modest / negative ↑ ↓ →LinkAdditional infoCommentReply
3
📷Adipose tissueInflammationYoshimuraBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J BiophotonicsPhotobiomodulation reduces abdominal adipose tissue inflammatory infiltrate of diet-induced obese and hyperglycemic mice.MouseLED phototherapy

Anti-inflammatory
843600.019185.73.14
cm2
3006"Non-irradiated control animals display inflammatory areas almost five times greater than the treated group (p < 0.001). This result on inflammatory infiltrate may have caused impacts on the significant lower blood glucose level from irradiated animals (p = 0.04), twenty-four hours after the last irradiation session."PubMed
4
Adipose tissueInsulin signallingSilvaBrazil
(Diamantina)
2017
epub
Lasers Med SciInfrared photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy improves glucose metabolism and intracellular insulin pathway in adipose tissue of high-fat fed mice.Mouse780100.2502

(0.4
/p)
100.04
cm2
spot
200

(5p)
20"PBM therapy improved glucose tolerance and phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and reversed the HFD-induced reduction of GLUT4 content and phosphorylation of AS160 (Ser588). Also, PBM therapy reversed the increased area of epididymal and mesenteric adipocytes.

"The total serum cholesterol was not affected by diet (diet main effect p = 0.39), but there was a PBM main effect (p = 0.047). Post hoc revealed that PBM reduced total serum cholesterol (p = 0.043), regardless of diet treatment (Fig. 3b)."

"In the present study, PBM therapy did not alter HFD-induced increase in fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, as assessed by HOMA-IR. On the other hand, PBM therapy improved glucose intolerance in HFD-fed mice."

"Also, PBM therapy reversed the increased area of epididymal and mesenteric adipocytes."

The results showed that chronic PBM therapy improved parameters related to obesity and insulin resistance in HFD-induced obesity in mice."
PubMed
5
Adipose tissueLipoplastyBrownUSA
(Dallas, TX)
2004Plast Reconstr SurgEffect of low-level laser therapy on abdominal adipocytes before lipoplasty procedures.Human
(+ Pig)
(+ in vitro)
63510
(?)
14.4

?
720"Recently, low-level laser therapy was reported to "liquefy" or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment."

"No histologic tissue changes or specifically in adipocyte structure were observed at any depth with the longest low-level laser therapy (60 minutes with superwet fluid)."

"These data do not support the belief that low-level laser therapy treatment before lipoplasty procedures disrupts tissue adipocyte structure."
PubMed
6
Adipose tissueLipoplastyNeira & Ortiz-NeiraColombia
(Cali)
2002Aesthet Surg JLow-level laser-assisted liposculpture: clinical report of 700 cases.Human635"Excellent aesthetic results, including an improved silhouette contour, smooth abdominal surface, and good skin retraction, were obtained in 95% of cases. Postoperative recovery was rapid, and complications were minimal."PubMed
7
Adipose tissueLipoplastyNeiraColombia
(Cali)
2002Plast Reconstr SurgFat liquefaction: effect of low-level laser energy on adipose tissue.In vitroHuman adipose tissue samples635101.2
2.4
3.6
(120)
240
360
"The low-level laser energy affected the adipose cell by causing a transitory pore in the cell membrane to open, which permitted the fat content to go from inside to outside the cell. The cells in the interstitial space and the capillaries remained intact. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty has a significant impact on the procedural implementation of lipoplasty techniques."

Comment: These results were unsupported by Brown et al. paper published in 2004.
PubMed
8
Adipose tissueMedradoBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2006Lasers Med SciAction of low-level laser therapy on living fatty tissue of rats.Rat6709--4
8
12
16
-31
62
124
248
"Low-level laser rays cause brown adipose fat droplets to coalesce and fuse. Additionally, they stimulated proliferation and congestion of capillaries in the extracellular matrix."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported: spot area (cm2) and radiant energy (J) were not mentioned.
PubMed
9
Alcohol addictionZalewska-Kaszubska & ObzejtaPoland
(Lodz)
2004Lasers Med SciUse of low-energy laser as adjunct treatment of alcohol addiction.Human514
+
633
100
+
25
---0.05

0.2
cm2
50
(5p)
300
20"Improvement in BDI-FS and increase in, beta-endorphin level were observed. These results suggest that laser therapy can be useful as an adjunct treatment for alcoholism."PubMed
10
BoneBone graftsde Oliveira GonçalvesBrazil
(Bauru)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BEffects of low-level laser therapy on autogenous bone graft stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant.Rat830300.25862.9
(4p)
60.116
cm2
96
(4p)
18
(?)
"In conclusion, low-level laser therapy stimulated bone regeneration and accelerated the process of integration of autogenous bone grafts."PubMed
11
BoneBone marrowPyczekPoland
(Kraków)
1994Folia Biol (Krakow)Effect of low-energy laser power on the bone marrow of the rat.Rat6335"These indicated that AsGa laser light induced a decrease in bone marrow mastocytes and peripheral blood basophils with an increase in the number of eosinophils. An increase in mitotic activity in the bone marrow was observed in the exposed groups of animals. No significant changes in Hb, Ht, erythrocyte or reticulocyte levels in the peripheral blood were noted, nor was there an increase in megakaryocyte emperipolesis."PubMed
12
BoneBone metabolismBomfimBrazil
(São Paulo)
2018Acta Cir Bras.Influence of low-level laser irradiation on osteocalcin protein and gene expression in bone tissue1.RatOstectomy8082000.21.25
/p
20.02
mm2
5
/p
13"Immunocytochemistry scores showed no significant differences between control and laser groups either in vivo and in vitro. Gene expression also showed no statistical differences."

"Low-level laser irradiation did not alter osteocalcin protein and gene expression in vivo and in vitro in the studied period but it may have been expressed them in an earlier period."
PubMed
13
BoneBone metabolismSayuri SuzukiBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J BiophotonicsLow-level laser therapy stimulates bone metabolism and inhibits root resorption during tooth movement in a rodent model.RatAlveolar bone810100-1.5
/point
750.02
cm2
15
/p
2
3
4
(?)
"Taken together, our results indicate that LLLT can stimulate bone remodeling reducing root resorption in a rat model. LLLT improves tooth movement via bone formation and bone resorption in a rat model."PubMed
14
BoneBone metabolismPatrocínio-SilvaBrazil
(São Carlos)
2016Arch Endocrinol MetabLow-level laser therapy associated to a resistance training protocol on bone tissue in diabetic rats.RatDiabetic rats

Exercise+LLLT on bone tissue
8081003.573.31200.028
cm2
3324"In conclusion, it can be suggested that the resistance exercise program stimulated bone metabolism, culminating in increased cortical tibial area, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and biomechanical properties. Furthermore, the association of physical exercises and LLLT produced higher values for bone mineral content and stiffness."

