--> My photobiomodulation review!
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|★||Category||Sub-category||First author||Country||Year||Journal||Title||Study type||Sub-category 2 /|
|N||Results: positive ☺ / unclear/modest ☺ / negative ☹ ↑ ↓ →||Link||Additional info||Comment||Reply|
|2016||J Biophotonics||Photobiomodulation reduces abdominal adipose tissue inflammatory infiltrate of diet-induced obese and hyperglycemic mice.||Mouse||LED phototherapy||843||60||0.019||18||5.7||3.14|
|300||6||"Non-irradiated control animals display inflammatory areas almost five times greater than the treated group (p < 0.001). This result on inflammatory infiltrate may have caused impacts on the significant lower blood glucose level from irradiated animals (p = 0.04), twenty-four hours after the last irradiation session."||PubMed|
|2004||Plast Reconstr Surg||Effect of low-level laser therapy on abdominal adipocytes before lipoplasty procedures.||Human|
(+ in vitro)
|"Recently, low-level laser therapy was reported to "liquefy" or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment."|
"No histologic tissue changes or specifically in adipocyte structure were observed at any depth with the longest low-level laser therapy (60 minutes with superwet fluid)."
"These data do not support the belief that low-level laser therapy treatment before lipoplasty procedures disrupts tissue adipocyte structure."
|2002||Plast Reconstr Surg||Fat liquefaction: effect of low-level laser energy on adipose tissue.||In vitro||Human adipose tissue samples||635||10||1.2|
|"The low-level laser energy affected the adipose cell by causing a transitory pore in the cell membrane to open, which permitted the fat content to go from inside to outside the cell. The cells in the interstitial space and the capillaries remained intact. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty has a significant impact on the procedural implementation of lipoplasty techniques."|
Comment: These results were unsupported by Brown et al. paper published in 2004.
|2006||Lasers Med Sci||Action of low-level laser therapy on living fatty tissue of rats.||Rat||670||9||4|
|"Low-level laser rays cause brown adipose fat droplets to coalesce and fuse. Additionally, they stimulated proliferation and congestion of capillaries in the extracellular matrix."||PubMed|
|Alcohol addiction||Zalewska-Kaszubska & Obzejta||Poland|
|2004||Lasers Med Sci||Use of low-energy laser as adjunct treatment of alcohol addiction.||Human||514|
|20||"Improvement in BDI-FS and increase in, beta-endorphin level were observed. These results suggest that laser therapy can be useful as an adjunct treatment for alcoholism."||PubMed|
|★||Autoimmunity||Multiple sclerosis||Gonçalves||Brazil (Araranguá)||2016||Autoimmunity||Low-level laser therapy ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.||Mouse||Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis||660|
|"Our results showed that LLLT consistently reduced the clinical score of EAE and delayed the disease onset, and also prevented weight loss induced by immunization.|
Furthermore, these beneficial effects of LLLT seem to be associated with the down-regulation of NO levels in the CNS, although the treatment with LLLT failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation and restore antioxidant defense during EAE.
Finally, histological analysis showed that LLLT blocked neuroinflammation through a reduction of inflammatory cells in the CNS, especially lymphocytes, as well as preventing demyelination in the spinal cord after EAE induction.
Together, our results suggest the use of LLLT as a therapeutic application during autoimmune neuroinflammatory responses, such as MS."
Comment: This group erroneously claims that 'there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT' in EAE. This claim is simply not true, because researchers from Milwaukee had published two reports on photobiomodulation and EAE in 2012 and 2013.
|Autoimmunity||Multiple sclerosis||Muili||USA (Milwaukee, WI)||2013||PLoS One||Photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light ameliorates MOG35-55 induced EAE in female C57BL/6 mice: a role for remediation of nitrosative stress.||Mouse||Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis|
|670||2100||0.028||375||180||7||"Cell culture experiments demonstrated that 670 nm light-mediated photobiomodulation attenuated antigen-specific nitric oxide production by heterogenous lymphocyte populations isolated from MOG immunized mice.|
Experiments in the EAE model demonstrated down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in the spinal cords of mice with EAE over the course of disease, compared to sham treated animals.
Animals receiving 670 nm light treatment also exhibited up-regulation of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptosis gene, an increased Bcl-2:Bax ratio, and reduced apoptosis within the spinal cord of animals over the course of disease.
670 nm light therapy failed to ameliorate MOG-induced EAE in mice deficient in iNOS, confirming a role for remediation of nitrosative stress in the amelioration of MOG-induced EAE by 670 nm mediated photobiomodulation."
|★||Autoimmunity||Multiple sclerosis||Muili||USA (Milwaukee, WI)||2012||PLoS One||Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice by photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light.||Mouse||Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis|
|180||"Disease was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) according to standard laboratory protocol. Mice received 670 nm light or no light treatment (sham) administered as suppression and treatment protocols.|
670 nm light reduced disease severity with both protocols compared to sham treated mice.
