|Database team: Vladimir Heiskanen (FI), Jolien Robijns (BE), Hannah Serrage (UK) and Reem Hanna (UK/IT). Correspondence: email@example.com||Short link to this database: www.bitly.com/PBM-database|
|★||Category||First author||Country||Year||Journal||Title||Study type||Notes||λ|
|N||Results: positive ☺ / unclear/modest ☺ / negative/null ☹ ↑ ↓ →||Link||Additional info||Comment||Reply||Additional info (2)|
|2016||J Biophotonics||Photobiomodulation reduces abdominal adipose tissue inflammatory infiltrate of diet-induced obese and hyperglycemic mice.||Mouse||LED phototherapy|
|300||6||"Non-irradiated control animals display inflammatory areas almost five times greater than the treated group (p < 0.001). This result on inflammatory infiltrate may have caused impacts on the significant lower blood glucose level from irradiated animals (p = 0.04), twenty-four hours after the last irradiation session."||PubMed|
|Adipose tissue||Fat graft||Sert||Turkey|
|2021||Lasers Surg Med||Photobiomodulation with polychromatic light (600-1200 nm) improves fat graft survival by increasing adipocyte viability, neovascularization, and reducing inflammation in a rat model||Rat||600-|
|"Intergroup comparison revealed that fat graft retention regarding weight and volume, was significantly superior in Group IV (p = 0.049 and p = 0.043, respectively), which polychromatic light was applied both before and after transfer of the graft. Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stained sections showed absence of necrosis, fibrosis, inflammation, cyst formation, and increased vascularization of both inner and outer zones of the grafts in Group IV."|
"Application of PBM to the recipient site before and after fat transfer improved outcomes in rats at 56 day after fat grafting by means of volume retention, increased neovascularization and adipocyte viability and reduced necrosis, fibrosis and inflammation."
|Adipose tissue||Free fatty acids (FFA)||Gong||China|
|2019||Cell Signal||Photobiomodulation therapy decreases free fatty acid generation and release in adipocytes to ameliorate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.||Rat||HFD mice|
Insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and WAT
|635||"The current results indicated that PBMT inhibited FFA generation and release in insulin-resistant adipocytes and reduced plasma FFA levels in diabetic db/db mice and HFD-fed mice. Therefore, PBMT might ameliorate whole-body insulin resistance in diabetic mice. |
GTT analysis indicated that glucose tolerance was markedly enhanced in db/db mice after PBMT (Fig. 5D, E). Meanwhile, insulin sensitivity was also elevated in laser-treated db/db mice (Fig. 5F, G). In HFD-fed mice, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were also improved after PBMT (Fig. 5H–K). These results indicate that PBMT could improve whole-body insulin resistance in diabetic mice"
"PBMT promoted mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which inhibited phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and promoted protein kinase B (AKT) activation. Photoactivation of AKT inhibited the transcriptional activity of Forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FoxO1), reducing expression of lipolytic enzymes and FFA generation and release. Eliminating ROS elimination or inhibiting AKT blocked the effects of the laser therapy in vivo and in vitro."
"Taken together, PBMT suppresses FFA generation and release in insulin-resistant adipocytes, contributing to improvement of insulin resistance in mouse models of type 2 diabetes."
|Adipose tissue||Gene expression||Mafra||Brazil|
(Mogi das Cruzes)
|Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg||904 nm Low-Level Laser Irradiation Decreases Expression of Catabolism-Related Genes in White Adipose Tissue of Wistar Rats: Possible Roles of Laser on Metabolism.||Cholesterol levels|
|904||"We demonstrated that the low-level laser irradiation was able to increase the feed intake of the animals and the relative mass of the adipose tissue in the CTL (L) group compared with CTL.|
Laser treatment also increases serum triglycerides [CTL = 46.99 ± 5.87; CTL (L) = 57.46 ± 14.38; CAF = 43.98 ± 5.17; and CAF (L) = 56.9 ± 6.12; p = 0.007] and total cholesterol (CTL = 70.62 ± 6.80; CTL (L) = 79.41 ± 13.07; CAF = 71.01 ± 5.52; and CAF (L) = 79.23 ± 6.881; p = 0.003)."
"Laser PBM decreased gene expression of the studied genes in the adipose tissue, indicating that PBM is able to block the catabolic responses of this tissue. Interestingly, the CAF (L) and CAF animals presented the same CLT (L) phenotype, however, without increasing the feed intake and the relative weight of the adipose tissue. The description of these phenomena opens a new perspective for the study of the action of low-level laser in adipose tissue."
|★||Adipose tissue||Insulin signalling||Silva||Brazil|
|Lasers Med Sci||Infrared photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy improves glucose metabolism and intracellular insulin pathway in adipose tissue of high-fat fed mice.||Mouse||780||10||0.250||2|
|20||"PBM therapy improved glucose tolerance and phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and reversed the HFD-induced reduction of GLUT4 content and phosphorylation of AS160 (Ser588). Also, PBM therapy reversed the increased area of epididymal and mesenteric adipocytes.|
"The total serum cholesterol was not affected by diet (diet main effect p = 0.39), but there was a PBM main effect (p = 0.047). Post hoc revealed that PBM reduced total serum cholesterol (p = 0.043), regardless of diet treatment (Fig. 3b)."
"In the present study, PBM therapy did not alter HFD-induced increase in fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, as assessed by HOMA-IR. On the other hand, PBM therapy improved glucose intolerance in HFD-fed mice."
"Also, PBM therapy reversed the increased area of epididymal and mesenteric adipocytes."
The results showed that chronic PBM therapy improved parameters related to obesity and insulin resistance in HFD-induced obesity in mice."
