Low level laser therapy (LLLT) / photobiomodulation (PBM) / red/NIR phototherapy studies - a comprehensive database by Vladimir Heiskanen
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CategorySub-categoryFirst authorCountryYearJournalTitleStudy typeSub-category 2 /
animal model
λ
nm
Φ
mW
E
W/cm2
Q
J
H
J/cm2
At
sec
NResults: positive / unclear/modest / negative ↑ ↓ →LinkAdditional infoCommentReply
3
📷Adipose tissueInflammationYoshimuraBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J BiophotonicsPhotobiomodulation reduces abdominal adipose tissue inflammatory infiltrate of diet-induced obese and hyperglycemic mice.MouseLED phototherapy843600.019185.73.14
cm2
3006"Non-irradiated control animals display inflammatory areas almost five times greater than the treated group (p < 0.001). This result on inflammatory infiltrate may have caused impacts on the significant lower blood glucose level from irradiated animals (p = 0.04), twenty-four hours after the last irradiation session."PubMed
4
Adipose tissueLipoplastyBrownUSA
(Dallas, TX)
2004Plast Reconstr SurgEffect of low-level laser therapy on abdominal adipocytes before lipoplasty procedures.Human
(+ Pig)
(+ in vitro)
63510
(?)
"Recently, low-level laser therapy was reported to "liquefy" or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment."

"No histologic tissue changes or specifically in adipocyte structure were observed at any depth with the longest low-level laser therapy (60 minutes with superwet fluid)."

"These data do not support the belief that low-level laser therapy treatment before lipoplasty procedures disrupts tissue adipocyte structure."
PubMed
5
Adipose tissueLipoplastyNeiraColombia
(Cali)
2002Plast Reconstr SurgFat liquefaction: effect of low-level laser energy on adipose tissue.In vitroHuman adipose tissue samples635101.2
2.4
3.6
"The low-level laser energy affected the adipose cell by causing a transitory pore in the cell membrane to open, which permitted the fat content to go from inside to outside the cell. The cells in the interstitial space and the capillaries remained intact. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty has a significant impact on the procedural implementation of lipoplasty techniques."

Comment: These results were unsupported by Brown et al. paper published in 2004.
PubMed
6
Adipose tissueMedradoBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2006Lasers Med SciAction of low-level laser therapy on living fatty tissue of rats.Rat67094
8
12
16
"Low-level laser rays cause brown adipose fat droplets to coalesce and fuse. Additionally, they stimulated proliferation and congestion of capillaries in the extracellular matrix."PubMed
7
Alcohol addictionZalewska-Kaszubska & ObzejtaPoland
(Lodz)
2004Lasers Med SciUse of low-energy laser as adjunct treatment of alcohol addiction.Human514
+
633
100
+
25
0.05

0.2
cm2
50
(5p)
300
20"Improvement in BDI-FS and increase in, beta-endorphin level were observed. These results suggest that laser therapy can be useful as an adjunct treatment for alcoholism."PubMed
8
AutoimmunityMultiple sclerosisGonçalvesBrazil (Araranguá)2016AutoimmunityLow-level laser therapy ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.MouseExperimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis660


904
30


?
3.6
(?)

10


3
0.06
cm2


0.10
cm2
20


?
30


30
"Our results showed that LLLT consistently reduced the clinical score of EAE and delayed the disease onset, and also prevented weight loss induced by immunization.

Furthermore, these beneficial effects of LLLT seem to be associated with the down-regulation of NO levels in the CNS, although the treatment with LLLT failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation and restore antioxidant defense during EAE.

Finally, histological analysis showed that LLLT blocked neuroinflammation through a reduction of inflammatory cells in the CNS, especially lymphocytes, as well as preventing demyelination in the spinal cord after EAE induction.

Together, our results suggest the use of LLLT as a therapeutic application during autoimmune neuroinflammatory responses, such as MS."

Comment: This group erroneously claims that 'there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT' in EAE. This claim is simply not true, because researchers from Milwaukee had published two reports on photobiomodulation and EAE in 2012 and 2013.
PubMed
9
AutoimmunityMultiple sclerosisMuiliUSA (Milwaukee, WI)2013PLoS OnePhotobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light ameliorates MOG35-55 induced EAE in female C57BL/6 mice: a role for remediation of nitrosative stress.Mouse

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

LED phototherapy
67021000.0283751807"Cell culture experiments demonstrated that 670 nm light-mediated photobiomodulation attenuated antigen-specific nitric oxide production by heterogenous lymphocyte populations isolated from MOG immunized mice.