Disease amelioration was associated with down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) in vitro and in vivo."
|Autoimmunity||Pemphigus vulgaris||Pavlić||?||2014||Med Pregl||Pemphigus vulgaris and laser therapy: crucial role of dentists.||Review||"Low-level laser therapy could result in immediate and significant analgesia and improved wound healing within the observation period and follow-up. Furthermore, a decrease in patients' discomfort as well as the absence of recurrence of the pemphigus vulgaris lesions has been claimed."|
"Even though available literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be efficiently used in treatment of oral pemphigus vulgaris, either independently or as a part of combined therapy approach, these results should be interpreted with caution since there are no solid evidence-based proofs to provide the guidelines for the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris with low-level laser therapy. Therefore, further long-term randomized controlled clinical studies are necessary in order to give any solid recommendations on the use of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris."
|2012||Lasers Med Sci||Low-level laser therapy on the treatment of oral and cutaneous pemphigus vulgaris: case report.||Human|
|"We reported two cases of pemphigus vulgaris that received systemic treatment associated with low-level laser therapy for oral and cutaneous lesions. We observed prompt analgesic effect in oral lesions and accelerated healing of oral and cutaneous wounds. Therefore, the present report suggests LLLT as a noninvasive technique that should be considered as an adjuvant therapy in oral and skin disorders in patients with PV."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone grafts||de Oliveira Gonçalves||Brazil|
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Effects of low-level laser therapy on autogenous bone graft stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant.||Rat||830||30||0.2586||2.9||6||0.116|
|"In conclusion, low-level laser therapy stimulated bone regeneration and accelerated the process of integration of autogenous bone grafts."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone metabolism||Sayuri Suzuki||Brazil|
|2016||J Biophotonics||Low-level laser therapy stimulates bone metabolism and inhibits root resorption during tooth movement in a rodent model.||Rat||Alveolar bone||810||100||1.5|
|"Taken together, our results indicate that LLLT can stimulate bone remodeling reducing root resorption in a rat model. LLLT improves tooth movement via bone formation and bone resorption in a rat model."||PubMed|
|2016||Arch Endocrinol Metab||Low-level laser therapy associated to a resistance training protocol on bone tissue in diabetic rats.||Rat||Diabetic rats|
Exercise+LLLT on bone tissue
|33||24||"In conclusion, it can be suggested that the resistance exercise program stimulated bone metabolism, culminating in increased cortical tibial area, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and biomechanical properties. Furthermore, the association of physical exercises and LLLT produced higher values for bone mineral content and stiffness."|
Star: Parameters were well reported.
|2017||J Craniomaxillofac Surg||Effects of low-level laser therapy and platelet concentrate on bone repair: Histological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and radiographic study.||Rat||780||7.5||60||7||"LLLT reduces inflammation and contributes to increased bone formation. PC treatment was shown to maintain connective tissue and to induce fibrosis during bone repair. Combined LLLT and PC treatment did not improve bone repair."||PubMed|
|2017||J Photochem Photobiol B||Effect of in vivo low-level laser therapy on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis of rats.||Rat||890||1,5||25?||"Pulse wave (PW) PBM significantly stimulated viability and cell proliferation of healthy BMMSCs compared to those of control-OVX, OVX-alendronate, OVX-LASER, and LASER+alendronate-OVX. In addition stimulatory effect of LASER+alendronate on viability and cell proliferation of OVX-BMMSCs compared to those of control-OVX, alendronate-OVX, and LASER-OVX groups were found."|
Comment: The abstract is difficult to understand, but the figures are understandable...
|2017||Photomed Laser Surg||Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration During Osseointegration and Bone Graft.||Systematic review||"19 articles met the inclusion criteria."|
"A positive effect of low-level laser energy on bone regeneration within a certain relationship between dose and output power was found. LLLT stimulates cellular metabolism, increasing protein synthesis and subsequent bone regeneration. A high dose combined with low power or a low dose combined with high power appears to produce a positive effect."
|2017||Lasers Med Sci||Evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation on vertebras in two rat models of experimental osteoporosis.||Rat||890||0.001||0.001||22||900||"Results showed that laser alone had a detrimental effect on trabecular bone volume, and cortical bone volume in groups GIOP and OVX-D compared to those in the healthy group."|
Comment (note-to-self): I should re-check the actual results to understand this paper better...
|2017||J Photochem Photobiol B||Biosilicate/PLGA osteogenic effects modulated by laser therapy: In vitro and in vivo studies.||Rat|
(+ in vitro)
|"As a conclusion, animals treated with BS/PLGA+LLLT demonstrated an improved material degradation and an increased amount of granulation tissue and newly formed bone."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||de Oliveira||Brazil|
|2017||Int J Exp Pathol||Low-level laser therapy (780 nm) combined with collagen sponge scaffold promotes repair of rat cranial critical-size defects and increases TGF-β, FGF-2, OPG/RANK and osteocalcin expression.||Rat||780||50||120||"Compared to the [control] group, defects in the 30-day [LLLT] group exhibited increased bone formation, both by increase in radiopaque areas (P < 0.01) and by histomorphometric analysis (P < 0.001). The histopathological analysis showed a decreased number of inflammatory cells (P < 0.001). The combined CCS + LLLT (G3) treatment also resulted in the most intense immunostaining for OPG, RANK, FGF-2 and TGF-β, and the most intense and diffuse OCN immunofluorescent labelling at 30 days postsurgery (G3 vs. G0 group, P < 0.05).|
Therefore, the use of CCS associated with LLLT could offer a synergistic advantage in improving the healing of bone fractures."