|Adipose tissue||Lipase activity||Mafra||Brazil|
(Mogi das Cruzes)
|2019||Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg||Laser Photobiomodulation 904 nm Promotes Inhibition of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Activity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Differentiated Cells.||In vitro||3T3-L1 cells||904||60||"The response of laser photobiomodulation was able to trigger an inhibition of HSL activity"||PubMed|
|Adipose tissue||Lipolytic activity||Martins||Brazil|
|2021||Lasers Med Sci||Evaluation of lipolysis and toxicological parameters of low-level laser therapy at different wavelengths and doses in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue||Rat||660|
|"Except for the IR3.3 group, all treated groups reduced the body weight (p < 0.001). The R5 group reduced the abdominal subcutaneous tissue weight and thickness (p < 0.05), even though all treated groups reduced the number of adipocytes and its size (p < 0.001). No histological changes in the liver. There were no alterations in the triglycerides and LDL levels. The IR5 group increased the total cholesterol levels and decreased the HDL, ALT (both p < 0.05), and AST levels (p < 0.001). The group IR3.3 showed higher levels of ALP (p < 0.01). The R3.3 group increased the TBARS and CAT activity (p < 0.05). No mutagenic effects were found. The red laser treatment at 5 J/cm2 led to lipolysis and did not alter the liver's parameters."||PubMed|
|Adipose tissue||Lipolytic activity||Barbosa||Portugal|
|2020||J Cosmet Dermatol||Effect of one session of aerobic exercise associated with abdominal laser therapy in lipolytic activity, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers||Human|
|940||"It is concluded that one session of aerobic exercise associated with LLLT and one session of aerobic exercise appears to be able to increase the lipolytic activity. However, it appears that LLLT does not provide increased value to the aerobic physical exercise by itself in lipolysis process."||PubMed|
|2004||Plast Reconstr Surg||Effect of low-level laser therapy on abdominal adipocytes before lipoplasty procedures.||Human|
(+ in vitro)
|720||"Recently, low-level laser therapy was reported to "liquefy" or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment."|
"No histologic tissue changes or specifically in adipocyte structure were observed at any depth with the longest low-level laser therapy (60 minutes with superwet fluid)."
"These data do not support the belief that low-level laser therapy treatment before lipoplasty procedures disrupts tissue adipocyte structure."
|Adipose tissue||Lipoplasty||Neira & Ortiz-Neira||Colombia|
|2002||Aesthet Surg J||Low-level laser-assisted liposculpture: clinical report of 700 cases.||Human||635||"Excellent aesthetic results, including an improved silhouette contour, smooth abdominal surface, and good skin retraction, were obtained in 95% of cases. Postoperative recovery was rapid, and complications were minimal."||PubMed|
|2002||Plast Reconstr Surg||Fat liquefaction: effect of low-level laser energy on adipose tissue.||In vitro||Human adipose tissue samples||635||10||1.2|
|"The low-level laser energy affected the adipose cell by causing a transitory pore in the cell membrane to open, which permitted the fat content to go from inside to outside the cell. The cells in the interstitial space and the capillaries remained intact. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty has a significant impact on the procedural implementation of lipoplasty techniques."|
Comment: These results were unsupported by Brown et al. paper published in 2004.
|2006||Lasers Med Sci||Action of low-level laser therapy on living fatty tissue of rats.||Rat||670||9||-||-||4|
|"Low-level laser rays cause brown adipose fat droplets to coalesce and fuse. Additionally, they stimulated proliferation and congestion of capillaries in the extracellular matrix."|
Comment: Parameters were poorly reported: spot area (cm2) and radiant energy (J) were not mentioned.
|Aging||Editorials||Mitrofanis & Jeffery||Australia & UK||2018||Aging (Albany NY)||Does photobiomodulation influence ageing?||Editorial||"In conclusion, photobiomodulation has been shown to alter the course of ageing in the central nervous system, by improving the survival and function of neurons and reducing gliosis and inflammation. These results in the laboratory are ripe for translation to the clinic, to determine whether this treatment effectively slows ageing in humans. Some of the key advantages of photobiomodulation therapy relate to its economy and safety, as it can be delivered with commercially available light emitting devices at energies well within the human safety range. Moreover, a major strength of this therapy is that it can offer a potential clinical application where there is little alternative available."||PubMed|
|Alcohol addiction||Zalewska-Kaszubska & Obzejta||Poland|
|2004||Lasers Med Sci||Use of low-energy laser as adjunct treatment of alcohol addiction.||Human||514|
|20||"Improvement in BDI-FS and increase in, beta-endorphin level were observed. These results suggest that laser therapy can be useful as an adjunct treatment for alcoholism."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone and stromal cells||Parenti||Italy|
|2020||Arch Biochem Biophys||Evidence from systematic reviews on photobiomodulation of human bone and stromal cells: Where do we stand?||Systematic review (in vitro)||"Six reviews using explicit eligibility criteria and methods selected in order to minimize bias were included.|
There was no compelling evidence on the cellular mechanisms of action or treatment parameters of photobiomodulation; compliance with quality assessment was poor.
A rigorous description of laser parameters (wavelength, power, beam spot size, power density, energy density, repetition rate, pulse duration or duty cycle, exposure duration, frequency of treatments, and total radiant energy), exposure conditions (methods to ensure a uniform irradiation and to avoid cross-irradiation, laser-cell culture surface distance, lid presence during irradiation) and cell-related characteristics (cell type or line, isolation and culture conditions, donor-related factors where applicable, tissue source, cell phenotype, cell density, number of cell passages in culture) should be included among eligibility criteria for study inclusion.
These methodological improvements will maximize the contribution of in vitro studies on the effects of photobiomodulation on human bone and stromal cells to evidence-based translational research."
"PBM is a highly promising strategy, but its effectiveness on the proliferation and differentiation of bone and stromal cells is still controversial and even SRs disagree in their conclusions. A high degree of heterogeneity was observed between the primary studies being combined in SRs together with the absence of quantitative analyses; these aspects make it impossible to conduct a meta-analysis. Compliance with the quality assessment of the currently available SRs is poor, with no compelling evidence on the cellular mechanisms of action or treatment parameters of PBM for clinical practice. Above all, SRs do not evaluate and take into account the quality of the primary studies when interpreting the results. These limitations make it difficult to provide strong evidence of the biostimulatory effect on different bone and stromal cells used in in vitro studies. "
|Bone||Bone grafts||de Oliveira Gonçalves||Brazil|
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Effects of low-level laser therapy on autogenous bone graft stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant.||Rat||830||30||0.2586||2.9|
|"In conclusion, low-level laser therapy stimulated bone regeneration and accelerated the process of integration of autogenous bone grafts."||PubMed|
|2012||Int J Med Sci||Effect of low-level laser therapy on incorporation of block allografts.||Rabbit||830||4||8||"Deep-freeze-processed block allografts followed by LLLT showed incorporation at the graft-host interface, moderate bone remodeling, partial filling of osteocyte lacunae, less inflammatory infiltrate in the early postoperative period, and higher collagen deposition than the control group."||PubMed|
|1994||Folia Biol (Krakow)||Effect of low-energy laser power on the bone marrow of the rat.||Rat||633||5||"These indicated that AsGa laser light induced a decrease in bone marrow mastocytes and peripheral blood basophils with an increase in the number of eosinophils. An increase in mitotic activity in the bone marrow was observed in the exposed groups of animals. No significant changes in Hb, Ht, erythrocyte or reticulocyte levels in the peripheral blood were noted, nor was there an increase in megakaryocyte emperipolesis."||PubMed|
|2018||Acta Cir Bras.||Influence of low-level laser irradiation on osteocalcin protein and gene expression in bone tissue1.||Rat||Ostectomy||808||200||0.2||1.25|
|13||"Immunocytochemistry scores showed no significant differences between control and laser groups either in vivo and in vitro. Gene expression also showed no statistical differences."|
"Low-level laser irradiation did not alter osteocalcin protein and gene expression in vivo and in vitro in the studied period but it may have been expressed them in an earlier period."