Experiments in the EAE model demonstrated down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in the spinal cords of mice with EAE over the course of disease, compared to sham treated animals.

Animals receiving 670 nm light treatment also exhibited up-regulation of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptosis gene, an increased Bcl-2:Bax ratio, and reduced apoptosis within the spinal cord of animals over the course of disease.

670 nm light therapy failed to ameliorate MOG-induced EAE in mice deficient in iNOS, confirming a role for remediation of nitrosative stress in the amelioration of MOG-induced EAE by 670 nm mediated photobiomodulation."
PubMed
10
AutoimmunityMultiple sclerosisMuiliUSA (Milwaukee, WI)2012PLoS OneAmelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice by photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light.MouseExperimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

LED phototherapy
67021000.028375
skin

0.432
spinal
cord
5
skin

0.012
spinal
cord
75
cm2
array
180"Disease was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) according to standard laboratory protocol. Mice received 670 nm light or no light treatment (sham) administered as suppression and treatment protocols.

670 nm light reduced disease severity with both protocols compared to sham treated mice.

Disease amelioration was associated with down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) in vitro and in vivo."
PubMed
11
AutoimmunityPemphigus vulgarisPavlić?2014Med PreglPemphigus vulgaris and laser therapy: crucial role of dentists.Review"Low-level laser therapy could result in immediate and significant analgesia and improved wound healing within the observation period and follow-up. Furthermore, a decrease in patients' discomfort as well as the absence of recurrence of the pemphigus vulgaris lesions has been claimed."

"Even though available literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be efficiently used in treatment of oral pemphigus vulgaris, either independently or as a part of combined therapy approach, these results should be interpreted with caution since there are no solid evidence-based proofs to provide the guidelines for the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris with low-level laser therapy. Therefore, further long-term randomized controlled clinical studies are necessary in order to give any solid recommendations on the use of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris."
PubMed
12
AutoimmunityPemphigus vulgarisMinicucciBrazil
(Botucatu)
2012Lasers Med SciLow-level laser therapy on the treatment of oral and cutaneous pemphigus vulgaris: case report.Human
Case report
"We reported two cases of pemphigus vulgaris that received systemic treatment associated with low-level laser therapy for oral and cutaneous lesions. We observed prompt analgesic effect in oral lesions and accelerated healing of oral and cutaneous wounds. Therefore, the present report suggests LLLT as a noninvasive technique that should be considered as an adjuvant therapy in oral and skin disorders in patients with PV."PubMed
13
BoneBone graftsde Oliveira GonçalvesBrazil
(Bauru)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BEffects of low-level laser therapy on autogenous bone graft stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant.Rat830300.25862.960.116
cm2
18
(?)
"In conclusion, low-level laser therapy stimulated bone regeneration and accelerated the process of integration of autogenous bone grafts."PubMed
14
BoneBone metabolismSayuri SuzukiBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J BiophotonicsLow-level laser therapy stimulates bone metabolism and inhibits root resorption during tooth movement in a rodent model.RatAlveolar bone8101001.5
/point
750.02
cm2
"Taken together, our results indicate that LLLT can stimulate bone remodeling reducing root resorption in a rat model. LLLT improves tooth movement via bone formation and bone resorption in a rat model."PubMed
15
BoneBone metabolismPatrocínio-SilvaBrazil
(São Carlos)
2016Arch Endocrinol MetabLow-level laser therapy associated to a resistance training protocol on bone tissue in diabetic rats.RatDiabetic rats

Exercise+LLLT on bone tissue
8081003.573.31200.028
cm2
3324"In conclusion, it can be suggested that the resistance exercise program stimulated bone metabolism, culminating in increased cortical tibial area, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and biomechanical properties. Furthermore, the association of physical exercises and LLLT produced higher values for bone mineral content and stiffness."

Star: Parameters were well reported.
PubMed
16
BoneBone repairJonassonBrazil
(Curitiba)
2017J Craniomaxillofac SurgEffects of low-level laser therapy and platelet concentrate on bone repair: Histological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and radiographic study.Rat7807.5607"LLLT reduces inflammation and contributes to increased bone formation. PC treatment was shown to maintain connective tissue and to induce fibrosis during bone repair. Combined LLLT and PC treatment did not improve bone repair."PubMed
17
BoneBone repairMostafaviniaIran
(Tehran)
2017J Photochem Photobiol BEffect of in vivo low-level laser therapy on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis of rats.Rat8901,525?"Pulse wave (PW) PBM significantly stimulated viability and cell proliferation of healthy BMMSCs compared to those of control-OVX, OVX-alendronate, OVX-LASER, and LASER+alendronate-OVX. In addition stimulatory effect of LASER+alendronate on viability and cell proliferation of OVX-BMMSCs compared to those of control-OVX, alendronate-OVX, and LASER-OVX groups were found."