(São José dos Campos)
|Lasers Med Sci||Effect of non-coherent infrared light (LED, λ945 ± 20 nm) on bone repair in diabetic rats-morphometric and spectral analyses.||Rat||Diabetic rats|
|945||48||"It can be concluded that LED therapy positively influences bone formation in the early stages of the bone repair process in non-diabetic and diabetic animals, without causing changes in the optical density and volume of tissue in the final stages. No influence of LED therapy was observed on the percentage of calcium, percentage of phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, or optical mineral density in non-diabetic animals. However, increased mineral concentration was evident in the diabetic animals treated with the LED during the repair process."||PubMed|
|Photomed Laser Surg||Evaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Bone Healing in Healthy and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.||Rat||Partial osteotomy||890||1.5||"Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p = 0.013) results showed that treatment by PBM significantly increased the biomechanical property (stress high load) of the callus defect from the partial tibia osteotomy in healthy rats compared to the control groups. However, we observed no significant increase in the biomechanical properties of the laser-treated diabetic bone defect compared to the control diabetic group."|
"The 80-Hz laser did not significantly enhance bone repair from an osteotomy of the tibia in an experimental model of TI DM rats."
|Photomed Laser Surg||Evaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Biomechanical Properties and Hounsfield Unit of Partial Osteotomy Healing in an Experimental Rat Model of Type I Diabetes and Osteoporosis.||Rat||Diabetic, osteoporotic rats|
|890||1.5||"Combined treatment of PW laser and alendronate significantly enhanced bone repair in an experimental model rat of TIDM and OP."||PubMed|
|2017||Lasers Med Sci||Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.||Rat||LED phototherapy|
LLLT vs LED
|7?||"These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA."||PubMed|
|☹||Bone||Bone repair||Iryanov||Russia||2016||J Lasers Med Sci||Influence of Laser Irradiation Low Intensity on Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis Under Transosseous Osteosynthesis.||Rat||Uzor A-2K device||890||4000|
|600||4||"The sessions of laser irradiation decreased inflammatory process severity, activated fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis, accelerated the compactization of newly formed bone tissue, and enhanced its maturity degree while primary healing occurred in the fracture."||PubMed|
|2017||Braz Oral Res||The efficacy of low-level 940 nm laser therapy with different energy intensities on bone healing.||Rat||940||5|
|7||"No significant change was observed in the number of osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and newly formed vessels at either time period across all laser groups. Although LLLT with the 10 J/cm2 energy density increased fibroblast activity at the 4th week in comparison with the 5 and 20 J/cm2 groups, no significant change was observed between the laser groups and the control group. "|
"These results indicate that low-level 940 nm laser with different energy intensities may not have marked effects on the bone healing process in both phases of bone formation."
|2016||Lasers Med Sci||Evaluation of the effects of pulsed wave LLLT on tibial diaphysis in two rat models of experimental osteoporosis, as examined by stereological and real-time PCR gene expression analyses.||Rat||Ovariectomized rats|
|24||"Concurrent treatments of PW LLLT and alendronate produced the same effect on osteoporotic bone. Since the PW LLLT has osteogenic effects, different parameters should be investigated to verify whether an appropriate PW LLLT protocol in combination with a proper(s) anti osteoporotic agent(s) might reverse the detrimental effects of OP."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||de Almeida||Brazil|
|2016||Arch Oral Biol||Influence of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in the jaws of systemically nicotine-modified rats: A histomorphometric study.||Rat||Autogenous bone block graft||660||35||4||27||"Nicotine harms bone formation in the bed-graft interface and LLLT action can mitigate this."||PubMed|
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Low level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.||Rat||Spinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect||808||30||1.7||2.8||100||0.028|
|94||6||"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation.|
In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."
|2016||Photomed Laser Surg||Effects of Photobiomodulation and Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Articular Cartilage Defects in a Rabbit Model.||Rabbit||810||4||11|
|"No significant difference in new cartilage formation and inflammation was found between the groups (p > 0.05). However, there was significantly more new bone formation in the experimental group (p < 0.05)."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Rajaei Jafarabadi||Iran|
|2016||Lasers Med Sci||The effects of photobiomodulation and low-amplitude high-frequency vibration on bone healing process: a comparative study.||Rat||A transverse critical size defect (CSD) to femur||830||40||4||"The biostimulation effects of PBM or LLLT and of low-amplitude high-frequency WBV both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of a stainless steel implant. But their combination, i.e., low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||de Vasconcellos||Brazil|
(São José dos Campos)
|2016||Lasers Med Sci||Titanium scaffold osteogenesis in healthy and osteoporotic rats is improved by the use of low-level laser therapy (GaAlAs).||Rat||Titanium scaffold||780||40||4|
|100||"On the basis of our methodology and results, we conclude that LLLT improves and accelerates bone repair within titanium scaffolds in both ovariectomized and healthy rats, when compared to animals not subjected to radiation."|
Comment: The authors might have misunderstood dosing parameters based on this sentence: "A dose of 4 J/cm2 was applied to four points around the cavity, making a total of 16 J/cm2 per session". Because J/cm2 is a unit of intensity, it should not be summed when separate points are irradiated.
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Low level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.||Rat||Spinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect||808||1.7||2.8||100||6||"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation. In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."||PubMed|
|2016||J Oral Maxillofac Surg||Influence of a Magnetic Field and Laser Therapy on the Quality of Mandibular Bone During Distraction Osteogenesis in Rabbits.||Rabbit||830||5||"The LLLT group exhibited a larger amount of newly formed bone and a larger number of osteoblasts in the cell division phase, but the difference was not statistically relevant compared with the control group."||PubMed|
|2016||J Photochem Photobiol B||Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone healing of critical-size defects treated with bovine bone graft.||Rat||Bone graft||660||30||0.42||19.44||30.85||0.07|
|"LLLT can improve bone formation process in CSD filled or not with BBG in rat calvaria, but it is not able to accelerate particles resorption of this material in the interior of bone defect."||PubMed|
|2016||Lasers Med Sci||An evaluation of the effect of pulsed wave low-level laser therapy on the biomechanical properties of the vertebral body in two experimental osteoporosis rat models.||Rat||Pulsed LLLT||890||1.08||0.00108||0.972||1|
|24||"Biomechanical test findings showed positive effects of the PW LLLT and alendronate administration on increasing bending stiffness and maximum force of the osteoporotic bones compared to the healthy group. However, laser treatment of OVA-d rats significantly increased stress high load compared to OVA-d control rats.|
PW LLLT preserved the cancellous (trabecular) bone of vertebra against the detrimental effects of OV-induced OP on bone strength in rats compared to control OV rats."