|Bone||Bone metabolism||Sayuri Suzuki||Brazil|
|2016||J Biophotonics||Low-level laser therapy stimulates bone metabolism and inhibits root resorption during tooth movement in a rodent model.||Rat||Alveolar bone||810||100||-||1.5|
|"Taken together, our results indicate that LLLT can stimulate bone remodeling reducing root resorption in a rat model. LLLT improves tooth movement via bone formation and bone resorption in a rat model."||PubMed|
|2016||Arch Endocrinol Metab||Low-level laser therapy associated to a resistance training protocol on bone tissue in diabetic rats.||Rat||Diabetic rats|
Exercise+LLLT on bone tissue
|33||24||"In conclusion, it can be suggested that the resistance exercise program stimulated bone metabolism, culminating in increased cortical tibial area, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and biomechanical properties. Furthermore, the association of physical exercises and LLLT produced higher values for bone mineral content and stiffness."|
Star: Parameters were well reported.
|1994||Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg||Infrared laser and bone metabolism: a pilot study.||Rat||904||0.0333||20||300||56,|
|"A circular defect in each parietal bone of six Wislander rats was created. The animals were divided into two three-unit subgroups. The experimental group received infrared laser radiation on the left defect. The control group was sham irradiated. After 28 days, the bone metabolism was evaluated by technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy. The obtained results revealed no differences in bone metabolic activity between the laser-treated and the control defects."||PubMed|
|1998||Laser Ther||The effect of low level laser irradiation on bone cell culture||In vitro||Wavelength comparison||633|
|"A significant increase in DNA synthesis was observed at the wavelengths of 632.8, 635 and 830 nm, depending on the energy density level. A decrease was found at 780 nm. These findings suggest a possible therapeutic use of LLLI in the process of bone repair."||J-STAGE|
|2013||Evid Based Complement Alternat Med||Effects of laser acupuncture on longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.||Rat||635-|
|9||"In conclusion, LA promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats, suggesting that laser acupuncture may be a promising intervention for improving the growth potential for children and adolescents."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Bellato||Brazil||2021||Acta Cir Bras||Effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and low-level laser therapy on calvarial bone repair in rats submitted to zoledronic acid therapy||Rat||660||"The rats were then randomly assigned to groups according to the following treatments: AZC: control group, treated with blood clot; AZBIO: bone defect filled with bioactive glass; AZL: treated with blood clot and submitted to PBMT; and AZBIOL: treated with bioactive glass S53P4 and submitted to PBMT."|
"At 14 days, bone neoformation in the AZBIO (52.15 ± 9.77) and AZBIOL (49.77 ± 13.58) groups presented higher values (p ≤ 0.001) compared to the AZC (23.35 ± 10.15) and AZL groups (23.32 ± 8.75). At 28 days, AZBIO (80.24 ± 5.41)still presented significant higher bone recovery values when compared to AZC (59.59 ± 16.92)and AZL (45.25 ± 5.41) groups (p = 0.048). In the 28-day period, the AZBIOL group didn't show statistically significant difference with the other groups (71.79 ± 29.38)."
|2021||Lasers Med Sci||Photobiomodulation combined with adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated in methacrylated gelatin hydrogels enhances in vivo bone regeneration||Rats||Broadband light||600-|
|"ADSC-loaded microwave-induced GEL-MA hydrogels and periodic application of photobiomodulation with polychromatic light appear to have beneficial effect on bone regeneration and can stimulate ADSCs for osteogenic differentiation."||PubMed|
(São José dos Campos)
|2021||Lasers Med Sci||Bone repair assessment of critical size defects in rats treated with mineralized bovine bone (Bio-Oss®) and photobiomodulation therapy: a histomorphometric and immunohistochemical study||660||45||"At 60 days, groups L and C displayed the highest proportion of bone neoformation. However, group B+L had more than twice as much bone neoformation as group B at 30 days. These findings indicate the positive role of PBM in the early stages of bone regeneration. In addition, TRAP immunostaining occurred later in group L, demonstrating a possible association of PBM with positive bone metabolism."||PubMed|
|2021||Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg||The Effects of Photobiomodulation on Leukocyte and Platelet-Rich Fibrin as Barrier Membrane on Bone Regeneration: An Experimental Animal Study||Sheep||"The PBMT/L-PRF group presented higher values than the L-PRF group and controls for these parameters though not statistically significant (p > 0.05)."|
"The findings show that PBMT may provide additional regenerative properties to L-PRF when used as barrier membranes. However, these results did not reach the collagen membranes, which warrants further studies for adapting the laser parameters to increase regenerative capacity of L-PRF."
|2021||J Photochem Photobiol B||Is an anodizing coating associated to the photobiomodulation able to optimize bone healing in ovariectomized animal model?||Rat||808||100||3.5||6||212||"PEO [plasma electrolytic oxidation] and PBM are effective strategies for bone repair in fractures, however their association does not provide additional advantages."||PubMed|
|2021||J Biomed Mater Res A||Bone substitutes and photobiomodulation in bone regeneration: A systematic review in animal experimental studies||Systematic review (animal research)||"After the eligibility analyses, 16 studies were included in this review. The results showed that the most common material used was hydroxyapatite (HA) followed by Biosilicate associated with infrared PBM."|
"In conclusion, this review demonstrates that the association of ceramic biomaterials and PBM presented positive effects for bone repair in experimental models of bone defects."
|2021||Molecules||Photobiomodulation Therapy on the Guided Bone Regeneration Process in Defects Filled by Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Associated with Fibrin Biopolymer||Rat||830||30||0.2586||2.9||6.2||0.116|
|3/wk||"PBMT showed positive effects capable of improving and accelerating the guided bone regeneration process when associated with biphasic calcium phosphate and fibrin biopolymer."||PubMed|
|2020||J Biophotonics||Effects of photobiomodulation on bone defects grafted with bone substitutes: A systematic review of in vivo animal studies||Systematic review (animal research)||"After applying the eligibility criteria, 38 papers included where the results reported according to "PRISMA." The results revealed insufficient and incomplete PBM parameters, however, the outcomes with or without biomaterials have positive effects on bone healing. |
In conclusion, in vivo animal studies with a standardized protocol to elucidate the effects of PBMT on biomaterials are required initially prior to clinical studies."