Star: Parameters were well reported.
PubMed
15
BoneBone metabolismGordjestaniBelgium
(Ghent)
1994Int J Oral Maxillofac SurgInfrared laser and bone metabolism: a pilot study.Rat9040.03332030056,

in
28
days
"A circular defect in each parietal bone of six Wislander rats was created. The animals were divided into two three-unit subgroups. The experimental group received infrared laser radiation on the left defect. The control group was sham irradiated. After 28 days, the bone metabolism was evaluated by technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy. The obtained results revealed no differences in bone metabolic activity between the laser-treated and the control defects."PubMed
16
BoneBone metabolismLugerIsrael
(Tel Aviv)
1998Laser TherThe effect of low level laser irradiation on bone cell cultureIn vitroWavelengths comparison633
635
650
670
780
830
"A significant increase in DNA synthesis was observed at the wavelengths of 632.8, 635 and 830 nm, depending on the energy density level. A decrease was found at 780 nm. These findings suggest a possible therapeutic use of LLLI in the process of bone repair."J-STAGE
17
BoneBone growthYeomKorea
(Seoul)
2013Evid Based Complement Alternat MedEffects of laser acupuncture on longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.Rat635-
680
401.2
(?)
120

(4p)
9"In conclusion, LA promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats, suggesting that laser acupuncture may be a promising intervention for improving the growth potential for children and adolescents."PubMed
18
BoneBone repairGerbiBrazil
(Camaragibe)
2018Photomed Laser SurgPhotobiomodulation Therapy in Bone Repair Associated with Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Guided Bone Regeneration: A Histomorphometric StudyRatPBM vs bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and bovine biological membranes8304040,6 cm27
every 48h during 2wk
"Histological analysis confirmed the histomorphometric results, with the experimental groups showing bone neoformation of significantly higher quality and quantity at the end of 30 days compared with the control group."

"PBMT was effective for bone repair mainly when associated with BMPs and a biological membrane. The results of this study are promising and stimulate further scientific and clinical research."
PubMed
19
BoneBone repairBrassolattiBrazil
(São Carlos)
2018Lasers Med SciPhotobiomodulation on critical bone defects of rat calvaria: a systematic review.Systematic review"Most of the evaluated articles presented positive results that describe a greater amount of neoformed bone, an increase in collagen synthesis, and a contribution to microvascular reestablishment. However, two studies report no effect on the repair process when the PBM was used. In addition, we observed considerable variations between the values of power, fluence, and total energy, which make it difficult to compare the results presented between the selected studies."

Comment: 14 papers were included to the systematic review.
PubMed
20
BoneBone repairMostafaviniaIran
(Tehran)
2018Photomed Laser SurgEvaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Partial Osteotomy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.RatDiabetic rats8901.151.51
cm2
1300
/point
"PBM significantly increased volumes of total callus, total bone, bone marrow, trabecular bone, and cortical bone, and the numbers of osteocytes and osteoblasts of callus in TIDM rats compared to those of callus in diabetic control. In addition, TIDM increased RUNX2, and osteocalcin in callus of tibial bone defect compared to healthy group. PBM significantly decreased osteocalcin gene expression in TIDM rats."PubMed
21
BoneBone repairGurler & GursoyCyprus (North)2018J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac SurgInvestigation Of Effects Of Low Level Laser Therapy In Distraction Osteogenesis.Rabbit"The use of LLLT in activation period of distraction osteogenesis stimulates bone repair in the early stages of distraction osteogenesis by inducing intramembranous healing and less cartilage tissue formation in the bone callus."PubMed
22
BoneBone repairFreitasBrazil
(Bauru)
2018J Appl Oral SciEvaluation of photobiomodulation therapy associated with guided bone regeneration in critical size defects. In vivo study.Rat808100210300
(5p)
"All groups had greater area of newly formed bone compared to group C (9.96±4.49%). The group PBMT+M (achieved the greater quantity of new bone (64.09±7.62%), followed by groups PBMT (47.67±8.66%), M (47.43±15.73%), AB+PBMT (39.15±16.72%) and AB+PBMT+M (35.82±7.68%). After group C, the groups AB (25.10±16.59%) and AB+M (22.72±13.83%) had the smallest quantities of newly formed bone. The area of remaining particles did not have statistically significant difference between groups AB+M (14.93±8.92%) and AB+PBMT+M (14.76±6.58%)."PubMed
23
BoneBone repairAlvesBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2018Lasers Med SciEvaluation of bone repair after application of a norbixin membrane scaffold with and without laser photobiomodulation (λ 780 nm).Rat7806064"The laser PBM also showed positive effects on the bone repair process with increased deposition and organization of the newly formed bone. However, laser PBM failed to improve the bioactive properties of the membrane scaffold."PubMed
24
BoneBone repairMoreiraBrazil2018Int J Oral Maxillofac ImplantsEffect of Low-Level Laser on the Healing of Bone Defects Filled with Autogenous Bone or Bioactive Glass: In Vivo Study.Rat780100210300

(5p)
"The LLLT, in the present application protocol, did not increase the area of new bone formation when associated with autogenous bone or bioactive glass."PubMed
25
BoneBone repairde OliveiraBrazil
(São Paulo)
2018Lasers Surg MedEffect of low-level laser therapy on the healing of sites grafted with coagulum, deproteinized bovine bone, and biphasic ceramic made of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. In vivo study in rats.Rat808100d = 600 µm"The animals treated with LLLT exhibited increased mineralized tissues and bone, particularly after 90 days. These increases were associated with increased BMP2, OCN, and ALP protein expression and ALP, BMP2, and Jagged1 mRNA expression."