|Bone||Bone repair||Acar||Turkey||2016||Arch Oral Biol||Bone regeneration by low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy in the rabbit calvarium.||Rabbit||810||100||4||120||LLLT enhanced new bone formation in comparison to the untreated controls.||PubMed|
|2015||J Oral Implantol||Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Photobiomodulation Therapy and BioOss as Single and Combined Treatment in an Experimental Model of Bone Defect Healing in Rats.||Rat||618||0.02||11||"Within the limitations of this study, LPT has positive effects on bone healing histopathologically and histomorphometrically for the defects filled with BioOss 3 weeks after the rats' femora injury."||PubMed|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||Low-level laser therapy improves bone formation: stereology findings for osteoporosis in rat model.||Rat||Osteoporosis|
|12||"In conclusion, there was new bone formation in the groups that received 20 and 30 J/cm(2) when compared to control groups, but over time, the dose of 30 J/cm(2) showed better stereological parameters when compared to 20 J/cm(2)."||PubMed|
|2015||Acta Cir Bras||Improvement of bone repair in diabetic rats subjected to ƛ780 nm low-level laser therapy.||Rat||Diabetic rats||780||70||1.75||0.7||17.5||0.04|
|4||"Low-level laser therapy significantly increased alkaline phosphatase in at seven and 18 days (p<0.001), and improved bone healing at seven (p<0.01), 18 (p<0.05) and 30 (p<0.01) in diabetic animals. In addition, bone healing in irradiated diabetic group was statistically similar to control group at 30 days (p>0.05)."|
Comment: Parameters were well reported!
|Bone||Bone repair||Soares||Brazil (Salvador, Bahia)||2015||Braz Dent J||Repair of surgical bone defects grafted with hydroxylapatite + β-TCP and irradiated with λ=850 nm LED light.||Rat||Surgical bone defect|
Bone graft (HA + β-TCP)
|7||"It may be concluded that the use of LED phototherapy was effective in positively modulating the process of bone repair of bone defects in the femur of rats submitted or not to biomaterial grafting."||PubMed|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: a randomized controlled experimental study.||Rat||808||2||0.02|
|"Microscopic analysis revealed a significant decrease in inflammatory infiltration, intense trabecular bone matrix and periosteal formation, and an increase in newly formed bone after laser irradiation."||PubMed|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||New LLLT protocol to speed up the bone healing process-histometric and immunohistochemical analysis in rat calvarial bone defect.||830||50||16|
|"The results suggest LLLT using the protocol 2 hastened the bone healing process in the early periods after surgery."|
Comment: At 45 days, there was no difference between the groups, but at 15 days, the amount of newly formed bone seemed to be a little bit higher in the laser groups.
Comment: It seems that spot/beam size wasn't reported in this study.
|2015||Rev Bras Ortop||COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL LASER AND LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND ASSOCIATED WITH BIOSILICATE(®) ON THE PROCESS OF BONE REPAIR IN THE RAT TIBIA.||Rat||THERALASE device (version 24)||830||100||3.57||3.4||120||0.028|
|34||1?||"Curiously, the Biosilicate® plus laser or ultrasound groups showed lower amounts of bone tissue deposition when compared with control fracture and Biosilicate® groups."||PubMed|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||Photobiomodulation and bone healing in diabetic rats: evaluation of bone response using a tibial defect experimental model.||Rat||Diabetic rats|
Tibial bone healing
|"In the histological and morphometric evaluation, all laser-treated groups showed a better histological pattern and a higher amount of newly formed bone compared to DCG. An intense RUNX2 immunoexpression was observed in the laser-treated groups, 15 days after the surgery. |
There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical analysis among the groups.
In conclusion, PBM, in all fluences used, showed an osteogenic potential in bone healing of diabetic rats"
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||Low-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?||Rat||Systemic effects?||830||"Laser therapy presented a positive local biostimulative effect in the early stage of bone healing, but the LLLT effect was not observed a long distance from the evaluated area."||PubMed|
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||The effect of dosage on the efficiency of LLLT in new bone formation at the expanded suture in rats.||Rat||Midpalatal suture expansion||820||50|
|4||"Low-level laser therapy with both 5 and 6,300 J/cm(2) doses was found to be significantly effective, while the 20 J/cm(2) dose did not show a significant effect in increasing new bone formation. This finding reveals that the efficiency of the therapy is affected by the dosage."|
Note: There was increase in bone formation in the medium dose group as well, but it was a little bit less pronounced. The bone formation increase was clearly highest in the "low dose" group (87%) compared to medium (41%) and high (51%) dose groups.
|2015||Lasers Med Sci||The influence of low-level laser therapy with alendronate irrigation on healing of bone defects in rats.||Rat||Alendronate potentiation||808||0.01||2||20||5||"Our findings demonstrated that Aln has a more positive effect with LLLT on bone healing in rats.|
It was concluded that combining LLLT with Aln irrigation has a beneficial effect in bone repair. It was demonstrated experimentally that Aln irrigation during the surgery had a significant effect to enhance bone formation, and LLLT significantly potentiated the osseous healing effects of Aln on bone defects. This administration method is able to minimize the dose of Aln in order to avoid both systemic and local adverse effects as well as the local injection times during the bone healing process."