|2020||J Photochem Photobiol B||Photobiomodulation as adjunctive therapy for guided bone regeneration. A microCT study in osteoporotic rat model||Rat||808||40||1.42||"The application of PBM as adjunctive therapy to GBR results in enhanced bone formation and maturation in comparison to the conventional GBR in the regeneration of lesions of osteoporotic bone in rats."||PubMed|
|2020||Biochem Biophys Res Commun||Preconditioning adipose-derived stem cells with photobiomodulation significantly increased bone healing in a critical size femoral defect in rats||Rat|
(+ in vitro)
|"In vitro preconditioned of hADS [adipose-derived stem cells] with PBM significantly increased ADSs viability compared to control group. A combination of ADS plus PBM had significantly increased bone repair of repairing tissue in the CSFD in comparison with control, the alone PBM in vivo, and alone ADS protocols in rats. |
hADS preconditioned with PBM in vitro significantly increased bone repair in vivo and showed significantly better results than the hADS þ PBM in vivo and hADS þ PBM in vitroþin vivo protocols."
|Bone||Bone repair||Santinoni||Brazil||2020||J Biomed Mater Res A||Bone marrow coagulated and low-level laser therapy accelerate bone healing by enhancing angiogenesis, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation, and mineralization||Rat||660||4.9||"Groups BMA/LLLT and LLLT presented significantly higher VEGF expression than group control. |
Group BMA/LLLT presented a significantly higher expression of PCNA than all experimental groups.
Groups BMA and BMA/LLLT presented significantly higher expression of BMP-2 than all experimental groups.
Groups LLLT and BMA/LLLT presented significantly higher expression of OPN than groups control and BMA.
Groups LLLT, BMA, and BMA/LLLT presented a significantly higher expression of OCN than group control.
It can be concluded that the association of BMA and LLLT enhanced bone healing by improving expression of VEGF, PCNA, Runx2, BMP-2, OPN, and OCN."
|2020||Arch Oral Biol||Effect of Low- Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration of Critical-Size Bone Defects: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies and Meta-Analysis||Meta-analysis (animal research)||"Finally, 18 studies were included. Fourteen studies utilized low-level laser with a wavelength ranging from 606 to 980 nm and 53 % of studies applied low-level laser in a single session. Ten studies utilized continuous wave mode of laser. Highest and lowest values of power density were 1.5 W/cm2 and 0.1 W/cm2 in order. Eleven studies evaluated low-lever laser therapy on defects of 5 mm in calvaria. |
Meta-analysis showed the positive effect of low-level laser therapy on osteogenesis after 30 days compared to control group and no significant difference after 60 days."
|2020||J Craniofac Surg||Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Therapy or Low-Level Laser Therapy: Which is More Effective in Bone Healing in Bisphosphonate Treatment?||Rat||Tooth extraction||810||"The highest new bone volume was observed in the early LLLT+ESWT. New vessel volume and CD31 expression were found to be high in the LLLT group. matrixmetalloproteinaze (MMP)-2 expression was found increased by the application of LLLT and ESWT."|
"The LLLT and ESWT have similar effect on socket healing in the early period and that co-use is more effective upon healing. The LLLT has been shown to increase CD31 expression and increase vascularization and soft-tissue healing."
|2020||J Bone Miner Metab||Marine collagen scaffolds and photobiomodulation on bone healing process in a model of calvaria defects.||Rat||808||30||0.8||30||0.028|
|"Histological findings demonstrated that SPG/PBM-treated animals, 45 days post-surgery, demonstrated a higher amount of connective and newly formed bone tissue at the region of the defect compared to CG. Notwithstanding, no difference among groups were observed in the histomorphometry. Interestingly, for both anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunostaining, higher values for SPG/PBM, at 45 days post-surgery could be observed."||PubMed|
|2020||Int J Mol Sci||Osteogenic Potential of Bovine Bone Graft in Combination with Laser Photobiomodulation: An Ex Vivo Demonstrative Study in Wistar Rats by Cross-Linked Studies Based on Synchrotron Microtomography and Histology.||Rat||Calvarial defect||808||0.450||24.075||85|
|"We demonstrated that using photobiomodulation provides a better healing effect than when receiving only the support of the biomaterial. This effect has been evident for short times treatments, i.e., during the first 14 days after surgery."||PubMed|
|2020||J Photochem Photobiol B||Effect of laser photobiomodulation associated with a bioceramic cement on the repair of bone tissue in the femur of rats.||Rat||808||100||2.2/p||80||22/p||"Laser photobiomodulation therapy is promising as an adjuvant in the bone repair process, especially when associated with the use of biomaterials."||PubMed|
|2020||Biomolecules||Photobiomodulation Therapy Associated with Heterologous Fibrin Biopolymer and Bovine Bone Matrix Helps to Reconstruct Long Bones.||Rat||830||30||0.259||6||0.116|
|"It was concluded that the association of PBMT with HFB and BM has the potential to assist in the process of reconstructing bone defects in the tibia of rats."||PubMed|
|2019||Laser Ther||Photobiomodulation guided healing in a sub-critical bone defect in calvarias of rats.||Rat||808||100||30||6|
|"Histology analysis demonstrated that for PBM most of the bone defect was filled with newly formed bone (with a more mature aspect when compared to CG). Histomorphomeric analysis also demonstrated a higher amount of newly formed bone deposition in the irradiated animals, 2 weeks post-surgery. Furthermore, there was a more intense deposition of collagen for PBM, with ticker fibers. |
Results from Runx-2 immunohistochemistry demonstrated that a higher immunostaining for CG 2 week's post-surgery and no other difference was observed for Rank-L immunostaining."
"This current study concluded that the use of PBM was effective in stimulating newly formed bone and collagen fiber deposition in the sub-critical bone defect, being a promising strategy for bone tissue engineering."
|2019||J Lasers Med Sci||The Effect of Photobiomodulation on Distraction Osteogenesis.||Review||"This study reviews 18 published articles on the effects of LLLT on DO and summarizes their findings to further elucidate this topic."||PubMed|
|2019||Materials (Basel)||Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT) Applied in Bone Reconstructive Surgery Using Bovine Bone Grafts: A Systematic Review.||Systematic review (animal research)||"In the studies concerning animals (17 in total), there was evidence of PBMT assisting in biomaterial-related conduction, formation of new bone, bone healing, immunomarker expression, increasing collagen fibers, and local inflammation reduction. However, the results disagreed with regard to the resorption of biomaterial particles. |
The only human study showed that PBMT with bovine bone was effective for periodontal regeneration.