"LLLT improved the osteoconductive potential of DBB and HA/βTCP grafts and bone formation in ungrafted areas."
PubMed
26
BoneBone repairSarvestaniIran
(Shiraz)
2017Laser TherEffect of low-level laser therapy on fracture healing in rabbits.RabbitRadial bone8304"Findings suggest that in this study, laser treatment did not enhance callus formation nor reduce repair time of complete fracture of the radius in rabbits."PubMed
27
BoneBone repairJonassonBrazil
(Curitiba)
2017J Craniomaxillofac SurgEffects of low-level laser therapy and platelet concentrate on bone repair: Histological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and radiographic study.Rat780---7.5-607"LLLT reduces inflammation and contributes to increased bone formation. PC treatment was shown to maintain connective tissue and to induce fibrosis during bone repair. Combined LLLT and PC treatment did not improve bone repair."PubMedTwin Lasers (MM-Optics) device
28
BoneBone repairYildirimturkTurkey
(Istanbul)
2017J Cosmet Laser TherThe effects of low-level laser therapy on the healing of bone defects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: A histological and morphometric evaluation.Rat820500161
cm2
3212"DM group had significantly smaller bone area and lower blood vessel count when compared to DM + LLLT, CONT and CONT + LLLT groups (p < 0.05 for each). CONT and CONT + LLLT groups had significantly larger bone area than DM + LLLT group (p < 0.05 for both)."

"LLLT application promoted vascularization and new bone formation in animals with DM to a limited extent, since it was unable to support the healing process up to the level of non-diabetic animals."
PubMed
29
BoneBone repairZeinItaly
(Genoa)
2017Photomed Laser SurgEffect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration During Osseointegration and Bone Graft.Systematic review"19 articles met the inclusion criteria."

"A positive effect of low-level laser energy on bone regeneration within a certain relationship between dose and output power was found. LLLT stimulates cellular metabolism, increasing protein synthesis and subsequent bone regeneration. A high dose combined with low power or a low dose combined with high power appears to produce a positive effect."
PubMed
30
BoneBone repairFernandesBrazil
(Santos)
2017J Photochem Photobiol BBiosilicate/PLGA osteogenic effects modulated by laser therapy: In vitro and in vivo studies.Rat
(+ in vitro)
Biosilicate/PLGA808301.070.84300.028
cm2
286
18
"As a conclusion, animals treated with BS/PLGA+LLLT demonstrated an improved material degradation and an increased amount of granulation tissue and newly formed bone."PubMed
31
BoneBone repairde OliveiraBrazil
(Natal)
2017Int J Exp PatholLow-level laser therapy (780 nm) combined with collagen sponge scaffold promotes repair of rat cranial critical-size defects and increases TGF-β, FGF-2, OPG/RANK and osteocalcin expression.Rat78050---120--"Compared to the [control] group, defects in the 30-day [LLLT] group exhibited increased bone formation, both by increase in radiopaque areas (P < 0.01) and by histomorphometric analysis (P < 0.001). The histopathological analysis showed a decreased number of inflammatory cells (P < 0.001). The combined CCS + LLLT (G3) treatment also resulted in the most intense immunostaining for OPG, RANK, FGF-2 and TGF-β, and the most intense and diffuse OCN immunofluorescent labelling at 30 days postsurgery (G3 vs. G0 group, P < 0.05).

Therefore, the use of CCS associated with LLLT could offer a synergistic advantage in improving the healing of bone fractures."
PubMed
32
BoneBone repairDiamantinoBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2017
epub
Lasers Med SciEffect of non-coherent infrared light (LED, λ945 ± 20 nm) on bone repair in diabetic rats-morphometric and spectral analyses.RatDiabetic rats

LED phototherapy
94548--11.514.40.8
cm2
2407
11
14
"It can be concluded that LED therapy positively influences bone formation in the early stages of the bone repair process in non-diabetic and diabetic animals, without causing changes in the optical density and volume of tissue in the final stages. No influence of LED therapy was observed on the percentage of calcium, percentage of phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, or optical mineral density in non-diabetic animals. However, increased mineral concentration was evident in the diabetic animals treated with the LED during the repair process."PubMed
33
BoneBone repairMostafaviniaIran
(Tehran)
2017
epub
Photomed Laser SurgEvaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Bone Healing in Healthy and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.RatPartial osteotomy8908320
(?)
8.32
(?)
-1.51
cm2
1300
/p
"Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p = 0.013) results showed that treatment by PBM significantly increased the biomechanical property (stress high load) of the callus defect from the partial tibia osteotomy in healthy rats compared to the control groups. However, we observed no significant increase in the biomechanical properties of the laser-treated diabetic bone defect compared to the control diabetic group."

"The 80-Hz laser did not significantly enhance bone repair from an osteotomy of the tibia in an experimental model of TI DM rats."

Comment: The parameters seem contradictory.
PubMedDevice: "Mustang 2000; Technical Co., Moscow, Russia and LO7 probe"
34
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2017Lasers Med SciBiochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.RatLED phototherapy
LLLT vs LED
780
laser

850
LED
70


150
---20


20

(unclear)
0.04
cm2

0.5
cm2
7?"These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA."PubMed
35
BoneBone repairIryanovRussia2016J Lasers Med SciInfluence of Laser Irradiation Low Intensity on Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis Under Transosseous Osteosynthesis.RatUzor A-2K device8904000
?
----6004"The sessions of laser irradiation decreased inflammatory process severity, activated fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis, accelerated the compactization of newly formed bone tissue, and enhanced its maturity degree while primary healing occurred in the fracture."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
PubMedUzor A-2K device. Pulsing 150Hz.
36
BoneBone repairAtasoyTurkey
(Trabzon)
2017Braz Oral ResThe efficacy of low-level 940 nm laser therapy with different energy intensities on bone healing.RatBiphasic dose response?9401500
3000
6000
--5
10
20
d = 30
mm
10
10
10
7"No significant change was observed in the number of osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and newly formed vessels at either time period across all laser groups. Although LLLT with the 10 J/cm2 energy density increased fibroblast activity at the 4th week in comparison with the 5 and 20 J/cm2 groups, no significant change was observed between the laser groups and the control group. "

"These results indicate that low-level 940 nm laser with different energy intensities may not have marked effects on the bone healing process in both phases of bone formation."
PubMed
37
BoneBone repairde AlmeidaBrazil
(Araçatuba)
2016Arch Oral BiolInfluence of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in the jaws of systemically nicotine-modified rats: A histomorphometric study.RatAutogenous bone block graft66035--4-27"Nicotine harms bone formation in the bed-graft interface and LLLT action can mitigate this."

Comment: There seems to be an error in the reporting of parameters. They irradiated 8 spots with 4J/cm2 and another area with 4J/cm2. They claim that the total dose was 36J/cm2, but energy density can not be added up this way.
PubMed
38
BoneBone repairMedalhaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BLow level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.RatSpinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect808301.72.81000.028
cm2
946"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation.