|2014||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.||Rat||Radiotherapy||830||50||6||0.04|
|120||4||"The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation."|
Note: The parameters in the abstract seemed to contradict the parameters given in the full text.
|2014||J Photochem Photobiol B||Influence of the λ780nm laser light on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxylapatite+Beta-Calcium triphosphate.||Rat||780||70||20||0.4|
|7||"Many similarities were observed histologically between groups on regards bone reabsorption and neoformation, inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition. The criterion degree of maturation, marked by the presence of basophilic lines, indicated that the use of LPT associated with HA+Beta TCP graft, resulted in more advanced stage of bone repair at the end of the experiment."||PubMed|
|2014||Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg||Cumulative effect of low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone repair in rats.||Rat||"Combined LLLT + LIPUS treatment enhanced bone healing both histologically and mechanically, shortening the length of the treatment period, when compared to treatment with LLLT or LIPUS alone."||PubMed|
|2014||Acta Ortop Bras||Laser therapy in bone repair in rats: analysis of bone optical density.||Rat||660|
|"Based on the radiographic findings, G (830nm) showed more complete bone regeneration, as shown in the gray shades of the images."||PubMed|
|2014||Photomed Laser Surg||Cellular effect of low-level laser therapy on the rate and quality of bone formation in mandibular distraction osteogenesis.||Rabbit||810||200||0.400||1.5||3||d =|
|7.5||7||"This study shows that a low-level GaAlAs (λ:810 nm; P, 200 mW) laser hastens new bone formation only in the early stages of the consolidation period in distraction osteogenesis, and has no significant effect in later stages."|
Comment: This paper had beautiful scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures.
|2013||Arch Oral Biol||Assessment of the effect of low-energy diode laser irradiation on gamma irradiated rats' mandibles.||Rat||Gamma radiation|
|180||4||"Thin irregular bone trabeculae and widened marrow spaces were identified in the control group. The lased sides of groups 1 and 2 demonstrated regular, thick and continuous bone trabeculae."|
"Normal-sized osteocytic lacunae were seen in the lased groups, as compared to the wide lacunar spaces noted in the control group. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the area of bone trabeculae, as well as the width of compact bone, for the lased groups."
Note: A nicely written paper, with nice results and electron microscopy pictures of bone tissue!
|2013||Res Vet Svi||Low-power laser therapy for repairing acute and chronic-phase bone lesions.||Rat||670||30||90||273||"Laser-treated animals showed significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase levels and had an effect on biomechanical property, resulting in a gradual increase in bone stiffness. Laser therapy aided the bone consolidation process and favored the physiopathologic mechanisms involved in bone tissue repair, and its effects were more prominent when treatment started during the acute phase of the injury."||PubMed|
|2013||Lasers Med Sci||Light-emitting diode photobiomodulation: effect on bone formation in orthopedically expanded suture in rats--early bone changes.||Rat||LED phototherapy||618||0.02||"New bone formation area (p = 0.024, 1.48-fold), number of osteoblasts (p < 0.001, 1.59-fold), number of osteoclasts (p = 0.004, 1.43-fold), and number of vessels (p = 0.007, 1.67-fold) showed higher values in the experimental group than the control. Bone histomorphometric measurements revealed that bone architecture in the LPT group was improved."||PubMed|
|2013||Lasers Med Sci||Helium-neon laser improves bone repair in rabbits: comparison at two anatomic sites.||Rabbit||633||6||"Taken together, such findings suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve bone repair in rabbits being the most pronounced effect in tibia."||PubMed|
|2012||Photomed Laser Surg||Low-level laser therapy enhances the stability of orthodontic mini-implants via bone formation related to BMP-2 expression in a rat model.||Rat||Orthodontic mini-implant in tibia bone||830||200||54||195||d =|
|7||"Periotest values were significantly lower (0.79- to 0.65-fold) and the volume of newly formed bone was significantly higher (1.53-fold) in the LLLT group. LLLT also stimulated significant BMP-2 gene expression in peri-implant bone (1.92-fold)."|
"LLLT enhanced the stability of mini-implants placed in rat tibiae and accelerated peri-implant bone formation by increasing the gene expression of BMP-2 in surrounding cells."
|Bone||Bone repair||Bossini||Brazil||2012||Exp Gerontol||Low level laser therapy (830nm) improves bone repair in osteoporotic rats: similar outcomes at two different dosages.||Rat||830||100||60|
|7||LLLT treatment led to higher amount of newly formed bone and granulation tissue compared to control.||PubMed|
|2012||Photomed Laser Surg||A comparison of the low-level laser versus low intensity pulsed ultrasound on new bone formed through distraction osteogenesis.||Rabbit||650||0.025||600||1|
|"LIPUS and LLLT applied during the distraction period accelerated the DO treatment."||PubMed|
|2011||J Tissue Eng Regen Med||Biosilicate® and low-level laser therapy improve bone repair in osteoporotic rats.||Rat||830||100||60|
|d = |
|"Our results indicate that laser therapy improves bone repair process in contact with Biosilicate as a result of increasing bone formation, as well as COX-2 and Cbfa-1 immunoexpression, angiogenesis and collagen deposition in osteoporotic rats."||PubMed|
|2011||Photomed Laser Surg||Application of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) and rhBMP-2 in critical bone defect of ovariectomized rats: histomorphometric evaluation.||Rat||780||60||1.5||120||0.04|
|80||"In Group I, when the laser was used alone and in Group VI, when the laser was used with monoolein gel, the results were statistically similar, resulting in new bone tissue in both groups. The results of this study are consistent with the findings of Renno et al. (8) who used low-level laser therapy with the same dose of this study (120 J/cm2 ) and found that LLLI was able to prevent bone loss."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Ré Poppi||Brazil|
|2011||Lasers Med Sci||Evaluation of the osteogenic effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm and 660 nm) on bone defects induced in the femurs of female rats submitted to ovariectomy.||Rat||660|
|"The results from days 14 and 21 showed that the irradiated groups presented increased density of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and immature osteocytes on the tissue surface compared with the control (non-irradiated) groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, inflammatory infiltrate evaluations showed that LLLT decreased the accumulation of leukocytes when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.05).|
We concluded that, in our experimental model, both wavelengths (660-nm and 880-nm) inhibited the inflammatory process and induced the proliferation of cells responsible for bone remodeling and repair."