Comment: The abstract is difficult to understand, but the figures are understandable...
PubMed
18
BoneBone repairZeinItaly
(Genoa)
2017Photomed Laser SurgEffect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration During Osseointegration and Bone Graft.Systematic review"19 articles met the inclusion criteria."

"A positive effect of low-level laser energy on bone regeneration within a certain relationship between dose and output power was found. LLLT stimulates cellular metabolism, increasing protein synthesis and subsequent bone regeneration. A high dose combined with low power or a low dose combined with high power appears to produce a positive effect."
PubMed
19
BoneBone repairFredoniIran
(Zanjan)
2017Lasers Med SciEvaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation on vertebras in two rat models of experimental osteoporosis.Rat8900.0010.00122900"Results showed that laser alone had a detrimental effect on trabecular bone volume, and cortical bone volume in groups GIOP and OVX-D compared to those in the healthy group."

Comment (note-to-self): I should re-check the actual results to understand this paper better...
PubMed
20
BoneBone repairFernandesBrazil
(Santos)
2017J Photochem Photobiol BBiosilicate/PLGA osteogenic effects modulated by laser therapy: In vitro and in vivo studies.Rat
(+ in vitro)
Biosilicate/PLGA808301.070.84300.028
cm2
286
18
"As a conclusion, animals treated with BS/PLGA+LLLT demonstrated an improved material degradation and an increased amount of granulation tissue and newly formed bone."PubMed
21
BoneBone repairde OliveiraBrazil
(Natal)
2017Int J Exp PatholLow-level laser therapy (780 nm) combined with collagen sponge scaffold promotes repair of rat cranial critical-size defects and increases TGF-β, FGF-2, OPG/RANK and osteocalcin expression.Rat78050120"Compared to the [control] group, defects in the 30-day [LLLT] group exhibited increased bone formation, both by increase in radiopaque areas (P < 0.01) and by histomorphometric analysis (P < 0.001). The histopathological analysis showed a decreased number of inflammatory cells (P < 0.001). The combined CCS + LLLT (G3) treatment also resulted in the most intense immunostaining for OPG, RANK, FGF-2 and TGF-β, and the most intense and diffuse OCN immunofluorescent labelling at 30 days postsurgery (G3 vs. G0 group, P < 0.05).

Therefore, the use of CCS associated with LLLT could offer a synergistic advantage in improving the healing of bone fractures."
PubMed
22
BoneBone repairDiamantinoBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2017
epub
Lasers Med SciEffect of non-coherent infrared light (LED, λ945 ± 20 nm) on bone repair in diabetic rats-morphometric and spectral analyses.RatDiabetic rats

LED phototherapy
94548"It can be concluded that LED therapy positively influences bone formation in the early stages of the bone repair process in non-diabetic and diabetic animals, without causing changes in the optical density and volume of tissue in the final stages. No influence of LED therapy was observed on the percentage of calcium, percentage of phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, or optical mineral density in non-diabetic animals. However, increased mineral concentration was evident in the diabetic animals treated with the LED during the repair process."PubMed
23
BoneBone repairMostafaviniaIran
(Tehran)
2017
epub
Photomed Laser SurgEvaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Bone Healing in Healthy and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.RatPartial osteotomy8901.5"Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p = 0.013) results showed that treatment by PBM significantly increased the biomechanical property (stress high load) of the callus defect from the partial tibia osteotomy in healthy rats compared to the control groups. However, we observed no significant increase in the biomechanical properties of the laser-treated diabetic bone defect compared to the control diabetic group."