It was concluded that PBMT assists the process in bone reconstruction when associated with bovine bone, despite divergences between applied protocols."
|2019||Injury||Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in bone repair: A systematic review.||Systematic review (animal research)||"Many studies have shown that PBMT has positive photobiostimulatory effects on bone regeneration, accelerating its process regardless of parameters and the use of biomaterials. However, standardization of its use is still imperfect and should be better studied to allow correct application concerning the utilization protocols."||PubMed|
|2019||J Mater Sci Mater Med||Bioglass/PLGA associated to photobiomodulation: effects on the healing process in an experimental model of calvarial bone defect.||Rat||808||100||30||"Interesting, the use of PBM did not have any stimulatory effects of BG/PLGA composites on the process of bone repair."||PubMed|
|J Craniofac Surg||Evaluation of the Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Diabetic Bone Healing.||Rat||Diabetic rats||808||100||3.57||2.2||78,5||0.028|
|22||10||"The LLLT was effective to stimulate osteoblastogenesis but failed to increase bone formation. Graft augmentation for treatment of bone defects seems essential for proper bone healing in diabetes, regeneration may be supported by the LLLT to enhance osteoblastogenesis."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Tas Deynek||Turkey|
|2019||Angle Orthod||Effects of different settings for 940 nm diode laser on expanded suture in rats.||Rat||Biphasic dose response||940||18|
|"The InGaAsP laser at the low dosage induced a favorable effect on bone formation in the orthopedically expanded midpalatal suture of rats."||PubMed|
|2019||J Appl Oral Sci||The influence of LLLT applied on applied on calvarial defect in rats under effect of cigarette smoke.||Rat||660||30||8||0.028|
|"Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the PBM protocol used provided adjunctive effect on osteogenesis and may compensate the negative factor of smoking in the bone repair process."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||de Miranda||Brazil|
|2019||Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants||Histologic Evaluation of Early Bone Regeneration Treated with Simvastatin Associated with Low-Level Laser Therapy.||Rat||LLLT vs simvastatin||830||100|
|"Greater new bone formation and a lower degree of inflammation were observed in the animals that had bone neoformation at the center of the defect, especially in the LLLT and SIM-LLLT groups. |
SIM and C groups presented greater angiogenesis than LLLT and SIM-LLLT. SIMLLLT therapy showed a statistically significant reduction in the degree of inflammation when compared to the control group (P < .05)."
|2019||Animal Model Exp Med||Low-level laser therapy enhances the number of osteocytes in calvaria bone defects of ovariectomized rats.||Rat||780||20/30||3|
|"We conclude that LLLT stimulated bone neoformation and contributed to an increase in the total number of osteocytes, especially with a laser energy density of 30 J/cm2 given for 6 and 12 sessions."||PubMed|
|2018||Laser Ther||Association of Bioglass/Collagen/Magnesium composites and low level irradiation: effects on bone healing in a model of tibial defect in rats.||Rat||808||30||2.8||94||"The results showed that Col could be successfully introduced into BG/Mg and the association of BG/Mg/Col and LLLT constituted an optimized treatment for accelerating material degradation and increasing bone deposition. Additionally, mechanical tests showed an increased maximal load for BG/Mg + LLLT compared to other groups."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Buchignani||Brazil |
|2019||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of low-level laser therapy and zoledronic acid on bone repair process||Rat||Groups:|
3) zoledronic acid (ZA)
4) ZA + LLLT
LLLT vs zoledronic acid
|808||30||0.42||32||57.14/point||0.07 cm2/point||133 /point||"In intergroup comparison, group 1 (mean ± SD= 45.2 ± 18.56%) showed a lower bone formation compared with groups 2 (64.13 ± 3.51%) (p = 0.358) and 4 (15.2 ± 78.22%) (p = 0.049), at the 14-day period. Group 3 (20.99 ± 7.42%) also presented a lower amount of neoformed bone tissue, with statistically significant difference when compared with groups 1 (p = 0.002), 2, and 4 (p ≤ 0,001). After 28 days, group 1 presented a lower amount of neoformed bone tissue compared with the other groups, with p = 0.020. |
Thus, it was concluded that LLLT associated with zoledronic acid is effective for stimulating bone formation in surgically created defects in rats, at the periods studied."
|2019||Int J Mol Sci||Fibrin Sealant Derived from Human Plasma as a Scaffold for Bone Grafts Associated with Photobiomodulation Therapy.||830||30||0.259||2.9||6||0.116|
|"It was concluded that the support system formed by the xenograft fibrin sealant associated with the photobiomodulation therapy protocol had a positive effect on the bone repair process."||PubMed|
|2019||Prog Biophys Mol Biol||Molecular impacts of photobiomodulation on bone regeneration: A systematic review.||Systematic review||"This systematic review was performed based on PRISMA guideline. Among these studies, five articles reported in vitro results, twelve articles were in vivo, and three of them were clinical trials (...) |
PBM's effects depend on many parameters which energy density is more important than the others. PBM can significantly enhance expression of osteocalcin, collagen, RUNX-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenic proteins, and COX-2.
Although since the heterogeneity of the studies and their limitations, an evidence-based decision for definite therapeutic application of PBM is still unattainable, the findings of our review can help other researchers to ameliorate their study design and elect more efficient approach for their investigation."
|2018||Lasers Med Sci||Laser/LED phototherapy on the repair of tibial fracture treated with wire osteosynthesis evaluated by Raman spectroscopy.||Rabbit||LLLT vs LED||780|
|"It is concluded that the use of either laser or LED phototherapy associated to MTA cement was efficacious on improving the repair of complete tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis by increasing the synthesis of collagen matrix and creating a scaffold of calcium carbonate (carbonated hydroxyapatite-like) and the subsequent deposition of phosphate hydroxyapatite."||PubMed|
|2018||Photomed Laser Surg||Photobiomodulation Therapy in Bone Repair Associated with Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Guided Bone Regeneration: A Histomorphometric Study||Rat||PBM vs bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and bovine biological membranes||830||40||4||0,6 cm2||7|
every 48h during 2wk
|"Histological analysis confirmed the histomorphometric results, with the experimental groups showing bone neoformation of significantly higher quality and quantity at the end of 30 days compared with the control group."|
"PBMT was effective for bone repair mainly when associated with BMPs and a biological membrane. The results of this study are promising and stimulate further scientific and clinical research."