In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."
PubMed
39
BoneBone repairFekrazadIran
(Tehran)
2016Photomed Laser SurgEffects of Photobiomodulation and Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Articular Cartilage Defects in a Rabbit Model.Rabbit810300.430-4 / 8.5
(???)
-2011
(?)
"No significant difference in new cartilage formation and inflammation was found between the groups (p > 0.05). However, there was significantly more new bone formation in the experimental group (p < 0.05)."

Comment: The abstract claims the energy density is 4 J/cm2 and full text claims the energy density is 8.5 J/cm2.
PubMedThor LX2 device
40
BoneBone repairRajaei JafarabadiIran
(Tehran)
2016Lasers Med SciThe effects of photobiomodulation and low-amplitude high-frequency vibration on bone healing process: a comparative study.RatA transverse critical size defect (CSD) to femur83040-1.524d = 0.35
cm
3811
21
(?)
"The biostimulation effects of PBM or LLLT and of low-amplitude high-frequency WBV both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of a stainless steel implant. But their combination, i.e., low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process."PubMed
41
BoneBone repairMedalhaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BLow level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.RatSpinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect808301.7 /
1.07
2.81000.028
cm2
946"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation. In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."

Comment: The power density (irradiance) was 1.7 W/cm2 according to the abstract, and 1.07 W/cm2 according to the full text.
PubMedApplication mode: Stationary in skin contact mode
42

BoneBone repairFreddoBrazil
(Porto Alegre)
2016J Oral Maxillofac SurgInfluence of a Magnetic Field and Laser Therapy on the Quality of Mandibular Bone During Distraction Osteogenesis in Rabbits.Rabbit830
/ 780
(???)
205

(on 4p?)
d = 0.4
mm
10"The LLLT group exhibited a larger amount of newly formed bone and a larger number of osteoblasts in the cell division phase, but the difference was not statistically relevant compared with the control group."

Comment: Wavelength was 830nm according to the abstract, but 780nm according to the full text.
PubMed
43
BoneBone repairBoscoBrazil
(Araçatuba)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BEffects of low-level laser therapy on bone healing of critical-size defects treated with bovine bone graft.RatBone graft660300.4219.4430.850.07
cm2
576

(8p)
1
(?)
"LLLT can improve bone formation process in CSD filled or not with BBG in rat calvaria, but it is not able to accelerate particles resorption of this material in the interior of bone defect."PubMed
44
BoneBone repairAcarTurkey2016Arch Oral BiolBone regeneration by low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy in the rabbit calvarium.Rabbit810100--4-1206LLLT enhanced new bone formation in comparison to the untreated controls.

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
PubMedDevice: "CHEESE Dental Laser System, DEN4A"
45
BoneBone repairHavlucuTurkey
(Istanbul)
2015J Oral ImplantolEffects of Light-Emitting Diode Photobiomodulation Therapy and BioOss as Single and Combined Treatment in an Experimental Model of Bone Defect Healing in Rats.RatLED phototherapy618-0.02-24-12004
7
11
"Within the limitations of this study, LPT has positive effects on bone healing histopathologically and histomorphometrically for the defects filled with BioOss 3 weeks after the rats' femora injury."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported. For example, spot size was not reported.
PubMedOsseoPulse LED device
46
BoneBone repairNascimentoBrazil
(Aracaju)
2015Acta Cir BrasImprovement of bone repair in diabetic rats subjected to ƛ780 nm low-level laser therapy.RatDiabetic rats780701.750.717.50.04
cm2
40
(4p)
4"Low-level laser therapy significantly increased alkaline phosphatase in at seven and 18 days (p<0.001), and improved bone healing at seven (p<0.01), 18 (p<0.05) and 30 (p<0.01) in diabetic animals. In addition, bone healing in irradiated diabetic group was statistically similar to control group at 30 days (p>0.05)."

Comment: Parameters were well reported!
PubMed
47
BoneBone repairSoaresBrazil (Salvador, Bahia)2015Braz Dent JRepair of surgical bone defects grafted with hydroxylapatite + β-TCP and irradiated with λ=850 nm LED light.RatSurgical bone defect

LED phototherapy

Bone graft (HA + β-TCP)
850150--200.5
cm2
-7"It may be concluded that the use of LED phototherapy was effective in positively modulating the process of bone repair of bone defects in the femur of rats submitted or not to biomaterial grafting."

Comment: Treatment parameters were poorly reported. Radiant energy, power density and treatment duration were missing.
PubMedDevice: FisioLED; MMOptics , São Carlos, SP, Brazil
48
📷BoneBone repairSellaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2015Lasers Med SciEffect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: a randomized controlled experimental study.Rat808-0.22

(2p)
370.02
mm2
10

(2p)
8"Microscopic analysis revealed a significant decrease in inflammatory infiltration, intense trabecular bone matrix and periosteal formation, and an increase in newly formed bone after laser irradiation."PubMedMagnus Plus, DMC Equipment; gallium aluminum arsenide laser device
49
📷BoneBone repairMarquesBrazil
(Bauru)
2015Lasers Med SciNew LLLT protocol to speed up the bone healing process-histometric and immunohistochemical analysis in rat calvarial bone defect.Rat8305016
3.7
9
3
8
(?)
"The results suggest LLLT using the protocol 2 hastened the bone healing process in the early periods after surgery."

Comment: At 45 days, there was no difference between the groups, but at 15 days, the amount of newly formed bone seemed to be a little bit higher in the laser groups.

Comment: It seems that spot/beam size wasn't reported in this study.
PubMed
50
BoneBone repairOliveiraBrazil
(São Carlos)
2015Rev Bras OrtopCOMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL LASER AND LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND ASSOCIATED WITH BIOSILICATE(®) ON THE PROCESS OF BONE REPAIR IN THE RAT TIBIA.RatTHERALASE device (version 24)8301003.573.41200.028
cm2
341?"Curiously, the Biosilicate® plus laser or ultrasound groups showed lower amounts of bone tissue deposition when compared with control fracture and Biosilicate® groups."PubMed
51
BoneBone repairMagriBrazil
(São Paulo)
2015Lasers Med SciPhotobiomodulation and bone healing in diabetic rats: evaluation of bone response using a tibial defect experimental model.RatDiabetic rats

Tibial bone healing
8081003.570.84
1.68
3.36
30
60
120
0.028
cm2
8
16
33
6
12
"In the histological and morphometric evaluation, all laser-treated groups showed a better histological pattern and a higher amount of newly formed bone compared to DCG. An intense RUNX2 immunoexpression was observed in the laser-treated groups, 15 days after the surgery.