"The 80-Hz laser did not significantly enhance bone repair from an osteotomy of the tibia in an experimental model of TI DM rats."
PubMed
24
BoneBone repairMostafaviniaIran
(Tehran)
2017
epub
Photomed Laser SurgEvaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Biomechanical Properties and Hounsfield Unit of Partial Osteotomy Healing in an Experimental Rat Model of Type I Diabetes and Osteoporosis.RatDiabetic, osteoporotic rats

Partial osteotomy
8901.5"Combined treatment of PW laser and alendronate significantly enhanced bone repair in an experimental model rat of TIDM and OP."PubMed
25
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2017Lasers Med SciBiochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.RatLED phototherapy
LLLT vs LED
780
laser

850
LED
70


150
20


20
7?"These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA."PubMed
26
BoneBone repairIryanovRussia2016J Lasers Med SciInfluence of Laser Irradiation Low Intensity on Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis Under Transosseous Osteosynthesis.RatUzor A-2K device8904000
?
6004"The sessions of laser irradiation decreased inflammatory process severity, activated fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis, accelerated the compactization of newly formed bone tissue, and enhanced its maturity degree while primary healing occurred in the fracture."PubMed
27
BoneBone repairAtasoyTurkey
(Trabzon)
2017Braz Oral ResThe efficacy of low-level 940 nm laser therapy with different energy intensities on bone healing.Rat9405
10
20
7"No significant change was observed in the number of osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and newly formed vessels at either time period across all laser groups. Although LLLT with the 10 J/cm2 energy density increased fibroblast activity at the 4th week in comparison with the 5 and 20 J/cm2 groups, no significant change was observed between the laser groups and the control group. "

"These results indicate that low-level 940 nm laser with different energy intensities may not have marked effects on the bone healing process in both phases of bone formation."
PubMed
28
BoneBone repairMohsenifarIran
(Tehran)
2016Lasers Med SciEvaluation of the effects of pulsed wave LLLT on tibial diaphysis in two rat models of experimental osteoporosis, as examined by stereological and real-time PCR gene expression analyses.RatOvariectomized rats

Pulsed LLLT
8901.080.9721
cm2
900
/p
24"Concurrent treatments of PW LLLT and alendronate produced the same effect on osteoporotic bone. Since the PW LLLT has osteogenic effects, different parameters should be investigated to verify whether an appropriate PW LLLT protocol in combination with a proper(s) anti osteoporotic agent(s) might reverse the detrimental effects of OP."PubMed
29
BoneBone repairde AlmeidaBrazil
(Araçatuba)
2016Arch Oral BiolInfluence of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in the jaws of systemically nicotine-modified rats: A histomorphometric study.RatAutogenous bone block graft66035427"Nicotine harms bone formation in the bed-graft interface and LLLT action can mitigate this."PubMed
30
BoneBone repairMedalhaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BLow level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.RatSpinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect808301.72.81000.028
cm2
946"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation.

In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."
PubMed
31
BoneBone repairFekrazadIran
(Tehran)
2016Photomed Laser SurgEffects of Photobiomodulation and Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Articular Cartilage Defects in a Rabbit Model.Rabbit810411
(?)
"No significant difference in new cartilage formation and inflammation was found between the groups (p > 0.05). However, there was significantly more new bone formation in the experimental group (p < 0.05)."PubMed
32
BoneBone repairRajaei JafarabadiIran
(Tehran)
2016Lasers Med SciThe effects of photobiomodulation and low-amplitude high-frequency vibration on bone healing process: a comparative study.RatA transverse critical size defect (CSD) to femur830404"The biostimulation effects of PBM or LLLT and of low-amplitude high-frequency WBV both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of a stainless steel implant. But their combination, i.e., low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process."PubMed
33
BoneBone repairde VasconcellosBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2016Lasers Med SciTitanium scaffold osteogenesis in healthy and osteoporotic rats is improved by the use of low-level laser therapy (GaAlAs).RatTitanium scaffold780404
(?)
d =
0.69
cm
100"On the basis of our methodology and results, we conclude that LLLT improves and accelerates bone repair within titanium scaffolds in both ovariectomized and healthy rats, when compared to animals not subjected to radiation."