|2018||Lasers Med Sci||Photobiomodulation on critical bone defects of rat calvaria: a systematic review.||Systematic review (animal data)||"Most of the evaluated articles presented positive results that describe a greater amount of neoformed bone, an increase in collagen synthesis, and a contribution to microvascular reestablishment. However, two studies report no effect on the repair process when the PBM was used. In addition, we observed considerable variations between the values of power, fluence, and total energy, which make it difficult to compare the results presented between the selected studies."|
Comment: 14 papers were included to the systematic review.
|2018||Photomed Laser Surg||Evaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Partial Osteotomy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.||Rat||Diabetic rats||890||1.15||1.5||1|
|"PBM significantly increased volumes of total callus, total bone, bone marrow, trabecular bone, and cortical bone, and the numbers of osteocytes and osteoblasts of callus in TIDM rats compared to those of callus in diabetic control. In addition, TIDM increased RUNX2, and osteocalcin in callus of tibial bone defect compared to healthy group. PBM significantly decreased osteocalcin gene expression in TIDM rats."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Gurler & Gursoy||Cyprus (North)||2018||J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg||Investigation Of Effects Of Low Level Laser Therapy In Distraction Osteogenesis.||Rabbit||"The use of LLLT in activation period of distraction osteogenesis stimulates bone repair in the early stages of distraction osteogenesis by inducing intramembranous healing and less cartilage tissue formation in the bone callus."||PubMed|
|2018||J Appl Oral Sci||Evaluation of photobiomodulation therapy associated with guided bone regeneration in critical size defects. In vivo study.||Rat||808||100||210||300|
|"All groups had greater area of newly formed bone compared to group C (9.96±4.49%). The group PBMT+M (achieved the greater quantity of new bone (64.09±7.62%), followed by groups PBMT (47.67±8.66%), M (47.43±15.73%), AB+PBMT (39.15±16.72%) and AB+PBMT+M (35.82±7.68%). After group C, the groups AB (25.10±16.59%) and AB+M (22.72±13.83%) had the smallest quantities of newly formed bone. The area of remaining particles did not have statistically significant difference between groups AB+M (14.93±8.92%) and AB+PBMT+M (14.76±6.58%)."||PubMed|
(São José dos Campos)
|2018||Lasers Med Sci||Evaluation of bone repair after application of a norbixin membrane scaffold with and without laser photobiomodulation (λ 780 nm).||Rat||780||60||6||4||"The laser PBM also showed positive effects on the bone repair process with increased deposition and organization of the newly formed bone. However, laser PBM failed to improve the bioactive properties of the membrane scaffold."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Moreira||Brazil||2018||Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants||Effect of Low-Level Laser on the Healing of Bone Defects Filled with Autogenous Bone or Bioactive Glass: In Vivo Study.||Rat||780||100||210||300|
|"The LLLT, in the present application protocol, did not increase the area of new bone formation when associated with autogenous bone or bioactive glass."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||de Oliveira||Brazil|
|2018||Lasers Surg Med||Effect of low-level laser therapy on the healing of sites grafted with coagulum, deproteinized bovine bone, and biphasic ceramic made of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. In vivo study in rats.||Rat||808||100||d = 600 µm||"The animals treated with LLLT exhibited increased mineralized tissues and bone, particularly after 90 days. These increases were associated with increased BMP2, OCN, and ALP protein expression and ALP, BMP2, and Jagged1 mRNA expression."|
"LLLT improved the osteoconductive potential of DBB and HA/βTCP grafts and bone formation in ungrafted areas."
|2017||Laser Ther||Effect of low-level laser therapy on fracture healing in rabbits.||Rabbit||Radial bone||830||4||"Findings suggest that in this study, laser treatment did not enhance callus formation nor reduce repair time of complete fracture of the radius in rabbits."||PubMed|
|2017||J Craniomaxillofac Surg||Effects of low-level laser therapy and platelet concentrate on bone repair: Histological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and radiographic study.||Rat||780||-||-||-||7.5||-||60||7||"LLLT reduces inflammation and contributes to increased bone formation. PC treatment was shown to maintain connective tissue and to induce fibrosis during bone repair. Combined LLLT and PC treatment did not improve bone repair."||PubMed||Twin Lasers (MM-Optics) device|
|2017||J Cosmet Laser Ther||The effects of low-level laser therapy on the healing of bone defects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: A histological and morphometric evaluation.||Rat||820||500||16||1|
|32||12||"DM group had significantly smaller bone area and lower blood vessel count when compared to DM + LLLT, CONT and CONT + LLLT groups (p < 0.05 for each). CONT and CONT + LLLT groups had significantly larger bone area than DM + LLLT group (p < 0.05 for both)."|
"LLLT application promoted vascularization and new bone formation in animals with DM to a limited extent, since it was unable to support the healing process up to the level of non-diabetic animals."
|2017||Photomed Laser Surg||Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration During Osseointegration and Bone Graft.||Systematic review||"19 articles met the inclusion criteria."|
"A positive effect of low-level laser energy on bone regeneration within a certain relationship between dose and output power was found. LLLT stimulates cellular metabolism, increasing protein synthesis and subsequent bone regeneration. A high dose combined with low power or a low dose combined with high power appears to produce a positive effect."
|2017||J Photochem Photobiol B||Biosilicate/PLGA osteogenic effects modulated by laser therapy: In vitro and in vivo studies.||Rat|
(+ in vitro)
|"As a conclusion, animals treated with BS/PLGA+LLLT demonstrated an improved material degradation and an increased amount of granulation tissue and newly formed bone."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||de Oliveira||Brazil|
|2017||Int J Exp Pathol||Low-level laser therapy (780 nm) combined with collagen sponge scaffold promotes repair of rat cranial critical-size defects and increases TGF-β, FGF-2, OPG/RANK and osteocalcin expression.||Rat||780||50||--||-||120||-||-||"Compared to the [control] group, defects in the 30-day [LLLT] group exhibited increased bone formation, both by increase in radiopaque areas (P < 0.01) and by histomorphometric analysis (P < 0.001). The histopathological analysis showed a decreased number of inflammatory cells (P < 0.001). The combined CCS + LLLT (G3) treatment also resulted in the most intense immunostaining for OPG, RANK, FGF-2 and TGF-β, and the most intense and diffuse OCN immunofluorescent labelling at 30 days postsurgery (G3 vs. G0 group, P < 0.05).|
Therefore, the use of CCS associated with LLLT could offer a synergistic advantage in improving the healing of bone fractures."