There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical analysis among the groups.

In conclusion, PBM, in all fluences used, showed an osteogenic potential in bone healing of diabetic rats"
PubMed
52
BoneBone repairBatistaBrazil
(Uberlândia)
2015Lasers Med SciLow-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?RatSystemic effects?83050-6210d = 0.028
cm
1204
8
11
"Laser therapy presented a positive local biostimulative effect in the early stage of bone healing, but the LLLT effect was not observed a long distance from the evaluated area."PubMedApplication: punctual
53
BoneBone repairAltanTurkey
(Kocaeli)
2015Lasers Med SciThe effect of dosage on the efficiency of LLLT in new bone formation at the expanded suture in rats.RatMidpalatal suture expansion82050
50
100
1.6
1.6
1.6
0.15
0.65
198
5
20
6300
d =
2 mm
(?)
3
13
1980
4"Low-level laser therapy with both 5 and 6,300 J/cm(2) doses was found to be significantly effective, while the 20 J/cm(2) dose did not show a significant effect in increasing new bone formation. This finding reveals that the efficiency of the therapy is affected by the dosage."

Note: There was increase in bone formation in the medium dose group as well, but it was a little bit less pronounced. The bone formation increase was clearly highest in the "low dose" group (87%) compared to medium (41%) and high (51%) dose groups.
PubMed
54
BoneBone repairAkyolTurkey
(Rize)
2015Lasers Med SciThe influence of low-level laser therapy with alendronate irrigation on healing of bone defects in rats.RatAlendronate potentiation808-0.1-21
cm2
205"Our findings demonstrated that Aln has a more positive effect with LLLT on bone healing in rats.

It was concluded that combining LLLT with Aln irrigation has a beneficial effect in bone repair. It was demonstrated experimentally that Aln irrigation during the surgery had a significant effect to enhance bone formation, and LLLT significantly potentiated the osseous healing effects of Aln on bone defects. This administration method is able to minimize the dose of Aln in order to avoid both systemic and local adverse effects as well as the local injection times during the bone healing process."
PubMed
55
BoneBone repairBatistaBrazil
(Uberlândia)
2014Lasers Med SciEffect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.RatRadiotherapy83050
or
100
62100.04
cm2

or

0.028
cm2
1204"The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation."

Note: The parameters in the abstract contradict the parameters given in the full text.
PubMed
56
BoneBone repairSoaresBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2014Lasers Med SciRaman study of the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + β-calcium triphosphate and irradiated or not with λ780 nm laser.Rat78070--5
(?)
0.4
cm2
-7"It is concluded that the use of laser phototherapy associated to biomaterial was effective in improving bone healing on bone defects as a result of the increasing deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite measured by Raman spectroscopy."PubMed
57
BoneBone repairSoaresBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2014J Photochem Photobiol BInfluence of the λ780nm laser light on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxylapatite+Beta-Calcium triphosphate.Rat78070--5
(?)
0.4
cm2
-7"Many similarities were observed histologically between groups on regards bone reabsorption and neoformation, inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition. The criterion degree of maturation, marked by the presence of basophilic lines, indicated that the use of LPT associated with HA+Beta TCP graft, resulted in more advanced stage of bone repair at the end of the experiment."

Comment: These authors appear to think that energy density in 4 separate points can be added up (4*5 J/cm2 = 20 J/cm2)...
PubMed
58

BoneBone repairde AlmeidaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2014Clin Oral Implants ResThe effect of low-level laser on bone healing in critical size defects treated with or without autogenous bone graft: an experimental study in rat calvaria.Rat780
or
810
(????)
-0.100
(???)
6
(?)
6
or
210
(???)
300

(5p)
60
/p

(5p total)
1"Utilization of LLL favored the healing process in rat calvaria. The quantity of new bone formation with use of the LLL was similar to the autogenous bone graft."

Comment: Parameters in abstract and full text contradict each others (eg. wavelength 780 vs 810; power density 6 J/cm2 vs 210 J/cm2

Comment: Also, the full text states that "power" is 100 mW/cm2, but that is the unit of intensity/irradiance, not power. The reporting of parameters is extremely bad in this case.
PubMed
59
BoneBone repairBabuccuTurkey
(Istanbul)
2014Int J Oral Maxillofac SurgCumulative effect of low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone repair in rats.Rat820500--161
cm2
-8
11
(?)
"Combined LLLT + LIPUS treatment enhanced bone healing both histologically and mechanically, shortening the length of the treatment period, when compared to treatment with LLLT or LIPUS alone."PubMed
60
BoneBone repairAcioleBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2014Lasers Med SciAssessment of the LED phototherapy on femoral bone defects of ovariectomized rats: a Raman spectral study.RatLED phototherapy85015020.40.5
cm2
1287"The results of this study are indicative that infrared LED-PT improved the deposition of [hydroxyapatite] on bone defects of ovariectomized rats."PubMed
61
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil2014J Photochem Photobiol BRaman ratios on the repair of grafted surgical bone defects irradiated or not with laser (λ780 nm) or LED (λ850 nm).RatLLLT vs LED
LED phototherapy
780
(laser)

850
(LED)
70


150
--5


20

(???)
0.4
cm2

0.5
cm2
-7


7
"The results of the present study are well aligned with previous reports from our group [7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 22, 27, 30] and indicate that the association of laser/LED light with HA graft improved the repair of bone defects."

Comment: I was unable to interpret the results.
PubMed
62
BoneBone repairFangelBrazil
(São Carlos)
2014J Appl Biomater Funct MaterBiomechanical properties: effects of low-level laser therapy and Biosilicate® on tibial bone defects in osteopenic rats.RatOsteopenia830120"Animals submitted to low-level laser therapy (LLLT) did not show any significant biomechanical improvement, but the association between Biosilicate® and LLLT was shown to be efficient to enhance callus biomechanical properties."PubMed
63
BoneBone repairRasouli GhahroudiIran
(Tehran)
2014Lasers Med SciEffect of low-level laser therapy irradiation and Bio-Oss graft material on the osteogenesis process in rabbit calvarium defects: a double blind experimental study.Rabbit810300--4--11"The mean amount of new bone was 15.83 and 18.5% in the controls on the 4th and 8th week; 27.66 and 25.16% in the laser-irradiated group; 35.0 and 41.83% in Bio-Oss and 41.83 and 47.0% in the laser + Bio-Oss treated specimens with significant statistical differences (p <0.05).