Comment: The authors might have misunderstood dosing parameters based on this sentence: "A dose of 4 J/cm2 was applied to four points around the cavity, making a total of 16 J/cm2 per session". Because J/cm2 is a unit of intensity, it should not be summed when separate points are irradiated.
PubMed
34
BoneBone repairMedalhaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BLow level laser therapy accelerates bone healing in spinal cord injured rats.RatSpinal cord injury (SCI) --> Tibial bone defect8081.72.81006"The results of the histological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated that the SL group showed a larger amount of newly formed bone compared to the SC group. Moreover, a significant immunoexpression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was observed in the SL group. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical evaluation. In conclusion, the results suggest that LLLT accelerated the process of bone repair in rats with complete SCI."PubMed
35
BoneBone repairFreddoBrazil
(Porto Alegre)
2016J Oral Maxillofac SurgInfluence of a Magnetic Field and Laser Therapy on the Quality of Mandibular Bone During Distraction Osteogenesis in Rabbits.Rabbit8305"The LLLT group exhibited a larger amount of newly formed bone and a larger number of osteoblasts in the cell division phase, but the difference was not statistically relevant compared with the control group."PubMed
36
BoneBone repairBoscoBrazil
(Araçatuba)
2016J Photochem Photobiol BEffects of low-level laser therapy on bone healing of critical-size defects treated with bovine bone graft.RatBone graft660300.4219.4430.850.07
cm2
1
(?)
"LLLT can improve bone formation process in CSD filled or not with BBG in rat calvaria, but it is not able to accelerate particles resorption of this material in the interior of bone defect."PubMed
37
BoneBone repairBayatIran
(Tehran)
2016Lasers Med SciAn evaluation of the effect of pulsed wave low-level laser therapy on the biomechanical properties of the vertebral body in two experimental osteoporosis rat models.RatPulsed LLLT8901.080.001080.9721
cm2
900
/p
24"Biomechanical test findings showed positive effects of the PW LLLT and alendronate administration on increasing bending stiffness and maximum force of the osteoporotic bones compared to the healthy group. However, laser treatment of OVA-d rats significantly increased stress high load compared to OVA-d control rats.

PW LLLT preserved the cancellous (trabecular) bone of vertebra against the detrimental effects of OV-induced OP on bone strength in rats compared to control OV rats."
PubMed
38
BoneBone repairAcarTurkey2016Arch Oral BiolBone regeneration by low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy in the rabbit calvarium.Rabbit8101004120LLLT enhanced new bone formation in comparison to the untreated controls.PubMed
39
BoneBone repairHavlucuTurkey
(Istanbul)
2015J Oral ImplantolEffects of Light-Emitting Diode Photobiomodulation Therapy and BioOss as Single and Combined Treatment in an Experimental Model of Bone Defect Healing in Rats.Rat6180.0211"Within the limitations of this study, LPT has positive effects on bone healing histopathologically and histomorphometrically for the defects filled with BioOss 3 weeks after the rats' femora injury."PubMed
40
BoneBone repairScalizeBrazil
(Ribeirão Preto)
2015Lasers Med SciLow-level laser therapy improves bone formation: stereology findings for osteoporosis in rat model.RatOsteoporosis

Dose response
78020
30
12"In conclusion, there was new bone formation in the groups that received 20 and 30 J/cm(2) when compared to control groups, but over time, the dose of 30 J/cm(2) showed better stereological parameters when compared to 20 J/cm(2)."PubMed
41
BoneBone repairNascimentoBrazil
(Aracaju)
2015Acta Cir BrasImprovement of bone repair in diabetic rats subjected to ƛ780 nm low-level laser therapy.RatDiabetic rats780701.750.717.50.04
cm2
40
(4p)
4"Low-level laser therapy significantly increased alkaline phosphatase in at seven and 18 days (p<0.001), and improved bone healing at seven (p<0.01), 18 (p<0.05) and 30 (p<0.01) in diabetic animals. In addition, bone healing in irradiated diabetic group was statistically similar to control group at 30 days (p>0.05)."

Comment: Parameters were well reported!
PubMed
42
BoneBone repairSoaresBrazil (Salvador, Bahia)2015Braz Dent JRepair of surgical bone defects grafted with hydroxylapatite + β-TCP and irradiated with λ=850 nm LED light.RatSurgical bone defect

LED phototherapy

Bone graft (HA + β-TCP)
850150200.5
cm2
7"It may be concluded that the use of LED phototherapy was effective in positively modulating the process of bone repair of bone defects in the femur of rats submitted or not to biomaterial grafting."PubMed
43
BoneBone repairSellaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2015Lasers Med SciEffect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: a randomized controlled experimental study.Rat80820.02
mm2
"Microscopic analysis revealed a significant decrease in inflammatory infiltration, intense trabecular bone matrix and periosteal formation, and an increase in newly formed bone after laser irradiation."PubMed
44
BoneBone repairMarquesBrazil
(Bauru)
2015Lasers Med SciNew LLLT protocol to speed up the bone healing process-histometric and immunohistochemical analysis in rat calvarial bone defect.8305016
3.7
9
3
8
(?)
"The results suggest LLLT using the protocol 2 hastened the bone healing process in the early periods after surgery."

Comment: At 45 days, there was no difference between the groups, but at 15 days, the amount of newly formed bone seemed to be a little bit higher in the laser groups.