(São José dos Campos)
|Lasers Med Sci||Effect of non-coherent infrared light (LED, λ945 ± 20 nm) on bone repair in diabetic rats-morphometric and spectral analyses.||Rat||Diabetic rats|
|"It can be concluded that LED therapy positively influences bone formation in the early stages of the bone repair process in non-diabetic and diabetic animals, without causing changes in the optical density and volume of tissue in the final stages. No influence of LED therapy was observed on the percentage of calcium, percentage of phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, or optical mineral density in non-diabetic animals. However, increased mineral concentration was evident in the diabetic animals treated with the LED during the repair process."||PubMed|
|Photomed Laser Surg||Evaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Bone Healing in Healthy and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.||Rat||Partial osteotomy||890||8320|
|"Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p = 0.013) results showed that treatment by PBM significantly increased the biomechanical property (stress high load) of the callus defect from the partial tibia osteotomy in healthy rats compared to the control groups. However, we observed no significant increase in the biomechanical properties of the laser-treated diabetic bone defect compared to the control diabetic group."|
"The 80-Hz laser did not significantly enhance bone repair from an osteotomy of the tibia in an experimental model of TI DM rats."
Comment: The parameters seem contradictory.
|PubMed||Device: "Mustang 2000; Technical Co., Moscow, Russia and LO7 probe"|
|2017||Lasers Med Sci||Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.||Rat||LED phototherapy|
LLLT vs LED
|7?||"These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA."||PubMed|
|☹||Bone||Bone repair||Iryanov||Russia||2016||J Lasers Med Sci||Influence of Laser Irradiation Low Intensity on Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis Under Transosseous Osteosynthesis.||Rat||Uzor A-2K device||890||4000|
|-||-||-||-||600||4||"The sessions of laser irradiation decreased inflammatory process severity, activated fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis, accelerated the compactization of newly formed bone tissue, and enhanced its maturity degree while primary healing occurred in the fracture."|
Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
|PubMed||Uzor A-2K device. Pulsing 150Hz.|
|2017||Braz Oral Res||The efficacy of low-level 940 nm laser therapy with different energy intensities on bone healing.||Rat||Biphasic dose response?||940||1500|
|d = 30|
|7||"No significant change was observed in the number of osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and newly formed vessels at either time period across all laser groups. Although LLLT with the 10 J/cm2 energy density increased fibroblast activity at the 4th week in comparison with the 5 and 20 J/cm2 groups, no significant change was observed between the laser groups and the control group. "|
"These results indicate that low-level 940 nm laser with different energy intensities may not have marked effects on the bone healing process in both phases of bone formation."
|☹||Bone||Bone repair||de Almeida||Brazil|
|2016||Arch Oral Biol||Influence of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in the jaws of systemically nicotine-modified rats: A histomorphometric study.||Rat||Autogenous bone block graft||660||35||-||-||4||-||27||"Nicotine harms bone formation in the bed-graft interface and LLLT action can mitigate this."|
Comment: There seems to be an error in the reporting of parameters. They irradiated 8 spots with 4J/cm2 and another area with 4J/cm2. They claim that the total dose was 36J/cm2, but energy density can not be added up this way.
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Low level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.||Rat||Spinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect||808||30||1.7||2.8||100||0.028|
|94||6||"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation.|
In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."
|2016||Photomed Laser Surg||Effects of Photobiomodulation and Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Articular Cartilage Defects in a Rabbit Model.||Rabbit||810||30||0.430||-||4 / 8.5|
|"No significant difference in new cartilage formation and inflammation was found between the groups (p > 0.05). However, there was significantly more new bone formation in the experimental group (p < 0.05)."|
Comment: The abstract claims the energy density is 4 J/cm2 and full text claims the energy density is 8.5 J/cm2.
|PubMed||Thor LX2 device|
|Bone||Bone repair||Rajaei Jafarabadi||Iran|
|2016||Lasers Med Sci||The effects of photobiomodulation and low-amplitude high-frequency vibration on bone healing process: a comparative study.||Rat||A transverse critical size defect (CSD) to femur||830||40||-||1.52||4||d = 0.35|
|"The biostimulation effects of PBM or LLLT and of low-amplitude high-frequency WBV both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of a stainless steel implant. But their combination, i.e., low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process."||PubMed|
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Low level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.||Rat||Spinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect||808||30||1.7 /|
|94||6||"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation. In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."|
Comment: The power density (irradiance) was 1.7 W/cm2 according to the abstract, and 1.07 W/cm2 according to the full text.
|PubMed||Application mode: Stationary in skin contact mode|
|2016||J Oral Maxillofac Surg||Influence of a Magnetic Field and Laser Therapy on the Quality of Mandibular Bone During Distraction Osteogenesis in Rabbits.||Rabbit||830|
|d = 0.4|
|10||"The LLLT group exhibited a larger amount of newly formed bone and a larger number of osteoblasts in the cell division phase, but the difference was not statistically relevant compared with the control group."|
Comment: Wavelength was 830nm according to the abstract, but 780nm according to the full text.
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone healing of critical-size defects treated with bovine bone graft.||Rat||Bone graft||660||30||0.42||19.44||30.85||0.07|
|"LLLT can improve bone formation process in CSD filled or not with BBG in rat calvaria, but it is not able to accelerate particles resorption of this material in the interior of bone defect."||PubMed|
|☹||Bone||Bone repair||Acar||Turkey||2016||Arch Oral Biol||Bone regeneration by low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy in the rabbit calvarium.||Rabbit||810||100||-||-||4||-||120||6||LLLT enhanced new bone formation in comparison to the untreated controls.|
Comment: Parameters were poorly reported.
|PubMed||Device: "CHEESE Dental Laser System, DEN4A"|
|2015||J Oral Implantol||Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Photobiomodulation Therapy and BioOss as Single and Combined Treatment in an Experimental Model of Bone Defect Healing in Rats.||Rat||LED phototherapy||618||-||0.02||-||24||-||1200||4|
|"Within the limitations of this study, LPT has positive effects on bone healing histopathologically and histomorphometrically for the defects filled with BioOss 3 weeks after the rats' femora injury."|
Comment: Parameters were poorly reported. For example, spot size was not reported.
|PubMed||OsseoPulse LED device|
|2015||Acta Cir Bras||Improvement of bone repair in diabetic rats subjected to ƛ780 nm low-level laser therapy.||Rat||Diabetic rats||780||70||1.75||0.7||17.5||0.04|
|4||"Low-level laser therapy significantly increased alkaline phosphatase in at seven and 18 days (p<0.001), and improved bone healing at seven (p<0.01), 18 (p<0.05) and 30 (p<0.01) in diabetic animals. In addition, bone healing in irradiated diabetic group was statistically similar to control group at 30 days (p>0.05)."|
Comment: Parameters were well reported!