|2011||J Biomed Mater Res A||Light microscopic description of the effects of laser phototherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration in a rodent model.||Rat||850||150||4||"Major changes were seen on irradiated subjects and included marked deposition of new bone in advanced maturation. It is concluded that near infrared laser phototherapy improved the results of the use of the MTA on bone defects."||PubMed|
|2010||Osteoporos Int||Laser 904 nm action on bone repair in rats with osteoporosis.||Rat||904||0.05||2||"Low-level 904-nm laser (50 mJ/cm(2)) accelerated the repair process of osteopenic fractures, especially in the initial phase of bone regeneration."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Kazem Shakouri||Iran|
|2010||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of low-level laser therapy on the fracture healing process.||Rabbit||780||4||300||"The result of the study showed that the use of laser could enhance callus development in the early stage of the healing process, with doubtful improvement in biomechanical properties of the healing bone; therefore, laser therapy may be recommended as an additional treatment in non-union fractures in humans."||PubMed|
|2010||Photomed Laser Surg||Effect of low-level laser therapy and calcitonin on bone repair in castrated rats: a densitometric study.||Rat||830||10||20||"The La and CaLa had significantly higher bone mineral density than the control and Ca groups."||PubMed|
(São José dos Campos)
|2010||J Biomed Mater Res A||The effect of the association of near infrared laser therapy, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration on tibial fractures treated with internal rigid fixation: a Raman spectroscopic study.||Rat||790||40||4(?)||"It is concluded that the use of NIR LLLT associated to BMPs and GBR was effective in improving bone healing on fractured bones due to increased levels of CHA."|
Comment: The abstract was very strangely written, and I am not sure whether the authors understand the dose parameters...
|2010||J Mater Sci Mater Med||Low level laser therapy does not modulate the outcomes of a highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) on bone consolidation in rats.||Rat||830||60|
|7||"Our findings suggest that although Biosilicate exerts some osteogenic activity during bone repair, laser therapy is not able to modulate this process."||PubMed|
|2010||Endocr Regul||Possible role of low level laser therapy on bone turnover in ovariectomized rats.||Rat||30||"Significant increase in serum Ca, Pi , ALP, osteocalcin and significant decrease in U-DPD/creatinine in LLLT exposed group was found as compared to the other two groups. Bone morphological findings revealed the increase in calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase of femoral bones in LLLT exposed group as compared to sham-operated and OVX rats. The software image analysis showed increased osteoblast numbers, decreased osteoclast numbers and increased compact bone thickness in LLLT exposed group."|
"The use of LLLT was found effective in enhancing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption in the osteoporotic OVX rats.
Further studies are necessary to investigate the effect of different parameters of LLLT as wave length, duration and also numbers of sessions. The potential use of LLLT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is needed to be verified."
|2010||Photomed Laser Surg||Comparison of the effects of electrical field stimulation and low-level laser therapy on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats.||Rat||830||100||0.03||14|
|12||"We conclude that the mentioned treatments were able to initiate a positive bone-tissue response, maybe through stimulation of osteoblasts, which was able to determine the observed morphometric modifications. However, the evoked tissue response could not determine either biomechanical or densitometric modifications."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Bashardoust Tajali||Canada|
|2010||J Orthop Surg Res||Effects of low power laser irradiation on bone healing in animals: a meta-analysis.||Meta-analysis||"Studies indicate that low power laser irradiation can enhance biomechanical properties of bone during fracture healing in animal models. Maximum bone tolerance was statistically improved following low level laser irradiation (average random effect size 0.726, 95% CI 0.08-1.37, p 0.028).|
While conclusions are limited by the low number of studies, there is concordance across limited evidence that laser improves the strength of bone tissue during the healing process in animal models."
|2009||Lasers Med Sci||Expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor -kappaB ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor -kappaB, and osteoprotegerin, following low-level laser treatment on deproteinized bovine bone graft in rats.||Rat||808||96||0.830||1.44|
|7||"The results of immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of RANKL (P = 0.199), OPG (P = 0.035), and RANK (P = 0.020) in the experimental group significantly increased from day 7, with a more even distribution than in the control group, and that this difference prevailed until the end of the experiment. Bone density of the experimental group after trichrome staining was also higher than in the control group.|
These results suggest that LLL irradiation facilitates bone metabolism during bone healing at the sites of deproteinized bovine bone grafts in rats."