Comment: It seems that spot/beam size wasn't reported in this study.
PubMed
45
BoneBone repairOliveiraBrazil
(São Carlos)
2015Rev Bras OrtopCOMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL LASER AND LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND ASSOCIATED WITH BIOSILICATE(®) ON THE PROCESS OF BONE REPAIR IN THE RAT TIBIA.RatTHERALASE device (version 24)8301003.573.41200.028
cm2
341?"Curiously, the Biosilicate® plus laser or ultrasound groups showed lower amounts of bone tissue deposition when compared with control fracture and Biosilicate® groups."PubMed
46
BoneBone repairMagriBrazil
(São Paulo)
2015Lasers Med SciPhotobiomodulation and bone healing in diabetic rats: evaluation of bone response using a tibial defect experimental model.RatDiabetic rats

Tibial bone healing
8081003.570.84
1.68
3.36
30
60
120
0.028
cm2
8
16
33
6
12
"In the histological and morphometric evaluation, all laser-treated groups showed a better histological pattern and a higher amount of newly formed bone compared to DCG. An intense RUNX2 immunoexpression was observed in the laser-treated groups, 15 days after the surgery.

There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical analysis among the groups.

In conclusion, PBM, in all fluences used, showed an osteogenic potential in bone healing of diabetic rats"
PubMed
47
BoneBone repairBatistaBrazil
(Uberlândia)
2015Lasers Med SciLow-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?RatSystemic effects?830"Laser therapy presented a positive local biostimulative effect in the early stage of bone healing, but the LLLT effect was not observed a long distance from the evaluated area."PubMed
48
BoneBone repairAltanTurkey
(Kocaeli)
2015Lasers Med SciThe effect of dosage on the efficiency of LLLT in new bone formation at the expanded suture in rats.RatMidpalatal suture expansion82050
50
100
1.6
1.6
1.6
0.15
0.65
198
5
20
6300
d =
2 mm
(?)
3
13
1980
4"Low-level laser therapy with both 5 and 6,300 J/cm(2) doses was found to be significantly effective, while the 20 J/cm(2) dose did not show a significant effect in increasing new bone formation. This finding reveals that the efficiency of the therapy is affected by the dosage."

Note: There was increase in bone formation in the medium dose group as well, but it was a little bit less pronounced. The bone formation increase was clearly highest in the "low dose" group (87%) compared to medium (41%) and high (51%) dose groups.
PubMed
49
BoneBone repairAkyolTurkey
(Rize)
2015Lasers Med SciThe influence of low-level laser therapy with alendronate irrigation on healing of bone defects in rats.RatAlendronate potentiation8080.012205"Our findings demonstrated that Aln has a more positive effect with LLLT on bone healing in rats.

It was concluded that combining LLLT with Aln irrigation has a beneficial effect in bone repair. It was demonstrated experimentally that Aln irrigation during the surgery had a significant effect to enhance bone formation, and LLLT significantly potentiated the osseous healing effects of Aln on bone defects. This administration method is able to minimize the dose of Aln in order to avoid both systemic and local adverse effects as well as the local injection times during the bone healing process."
PubMed
50
BoneBone repairBatistaBrazil
(Uberlândia)
2014Lasers Med SciEffect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.RatRadiotherapy8305060.04
cm2
1204"The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation."

Note: The parameters in the abstract seemed to contradict the parameters given in the full text.
PubMed
51
BoneBone repairSoaresBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2014J Photochem Photobiol BInfluence of the λ780nm laser light on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxylapatite+Beta-Calcium triphosphate.Rat78070200.4
cm2
7"Many similarities were observed histologically between groups on regards bone reabsorption and neoformation, inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition. The criterion degree of maturation, marked by the presence of basophilic lines, indicated that the use of LPT associated with HA+Beta TCP graft, resulted in more advanced stage of bone repair at the end of the experiment."PubMed
52
BoneBone repairBabuccuTurkey
(Istanbul)
2014Int J Oral Maxillofac SurgCumulative effect of low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone repair in rats.Rat"Combined LLLT + LIPUS treatment enhanced bone healing both histologically and mechanically, shortening the length of the treatment period, when compared to treatment with LLLT or LIPUS alone."PubMed
53
BoneBone repairBarbosaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2014Acta Ortop BrasLaser therapy in bone repair in rats: analysis of bone optical density.Rat660
830
1001
cm2
404
7
11
"Based on the radiographic findings, G (830nm) showed more complete bone regeneration, as shown in the gray shades of the images."PubMed
54
BoneBone repairFazilatIran
(Tehran)
2014Photomed Laser SurgCellular effect of low-level laser therapy on the rate and quality of bone formation in mandibular distraction osteogenesis.Rabbit8102000.4001.53d =
0.8 mm
7.57"This study shows that a low-level GaAlAs (λ:810 nm; P, 200 mW) laser hastens new bone formation only in the early stages of the consolidation period in distraction osteogenesis, and has no significant effect in later stages."