Application of LLLT in combination with Bio-Oss® can promote bone healing. Therefore, LLLT may be clinically beneficial in promoting bone formation in skeletal defects."

Comment: Parameters were very poorly reported.
PubMed
64
BoneBone repairGarciaBrazil
(Araçatuba)
2014J Craniomaxillofac SurgEffect of LLLT on autogenous bone grafts in the repair of critical size defects in the calvaria of immunosuppressed rats.Rat66035-0.704.9

(on 5 points)
0.0283
cm2
20
(5p)
1"The use of LLLT with [autogenous bone] effectively stimulated bone formation in CSDs in the calvaria of immunosuppressed rats."PubMed
65
BoneBone repairBarbosaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2014Acta Ortop BrasLaser therapy in bone repair in rats: analysis of bone optical density.Rat660
830
100--4
4
1
cm2
404
7
11
"Based on the radiographic findings, G (830nm) showed more complete bone regeneration, as shown in the gray shades of the images."PubMedFlash Lase III (DMC Equipment Ltda, São Carlos, SP, Brazil)
66
BoneBone repairSoaresBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2014Lasers Med SciDo laser/LED phototherapies influence the outcome of the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate? A Raman spectroscopy study.RatLED phototherapy

LLLT vs LED
780
(laser)

850
(LED)
70


150
--5


5

(on 4 points)
0.4
cm2

0.5
cm2
-7


7
"Raman intensities of both mineral and matrix components indicated that the use of laser and LED phototherapies improved the repair of bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate."PubMedLaser device: TwinFlex Evolution®, MMOptics
LED device: FisioLED®, MMOptics
67
BoneBone repairCoelhoBrazil
(Porto Alegre)
2014Lasers Med SciSystemic effects of LLLT on bone repair around PLLA-PGA screws in the rabbit tibia.Rabbit830100--1

(on 4 points)
d = 0.06 cm40.4

(4p)
max
7
"The results observed in the left paw of experimental animals were compared with the left paws of control animals. We also compared the right and left paws of experimental animals so as to compare local and potential systemic effects. Bone specimens were analyzed to assess the extent of peri-implant bone formation, quantitative analysis revealed greater bone formation in the left tibia of experimental animals as compared to controls on 5-day follow-up. Descriptive analysis revealed slightly larger and thicker trabeculae in the irradiated animals at 5 days post-procedure.

There were no significant differences at any other point in time. As used in this study, LLLT had a positive systemic effect on the early stages of bone formation."
PubMed
68
BoneBone repairCunhaBrazil2014Biomed Res IntEffect of low-level laser on bone defects treated with bovine or autogenous bone grafts: in vivo study in rat calvaria.Rat7801006
/p
2100.05
cm2
"In the present study, the fact that all groups irradiated with LLL presented superior results to group C and groups receiving only grafts suggests that this type of therapy may be effective in the healing of bone defects, especially when associated with a filling material."PubMed
69
BoneBone repairEl-MaghrabyEgypt
(Cairo)
2013Arch Oral BiolAssessment of the effect of low-energy diode laser irradiation on gamma irradiated rats' mandibles.RatGamma radiation

Oral (mandible)
90430-5.4-1
cm2
1804"Thin irregular bone trabeculae and widened marrow spaces were identified in the control group. The lased sides of groups 1 and 2 demonstrated regular, thick and continuous bone trabeculae."

"Normal-sized osteocytic lacunae were seen in the lased groups, as compared to the wide lacunar spaces noted in the control group. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the area of bone trabeculae, as well as the width of compact bone, for the lased groups."

Note: A nicely written paper, with nice results and electron microscopy pictures of bone tissue! Only the parameters were a little bit poorly reported, but they are easy to calculate from the given values.
PubMedDevice: ora-laser 1030
70
BoneBone repairMendonçaBrazil
(Araras)
2013Laser PhysComparative study of the application of microcurrent and AsGa 904 nm laser radiation in the process of repair after calvaria bone excision in ratsRat904369"The results showed significant responses in the reduction of inflammatory cells and an increase in the number of new blood vessels, number of fibroblasts and deposition of birefringent collagen fibers when these data were compared with those of samples of the untreated lesions.

Both applications, microcurrent and laser at 904 nm, favored tissue repair in the region of bone excisions during the study period and these techniques can be used as coadjuvantes in the repair of bone tissue."
IOP
71
BoneBone repairMotaBrazil
(Uberlândia)
2013Res Vet SviLow-power laser therapy for repairing acute and chronic-phase bone lesions.Rat67030--90-2734
9
19
"Laser-treated animals showed significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase levels and had an effect on biomechanical property, resulting in a gradual increase in bone stiffness. Laser therapy aided the bone consolidation process and favored the physiopathologic mechanisms involved in bone tissue repair, and its effects were more prominent when treatment started during the acute phase of the injury."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported, but they are possible to calculate from the given variables.
PubMedDevice: BIOSET laser equipment (Phisiolux Dual P. 4050)
72
BoneBone repairEkizerTurkey
(Kayseri)
2013Lasers Med SciLight-emitting diode photobiomodulation: effect on bone formation in orthopedically expanded suture in rats--early bone changes.RatLED phototherapy6180.02120011
(?)
"New bone formation area (p = 0.024, 1.48-fold), number of osteoblasts (p < 0.001, 1.59-fold), number of osteoclasts (p = 0.004, 1.43-fold), and number of vessels (p = 0.007, 1.67-fold) showed higher values in the experimental group than the control. Bone histomorphometric measurements revealed that bone architecture in the LPT group was improved."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
PubMedDevice: OsseoPulse LED device (shown in a photograph)
73
BoneBone repairPeccinBrazil
(São Paulo)
2013Lasers Med SciHelium-neon laser improves bone repair in rabbits: comparison at two anatomic sites.Rabbit633---60.0314
cm2
607
21
35
(?)
"Taken together, such findings suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve bone repair in rabbits being the most pronounced effect in tibia."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
PubMed
74
BoneBone repairPintoBrazil
(Rio de Janeiro)
2013Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral RadiolInfluence of low-intensity laser therapy on the stability of orthodontic mini-implants: a study in rabbits.Rabbit8082.5
/p ?
9025
/p
"There was a statistically significant difference only between Group TF submitted to laser and all the other groups (P < .05)."