(São José dos Campos)
|2009||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of low-power gallium-aluminum-arsenium laser therapy (830 nm) in combination with bisphosphonate treatment on osteopenic bone structure: an experimental animal study.||Rat||830||50||4||"It was concluded that the laser therapy associated with bisphosphonate treatment was the best method for reversing vertebral osteopenia caused by the ovariectomy."||PubMed|
|2009||Photomed Laser Surg||The effects of infrared low-level laser therapy on healing of partial osteotomy of tibia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.||Rat||Diabetic rats||890||11.6|
|3/wk||"LLLT in an experimental diabetic model enhanced bone repair with a higher bending stiffness and maximum force compared to the control group."||PubMed|
|2009||Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants||The effect of low-intensity laser therapy on bone healing around titanium implants: a histometric study in rabbits.||Rabbit||"Low-intensity laser therapy did not affect the area of bone formed within the threads, but it may improve BIC in rabbit tibiae."||PubMed|
|2009||Lasers Med Sci||Morphometric and histological analysis of low-power laser influence on bone morphogenetic protein in bone defects repair.||Rat||650||"We concluded that the association of low-power laser with a bone-inducing substance produced better results than when low-power laser or BMPs were used alone."||PubMed|
|2009||Photomed Laser Surg||The effects of low-level laser therapy on bone in diabetic and nondiabetic rats.||Rat||Dose response||633||10||28.6|
|"Maximum force (N) was significantly greater in laser-treated bones of groups 2 and 3 compared with their relevant control groups (paired Student t test, p = 0.05 and p = 0.007, respectively). Density of the bone lamella meshwork of compact bone in group 2 was significantly greater in comparison with its control group (paired Student t test, p = 0.005)."||PubMed|
|2009||Photomed Laser Surg||The effects of helium-neon light therapy on healing of partial osteotomy of the tibia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.||Rat||Diabetic rats||633||10||66.8|
|"LT with a He-Ne laser in STZ-induced diabetic rats did not enhance bone repair of a partial transversal standardized osteotomy."||PubMed|
|2009||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of soft laser and bioactive glass on bone regeneration in the treatment of bone defects (an experimental study).||Rat||830||40||4||"Laser irradiation had significantly accelerated bone healing at 4 weeks and 8 weeks in comparison with that at the sites not irradiated. However at 12 weeks, complete healing of the defects had occurred with no difference detected. Our results have confirmed the positive effect of soft laser in accelerating bone regeneration."||PubMed|
|2009||Lasers Med Sci||Low-level laser therapy modulates cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression during bone repair in rats.||Rat||16||"Taken together, such results suggest that low-level laser therapy is able to improve bone repair in the tibia of rats after 14 days of surgery as a result of an up-regulation for cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in bone cells."||PubMed|
|2009||Lasers Med Sci||Bone repair following bone grafting hydroxyapatite guided bone regeneration and infra-red laser photobiomodulation: a histological study in a rodent model.||Rat||830||40||d =|
|"When the groups irradiated with implant and membrane were compared, it was observed that the repair of the defects submitted to LPBM was also processed faster, starting from the 15th day. At the 30th day, the level of repair of the defects was similar in the irradiated groups and those not irradiated. New bone formation was seen inside the cavity, probably by the osteoconduction of the implant, and, in the irradiated groups, this new bone formation was incremental."||PubMed|
|2008||Photomed Laser Surg||Infrared laser light further improves bone healing when associated with bone morphogenetic proteins and guided bone regeneration: an in vivo study in a rodent model.||Rat||BMPs + LLLT||"The results showed histological evidence of increased deposition of collagen fibers (at 15 and 21 d), as well as an increased amount of well-organized bone trabeculi at the end of the experimental period (30 d) in irradiated animals compared to non-irradiated controls."|
Note: This paper seems quite similar as Gerbi's paper, even though they were published separately and they are clearly not identical... Though, some of the photomicrographs are quite identical. Maybe they used the same animals, but wrote two slightly diffeerent manuscripts for some reason?
|2008||Photomed Laser Surg||Does the use of laser photobiomodulation, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration improve the outcome of autologous bone grafts? An in vivo study in a rodent model.||Rat||790||50||10||8||"The results showed that in all treatment groups, new bone formation was greater and qualitatively better than the untreated subjects. Control specimens showed a less advanced repair after 40 d, and this was characterized by the presence of medullary tissue, a small amount of bone trabeculi, and some cortical repair."|
"We conclude that LPBM has a positive biomodulatory effect on the healing of bone defects, and that this effect was more evident when LPBM was performed on the surgical bed intraoperatively, prior to the placement of the autologous bone graft."
|Bone||Bone repair||Ribeiro & Matsumoto||Brazil|
|2008||J Oral Rehabil||Low-level laser therapy improves bone repair in rats treated with anti-inflammatory drugs.||Rat||NSAID-treated rats||735||30||16||60||8?||"Taken together, such results suggest that low-level laser therapy is able to improve bone repair in the tibia of rats as a result of an up-regulation for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in bone cells."|
Comment: A nice, clear effect was noticed.
|Bone||Bone repair||Márquez Martínez||Brazil|
|2008||Lasers Med Sci||Effect of IR laser photobiomodulation on the repair of bone defects grafted with organic bovine bone.||Rat||Bone grafts + LLLT||"There was histological evidence of improved collagen fiber deposition at early stages of the healing; increased amount of well-organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period on irradiated animals. It is concluded that LPBM has positive biomodulative effect on the healing process bone defects."||PubMed|
|2008||Photomed Laser Surg||Infrared laser light further improves bone healing when associated with bone morphogenic proteins: an in vivo study in a rodent model.||Rat||BMPs + LLLT||830||40||4|
|"The results showed histological evidence of increased deposition of collagen fibers (at 15 and 21 d), as well as an increased amount of well-organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period (30 d) in the irradiated animals versus the non-irradiated controls."||PubMed|
(São José dos Campos)
|2007||Photomed Laser Surg||Infrared laser photobiomodulation (lambda 830 nm) on bone tissue around dental implants: a Raman spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy study in rabbits.||Rabbit||Dental titanium implant on the tibia||830||10||86||7||"It is concluded that infrared laser photobiomodulation does improve bone healing, and this may be safely assessed by Raman spectroscopy or SEM."||PubMed|
|2007||J Oral Maxillofac Surg||Low-level laser effect on mandibular distraction osteogenesis.||Rabbit||820||400||36|
|"Ten millimeters of distraction was achieved in each rabbit bilaterally. Radiographically, the BHS was higher for the LLL-treated group at all time periods. Histologically, the area of new bone trabeculation and ossification was more advanced for the LLL-treated group, with less intervening fibrovascular intermediate zone in the bony regenerate, at all time periods. The formation of a complete inferior border occurred sooner in the treatment group than in the controls."|
"LLL accelerates the process of bone regeneration during the consolidation phase after distraction osteogenesis. The adjunctive use of LLL may allow a shortened period of consolidation and therefore permit earlier device removal, with the avoidance of morbidity associated with prolonged device retention."