Comment: This paper had beautiful scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures.
PubMed
55
BoneBone repairEl-MaghrabyEgypt
(Cairo)
2013Arch Oral BiolAssessment of the effect of low-energy diode laser irradiation on gamma irradiated rats' mandibles.RatGamma radiation

Oral (mandible)
904305.41
cm2
1804"Thin irregular bone trabeculae and widened marrow spaces were identified in the control group. The lased sides of groups 1 and 2 demonstrated regular, thick and continuous bone trabeculae."

"Normal-sized osteocytic lacunae were seen in the lased groups, as compared to the wide lacunar spaces noted in the control group. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the area of bone trabeculae, as well as the width of compact bone, for the lased groups."

Note: A nicely written paper, with nice results and electron microscopy pictures of bone tissue!
PubMed
56
BoneBone repairMotaBrazil
(Uberlândia)
2013Res Vet SviLow-power laser therapy for repairing acute and chronic-phase bone lesions.Rat6703090273"Laser-treated animals showed significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase levels and had an effect on biomechanical property, resulting in a gradual increase in bone stiffness. Laser therapy aided the bone consolidation process and favored the physiopathologic mechanisms involved in bone tissue repair, and its effects were more prominent when treatment started during the acute phase of the injury."PubMed
57
BoneBone repairEkizerTurkey
(Kayseri)
2013Lasers Med SciLight-emitting diode photobiomodulation: effect on bone formation in orthopedically expanded suture in rats--early bone changes.RatLED phototherapy6180.02"New bone formation area (p = 0.024, 1.48-fold), number of osteoblasts (p < 0.001, 1.59-fold), number of osteoclasts (p = 0.004, 1.43-fold), and number of vessels (p = 0.007, 1.67-fold) showed higher values in the experimental group than the control. Bone histomorphometric measurements revealed that bone architecture in the LPT group was improved."PubMed
58
BoneBone repairPeccinBrazil
(São Paulo)
2013Lasers Med SciHelium-neon laser improves bone repair in rabbits: comparison at two anatomic sites.Rabbit6336"Taken together, such findings suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve bone repair in rabbits being the most pronounced effect in tibia."PubMed
59
BoneBone repairOmasaJapan
(Tokyo)
2012Photomed Laser SurgLow-level laser therapy enhances the stability of orthodontic mini-implants via bone formation related to BMP-2 expression in a rat model.RatOrthodontic mini-implant in tibia bone83020054195d =
4.2 mm

(spot)
(/p)
270
(2p)
7"Periotest values were significantly lower (0.79- to 0.65-fold) and the volume of newly formed bone was significantly higher (1.53-fold) in the LLLT group. LLLT also stimulated significant BMP-2 gene expression in peri-implant bone (1.92-fold)."

"LLLT enhanced the stability of mini-implants placed in rat tibiae and accelerated peri-implant bone formation by increasing the gene expression of BMP-2 in surrounding cells."
PubMed
60
BoneBone repairBossiniBrazil2012Exp GerontolLow level laser therapy (830nm) improves bone repair in osteoporotic rats: similar outcomes at two different dosages.Rat83010060
120
0.028
cm2
7LLLT treatment led to higher amount of newly formed bone and granulation tissue compared to control.PubMed
61
BoneBone repairKocyigitTurkey
(Kirikkale)
2012Photomed Laser SurgA comparison of the low-level laser versus low intensity pulsed ultrasound on new bone formed through distraction osteogenesis.Rabbit6500.0256001
/d
"LIPUS and LLLT applied during the distraction period accelerated the DO treatment."PubMed
62
BoneBone repairBossiniBrazil
(São Carlos)
2011J Tissue Eng Regen MedBiosilicate® and low-level laser therapy improve bone repair in osteoporotic rats.Rat83010060
120
d =
0.6 mm
17
34
"Our results indicate that laser therapy improves bone repair process in contact with Biosilicate as a result of increasing bone formation, as well as COX-2 and Cbfa-1 immunoexpression, angiogenesis and collagen deposition in osteoporotic rats."PubMed
63
BoneBone repairSiéssereBrazil
(Ribeirão Preto)
2011Photomed Laser SurgApplication of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) and rhBMP-2 in critical bone defect of ovariectomized rats: histomorphometric evaluation.Rat780601.51200.04
cm2
80"In Group I, when the laser was used alone and in Group VI, when the laser was used with monoolein gel, the results were statistically similar, resulting in new bone tissue in both groups. The results of this study are consistent with the findings of Renno et al. (8) who used low-level laser therapy with the same dose of this study (120 J/cm2 ) and found that LLLI was able to prevent bone loss."PubMed
64
BoneBone repairRé PoppiBrazil
(Campo Grande)
2011Lasers Med SciEvaluation of the osteogenic effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm and 660 nm) on bone defects induced in the femurs of female rats submitted to ovariectomy.Rat660