"Low-intensity laser was capable of increasing stability of self-threading orthodontic mini-implants."
PubMed
75
BoneBone repairRibeiroBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2012Int J PhotoenergyLow-Level Laser Therapy and Calcitonin in Bone Repair: Densitometric AnalysisRat83010200.1
cm2
213The results of the densitometric study showed that LLLT (830 nm) combined with calcitonin improved bone repair.

Comment: The improvement seemed very modest, especially when comparing LLLT with control.
Hindawi
76
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2012Lasers Med SciEffects of LED phototherapy on bone defects grafted with MTA, bone morphogenetic proteins and guided bone regeneration: a Raman spectroscopic study.RatLED phototherapy8507/8
(?)
"The results of this study using Raman spectral analysis indicate that infrared LED light irradiation improves the deposition of CHA in healing bone grafted or not with MTA."PubMed
77
BoneBone repairOmasaJapan
(Tokyo)
2012Photomed Laser SurgLow-level laser therapy enhances the stability of orthodontic mini-implants via bone formation related to BMP-2 expression in a rat model.RatOrthodontic mini-implant in tibia bone83020054195d =
4.2 mm

(spot)
(/p)
270
(2p)
7"Periotest values were significantly lower (0.79- to 0.65-fold) and the volume of newly formed bone was significantly higher (1.53-fold) in the LLLT group. LLLT also stimulated significant BMP-2 gene expression in peri-implant bone (1.92-fold)."

"LLLT enhanced the stability of mini-implants placed in rat tibiae and accelerated peri-implant bone formation by increasing the gene expression of BMP-2 in surrounding cells."
PubMed
78
BoneBone repairRosaBrazil
(Ribeirão Preto)
2012Lasers Med SciEffects of the combination of low-level laser irradiation and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone repair.Rat780601200.04
cm2
80"It can be concluded that LLLI administered during surgery effectively accelerated healing of critical bone defects filled with pure rhBMP-2, achieving a better result than LLLI alone or the use of rhBMP-2 alone."PubMed
79
BoneBone repairEbrahimiIran
(Tehran)
2012J Dent (Tehran)The influence of low-intensity laser therapy on bone healing.Review"Twenty-five relevant articles (13 in vitro and 12 animal studies) were included. Eleven in vitro studies showed positive results with regard to acceleration of cell proliferation and differentiation. All animal studies showed improved bone healing in sites irradiated with low-intensity laser."PubMed
80
BoneBone repairKocyigitTurkey
(Kirikkale)
2012Photomed Laser SurgA comparison of the low-level laser versus low intensity pulsed ultrasound on new bone formed through distraction osteogenesis.Rabbit650250.0257.5

(15/d)
8

(16(d)
0.95
cm2
300

(600/d)
(2
/d)
"LIPUS and LLLT applied during the distraction period accelerated the DO treatment."PubMed
81
BoneBone repairFangelBrazil
(São Carlos)
2011J Biomed OptLow-level laser therapy, at 60 J/cm2 associated with a Biosilicate(®) increase in bone deposition and indentation biomechanical properties of callus in osteopenic rats.RatOsteopenic rats830100-1.7600.028
cm2
177"Our results indicate that laser therapy improves bone repair process in contact with Biosilicate as a result of increasing bone formation as well as indentation biomechanical properties."PubMed
82
BoneBone repairSiéssereBrazil
(Ribeirão Preto)
2011Photomed Laser SurgApplication of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) and rhBMP-2 in critical bone defect of ovariectomized rats: histomorphometric evaluation.Rat780601.51200.04
cm2
80"In Group I, when the laser was used alone and in Group VI, when the laser was used with monoolein gel, the results were statistically similar, resulting in new bone tissue in both groups. The results of this study are consistent with the findings of Renno et al. (8) who used low-level laser therapy with the same dose of this study (120 J/cm2 ) and found that LLLI was able to prevent bone loss."PubMed
83
BoneBone repairRé PoppiBrazil
(Campo Grande)
2011Lasers Med SciEvaluation of the osteogenic effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm and 660 nm) on bone defects induced in the femurs of female rats submitted to ovariectomy.Rat660

808
100

100
3.3

3.3
133.30.03
cm2
40
(4p)
14
28
"The results from days 14 and 21 showed that the irradiated groups presented increased density of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and immature osteocytes on the tissue surface compared with the control (non-irradiated) groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, inflammatory infiltrate evaluations showed that LLLT decreased the accumulation of leukocytes when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.05).

We concluded that, in our experimental model, both wavelengths (660-nm and 880-nm) inhibited the inflammatory process and induced the proliferation of cells responsible for bone remodeling and repair."
PubMed
84
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2011J Biomed Mater Res ALight microscopic description of the effects of laser phototherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration in a rodent model.Rat850150--4

(on 4 points)
0.5
cm2
-7"Major changes were seen on irradiated subjects and included marked deposition of new bone in advanced maturation. It is concluded that near infrared laser phototherapy improved the results of the use of the MTA on bone defects."PubMed
85
BoneBone repairKazem ShakouriIran
(Tabriz)
2010Lasers Med SciEffect of low-level laser therapy on the fracture healing process.Rabbit780---4-300"The result of the study showed that the use of laser could enhance callus development in the early stage of the healing process, with doubtful improvement in biomechanical properties of the healing bone; therefore, laser therapy may be recommended as an additional treatment in non-union fractures in humans."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
PubMedDevice: Endolaser 476, Enraf Nonius
86
BoneBone repairHüblerBrazil
(Porto Alegre)
2010Lasers Med SciEffects of low-level laser therapy on bone formed after distraction osteogenesis.Rabbit83040"The analysis of chemical composition and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) ratios revealed greater mineralization in the LLLT group. Diffractograms showed that the crystalline structure of the samples was similar to that of hydroxyapatites. Crystallinity percentages were greater in rabbits that were given LLLT. Crystallinity (41.14% to 54.57%) and the chemical composition of the bone at the distraction osteogenesis site were similar to the that of the control group (42.37% to 49.29%). The results showed that LLLT had a positive effect on the biomodulation of newly formed bone."PubMed
87
📷BoneBone repairNascimentoBrazil
(São Paulo)
2010Photomed Laser SurgEffect of low-level laser therapy and calcitonin on bone repair in castrated rats: a densitometric study.Rat83010--200.1
cm2
213
(?)
4
7
11
(?)
"The La and CaLa had significantly higher bone mineral density than the control and Ca groups."PubMedDevice: Thera Laser, D. M. C. Equipamentos Ltda., Sa˜o Carlos, SP, Brazil
88
BoneBone repairLopesBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2010J Biomed Mater Res AThe effect of the association of near infrared laser therapy, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration on tibial fractures treated with internal rigid fixation: a Raman spectroscopic study.Rat79040--4(?)--7"It is concluded that the use of NIR LLLT associated to BMPs and GBR was effective in improving bone healing on fractured bones due to increased levels of CHA."