|Bone||Bone repair||Da Cunha||Brazil|
|2007||Photomed Laser Surg||Effect of laser therapy on bone tissue submitted to radiotherapy: experimental study in rats.||Rat||780||40||4||0.04|
|100||"Clinical examination revealed cutaneous erosions on experimental groups (II, III, and IV) starting at the 6th week after radiotherapy. The radiographic findings showed higher bone density in groups II and IV (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. The results further showed an increase of bone marrow cells, and number of osteocytes and Haversian canals in experimental groups II and IV (p < 0.05). It was also found an increase of osteoblastic activity, in groups II, III, and IV (p < 0.05)."|
"Laser therapy on bone tissue in rats presented a positive biostimulative effect, especially when applied before or 4 weeks after radiotherapy. However, the use of laser in the parameters above should be used with caution due to epithelial erosions."
(São José dos Campos)
|2007||J Photochem Photobiol B||The effect of the association of NIR laser therapy BMPs, and guided bone regeneration on tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis: Raman spectroscopy study.||Rabbit||790||40||16||4||0.5|
|"It is concluded that the use of NIR laser therapy associated to BMPs and GBR was effective in improving bone healing on the fractured bones as a result of the increasing deposition of CHA measured by Raman spectroscopy."||PubMed|
|2007||Photomed Laser Surg||Effect of lower-level laser therapy on rabbit tibial fracture.||Rabbit||830||0.200||40||28||"The study suggests that LLLT may accelerate the process of fracture repair or cause increases in callus volume and BMD, especially in the early stages of absorbing the hematoma and bone remodeling."||PubMed|
|2007||Lasers Surg Med||Effect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: histological study in rats.||Rat||780||35||1.4||178||d = |
|40||1||"The histological results showed bone formation in both groups. However, the laser group exhibited an advanced tissue response compared to the control group, abbreviating the initial inflammatory reaction and promoting rapid new bone matrix formation at 15 and 45 days (P<0.05).|
On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the groups at 60 days."
Comment: In the conclusions they write about 830nm laser, even though methods section says they used 780nm.
|Bone||Bone repair||Pinheiro & Gerbi||Brazil|
|2006||Photomed Laser Surg||Photoengineering of bone repair processes.||Review||"The results of our studies and others indicate that bone irradiated mostly with infrared (IR) wavelengths shows increased osteoblastic proliferation, collagen deposition, and bone neorformation when compared to nonirradiated bone. Further, the effect of laser therapy is more effective if the treatment is carried out at early stages when high cellular proliferation occurs. Vascular responses to laser therapy were also suggested as one of the possible mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical results observed following laser therapy."|
"It is possible that the laser therapy effect on bone regeneration depends not only on the total dose of irradiation, but also on the irradiation time and the irradiation mode. The threshold parameter energy density and intensity are biologically independent of one another. This independence accounts for the success and the failure of laser therapy achieved at low-energy density levels."
|2006||Photomed Laser Surg||Comparative study of how low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound affect bone repair in rats.||Rat||780||30||112.5||12||"In the bending test, maximum load at failure of LLLT group was significantly higher (p < 0.05). Bone histomorphometry revealed a significant increase in osteoblast number and surface, and osteoid volume in the LLLT group, and a significant increase in eroded and osteoclast surfaces in the LIPUS group."||PubMed|
|2006||J Contemp Dent Pract||Histologic study of the effect of laser therapy on bone repair.||685|
|15||"Greater degrees of new bone formation and vertical regeneration were found in the irradiated groups than in the control group."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||Muniz Renno||Brazil|
|2006||Lasers Med Sci||The effects of infrared-830 nm laser on exercised osteopenic rats.||Rat||830||100||120||"Exercised animals showed higher bone strength and physical properties values. However, the LLLT did not improve the stimulatory effects of the exercise on the osteopenic rats."||PubMed|
|Bone||Bone repair||da Silva & Camilli||Brazil|
|2006||J Craniofac Surg||Repair of bone defects treated with autogenous bone graft and low-power laser.||Rat||735||2.4||12||"In both irradiated groups, a greater volume of newly formed bone occurred only in the first 2 weeks. The results demonstrated that laser irradiation at the grafted site stimulated osteogenesis during the initial stages of the healing process in a skull defect of the rat and that this effect was dose dependent."|
Comment: The wavelength of 730 nm is usually considered to have no effect.
|2006||Photomed Laser Surg||Effects of 830-nm laser light on preventing bone loss after ovariectomy.||Rat||830||100||120||d =|
|34||24||"Maximal load of O120 was higher than in control groups. Wet weight, dry weight, and bone volume of O120 did not show any difference when compared with SC."||PubMed|