|2015||J Photochem Photobiol B||The effects of combined low level laser therapy and mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration in rabbit calvarial defects.||Rabbit||810||0.2||4||11|
|"The histological evaluation showed a statistically significant increase in new bone formation of LLLT group relative to the control and the other two experimental groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in bone formation of the control group compared to experimental groups filled with MSCs. Laser irradiation had no significant effect on resorption of the scaffold material. In addition, inflammation was significantly reduced in LLLT group compared to the control defects and the other two experimental groups."|
"Low level laser therapy could be effective in bone regeneration but there is no evidence of a synergistic effect when applied in conjunction with MSCs."
|Bone||Bone repair||Soares||Brazil (Salvador, Bahia)||2015||Braz Dent J||Repair of surgical bone defects grafted with hydroxylapatite + β-TCP and irradiated with λ=850 nm LED light.||Rat||Surgical bone defect|
Bone graft (HA + β-TCP)
|-||7||"It may be concluded that the use of LED phototherapy was effective in positively modulating the process of bone repair of bone defects in the femur of rats submitted or not to biomaterial grafting."|
Comment: Treatment parameters were poorly reported. Radiant energy, power density and treatment duration were missing.
|PubMed||Device: FisioLED; MMOptics , São Carlos, SP, Brazil|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: a randomized controlled experimental study.||Rat||808||-||0.2||2|
|8||"Microscopic analysis revealed a significant decrease in inflammatory infiltration, intense trabecular bone matrix and periosteal formation, and an increase in newly formed bone after laser irradiation."||PubMed||Magnus Plus, DMC Equipment; gallium aluminum arsenide laser device|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||New LLLT protocol to speed up the bone healing process-histometric and immunohistochemical analysis in rat calvarial bone defect.||Rat||830||50||16|
|"The results suggest LLLT using the protocol 2 hastened the bone healing process in the early periods after surgery."|
Comment: At 45 days, there was no difference between the groups, but at 15 days, the amount of newly formed bone seemed to be a little bit higher in the laser groups.
Comment: It seems that spot/beam size wasn't reported in this study.
|2015||Rev Bras Ortop||COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL LASER AND LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND ASSOCIATED WITH BIOSILICATE(®) ON THE PROCESS OF BONE REPAIR IN THE RAT TIBIA.||Rat||THERALASE device (version 24)||830||100||3.57||3.4||120||0.028|
|34||1?||"Curiously, the Biosilicate® plus laser or ultrasound groups showed lower amounts of bone tissue deposition when compared with control fracture and Biosilicate® groups."||PubMed|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||Photobiomodulation and bone healing in diabetic rats: evaluation of bone response using a tibial defect experimental model.||Rat||Diabetic rats|
Tibial bone healing
|"In the histological and morphometric evaluation, all laser-treated groups showed a better histological pattern and a higher amount of newly formed bone compared to DCG. An intense RUNX2 immunoexpression was observed in the laser-treated groups, 15 days after the surgery. |
There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical analysis among the groups.
In conclusion, PBM, in all fluences used, showed an osteogenic potential in bone healing of diabetic rats"
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||Low-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?||Rat||Systemic effects?||830||50||-||6||210||d = 0.028|
|"Laser therapy presented a positive local biostimulative effect in the early stage of bone healing, but the LLLT effect was not observed a long distance from the evaluated area."||PubMed||Application: punctual|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||The effect of dosage on the efficiency of LLLT in new bone formation at the expanded suture in rats.||Rat||Midpalatal suture expansion||820||50|
|4||"Low-level laser therapy with both 5 and 6,300 J/cm(2) doses was found to be significantly effective, while the 20 J/cm(2) dose did not show a significant effect in increasing new bone formation. This finding reveals that the efficiency of the therapy is affected by the dosage."|
Note: There was increase in bone formation in the medium dose group as well, but it was a little bit less pronounced. The bone formation increase was clearly highest in the "low dose" group (87%) compared to medium (41%) and high (51%) dose groups.
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||The influence of low-level laser therapy with alendronate irrigation on healing of bone defects in rats.||Rat||Alendronate potentiation||808||-||0.1||-||2||1|
|20||5||"Our findings demonstrated that Aln has a more positive effect with LLLT on bone healing in rats.|
It was concluded that combining LLLT with Aln irrigation has a beneficial effect in bone repair. It was demonstrated experimentally that Aln irrigation during the surgery had a significant effect to enhance bone formation, and LLLT significantly potentiated the osseous healing effects of Aln on bone defects. This administration method is able to minimize the dose of Aln in order to avoid both systemic and local adverse effects as well as the local injection times during the bone healing process."
|2014||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.||Rat||Radiotherapy||830||50|
|120||4||"The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation."|
Note: The parameters in the abstract contradict the parameters given in the full text.
|2014||Lasers Med Sci||Raman study of the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + β-calcium triphosphate and irradiated or not with λ780 nm laser.||Rat||780||70||-||-||5|
|-||7||"It is concluded that the use of laser phototherapy associated to biomaterial was effective in improving bone healing on bone defects as a result of the increasing deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite measured by Raman spectroscopy."||PubMed|
|2014||J Photochem Photobiol B||Influence of the λ780nm laser light on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxylapatite+Beta-Calcium triphosphate.||Rat||780||70||-||-||5|
|-||7||"Many similarities were observed histologically between groups on regards bone reabsorption and neoformation, inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition. The criterion degree of maturation, marked by the presence of basophilic lines, indicated that the use of LPT associated with HA+Beta TCP graft, resulted in more advanced stage of bone repair at the end of the experiment."|
Comment: These authors appear to think that energy density in 4 separate points can be added up (4*5 J/cm2 = 20 J/cm2)...
|Bone||Bone repair||de Almeida||Brazil|
|2014||Clin Oral Implants Res||The effect of low-level laser on bone healing in critical size defects treated with or without autogenous bone graft: an experimental study in rat calvaria.||Rat||780 |
|1||"Utilization of LLL favored the healing process in rat calvaria. The quantity of new bone formation with use of the LLL was similar to the autogenous bone graft."|
Comment: Parameters in abstract and full text contradict each others (eg. wavelength 780 vs 810; power density 6 J/cm2 vs 210 J/cm2
Comment: Also, the full text states that "power" is 100 mW/cm2, but that is the unit of intensity/irradiance, not power. The reporting of parameters is extremely bad in this case.