Comment: The abstract was very strangely written, and I am not sure whether the authors understand the dose parameters...

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
PubMed
89
BoneBone repairOliveiraBrazil
(São Carlos)
2010J Mater Sci Mater MedLow level laser therapy does not modulate the outcomes of a highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) on bone consolidation in rats.Rat830-100-60
120
d = 0.6 mm17
34
7"Our findings suggest that although Biosilicate exerts some osteogenic activity during bone repair, laser therapy is not able to modulate this process."PubMed
90
BoneBone repairMedalhaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2010Photomed Laser SurgComparison of the effects of electrical field stimulation and low-level laser therapy on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats.Rat8301000.0314
(2p)
(?)
2500.028
cm2
70
/p
12"We conclude that the mentioned treatments were able to initiate a positive bone-tissue response, maybe through stimulation of osteoblasts, which was able to determine the observed morphometric modifications. However, the evoked tissue response could not determine either biomechanical or densitometric modifications."PubMed
91
BoneBone repairBashardoust TajaliCanada
(London)
2010J Orthop Surg ResEffects of low power laser irradiation on bone healing in animals: a meta-analysis.Meta-analysis"Studies indicate that low power laser irradiation can enhance biomechanical properties of bone during fracture healing in animal models. Maximum bone tolerance was statistically improved following low level laser irradiation (average random effect size 0.726, 95% CI 0.08-1.37, p 0.028).

While conclusions are limited by the low number of studies, there is concordance across limited evidence that laser improves the strength of bone tissue during the healing process in animal models."
PubMed
92
BoneBone repairKimKorea
(Busan)
2009Lasers Med SciExpression of receptor activator of nuclear factor -kappaB ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor -kappaB, and osteoprotegerin, following low-level laser treatment on deproteinized bovine bone graft in rats.Rat808960.8301.44
(3p)
8.3d =
3.84 mm
30
(3p)
7"The results of immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of RANKL (P = 0.199), OPG (P = 0.035), and RANK (P = 0.020) in the experimental group significantly increased from day 7, with a more even distribution than in the control group, and that this difference prevailed until the end of the experiment. Bone density of the experimental group after trichrome staining was also higher than in the control group.

These results suggest that LLL irradiation facilitates bone metabolism during bone healing at the sites of deproteinized bovine bone grafts in rats."
PubMed
93
BoneBone repairDinizBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2009Lasers Med SciEffect of low-power gallium-aluminum-arsenium laser therapy (830 nm) in combination with bisphosphonate treatment on osteopenic bone structure: an experimental animal study.Rat83050-1.5

/p ?
40.375
cm2
area
30
/p

(7p)
28"It was concluded that the laser therapy associated with bisphosphonate treatment was the best method for reversing vertebral osteopenia caused by the ovariectomy."PubMed
94
BoneBone repairJavadiehIran
(Tehran)
2009Photomed Laser SurgThe effects of infrared low-level laser therapy on healing of partial osteotomy of tibia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.RatDiabetic rats890--11.6
23.3
-1
cm2
265
560
3/wk"LLLT in an experimental diabetic model enhanced bone repair with a higher bending stiffness and maximum force compared to the control group."PubMedDevice: Mustang 2000; Technical Co., Moscow, Russia
95
BoneBone repairPereiraBrazil
(Piracicaba)
2009Int J Oral Maxillofac ImplantsThe effect of low-intensity laser therapy on bone healing around titanium implants: a histometric study in rabbits.Rabbit--------"Low-intensity laser therapy did not affect the area of bone formed within the threads, but it may improve BIC in rabbit tibiae."

Comment: Could not access full text / parameters.
PubMed
96
BoneBone repairDenadaiBrazil
(Campo Grande)
2009Lasers Med SciMorphometric and histological analysis of low-power laser influence on bone morphogenetic protein in bone defects repair.Rat65050--40.1
cm2
spot

1.0
cm2
area
80"We concluded that the association of low-power laser with a bone-inducing substance produced better results than when low-power laser or BMPs were used alone."PubMedDevice: A gallium–aluminum–arsenium (GaAlAs) laser made by Laserline® (Inova model)
97
BoneBone repairBayatIran
(Tehran)
2009Photomed Laser SurgThe effects of low-level laser therapy on bone in diabetic and nondiabetic rats.RatDose response63310--28.6
382.2
0.0314
cm2
90
1200
"Maximum force (N) was significantly greater in laser-treated bones of groups 2 and 3 compared with their relevant control groups (paired Student t test, p = 0.05 and p = 0.007, respectively). Density of the bone lamella meshwork of compact bone in group 2 was significantly greater in comparison with its control group (paired Student t test, p = 0.005)."PubMedDevice: A gaseous He-Ne laser unit (Model IR 2000; Iranian Atomic Energy Agency, Tehran, Iran)
98
BoneBone repairAbdiIran
(Tehran)
2009Photomed Laser SurgThe effects of helium-neon light therapy on healing of partial osteotomy of the tibia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.RatDiabetic rats63310--66.8
369.4
0.0314
cm2
210
1166
3
/wk
"LT with a He-Ne laser in STZ-induced diabetic rats did not enhance bone repair of a partial transversal standardized osteotomy."PubMed
99
BoneBone repairAboElsaadEgypt
(Mansoura)
2009Lasers Med SciEffect of soft laser and bioactive glass on bone regeneration in the treatment of bone defects (an experimental study).Rat83040--4d = 3 mm604"Laser irradiation had significantly accelerated bone healing at 4 weeks and 8 weeks in comparison with that at the sites not irradiated. However at 12 weeks, complete healing of the defects had occurred with no difference detected. Our results have confirmed the positive effect of soft laser in accelerating bone regeneration."PubMed
100
BoneBone repairMatsumotoBrazil
(Bauru)
2009Lasers Med SciLow-level laser therapy modulates cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression during bone repair in rats.Rat735---16-60~8"Taken together, such results suggest that low-level laser therapy is able to improve bone repair in the tibia of rats after 14 days of surgery as a result of an up-regulation for cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in bone cells."

Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
PubMed
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