808
100

100
3.3

3.3
133.30.03
cm2
40
(4p)
14
28
"The results from days 14 and 21 showed that the irradiated groups presented increased density of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and immature osteocytes on the tissue surface compared with the control (non-irradiated) groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, inflammatory infiltrate evaluations showed that LLLT decreased the accumulation of leukocytes when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.05).

We concluded that, in our experimental model, both wavelengths (660-nm and 880-nm) inhibited the inflammatory process and induced the proliferation of cells responsible for bone remodeling and repair."
PubMed
65
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2011J Biomed Mater Res ALight microscopic description of the effects of laser phototherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration in a rodent model.Rat8501504"Major changes were seen on irradiated subjects and included marked deposition of new bone in advanced maturation. It is concluded that near infrared laser phototherapy improved the results of the use of the MTA on bone defects."PubMed
66
BoneBone repairPires-OliveiraBrazil
(São Paulo)
2010Osteoporos IntLaser 904 nm action on bone repair in rats with osteoporosis.Rat9040.052"Low-level 904-nm laser (50 mJ/cm(2)) accelerated the repair process of osteopenic fractures, especially in the initial phase of bone regeneration."PubMed
67
BoneBone repairKazem ShakouriIran
(Tabriz)
2010Lasers Med SciEffect of low-level laser therapy on the fracture healing process.Rabbit7804300"The result of the study showed that the use of laser could enhance callus development in the early stage of the healing process, with doubtful improvement in biomechanical properties of the healing bone; therefore, laser therapy may be recommended as an additional treatment in non-union fractures in humans."PubMed
68
BoneBone repairNascimentoBrazil
(São Paulo)
2010Photomed Laser SurgEffect of low-level laser therapy and calcitonin on bone repair in castrated rats: a densitometric study.Rat8301020"The La and CaLa had significantly higher bone mineral density than the control and Ca groups."PubMed
69
BoneBone repairLopesBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2010J Biomed Mater Res AThe effect of the association of near infrared laser therapy, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration on tibial fractures treated with internal rigid fixation: a Raman spectroscopic study.Rat790404(?)"It is concluded that the use of NIR LLLT associated to BMPs and GBR was effective in improving bone healing on fractured bones due to increased levels of CHA."

Comment: The abstract was very strangely written, and I am not sure whether the authors understand the dose parameters...
PubMed
70
BoneBone repairOliveiraBrazil
(São Carlos)
2010J Mater Sci Mater MedLow level laser therapy does not modulate the outcomes of a highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) on bone consolidation in rats.Rat83060
120
7"Our findings suggest that although Biosilicate exerts some osteogenic activity during bone repair, laser therapy is not able to modulate this process."PubMed
71
BoneBone repairSaadEgypt
(Alexandria)
2010Endocr RegulPossible role of low level laser therapy on bone turnover in ovariectomized rats.Rat30"Significant increase in serum Ca, Pi , ALP, osteocalcin and significant decrease in U-DPD/creatinine in LLLT exposed group was found as compared to the other two groups. Bone morphological findings revealed the increase in calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase of femoral bones in LLLT exposed group as compared to sham-operated and OVX rats. The software image analysis showed increased osteoblast numbers, decreased osteoclast numbers and increased compact bone thickness in LLLT exposed group."

"The use of LLLT was found effective in enhancing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption in the osteoporotic OVX rats.

Further studies are necessary to investigate the effect of different parameters of LLLT as wave length, duration and also numbers of sessions. The potential use of LLLT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is needed to be verified."
PubMed
72
BoneBone repairMedalhaBrazil
(São Paulo)
2010Photomed Laser SurgComparison of the effects of electrical field stimulation and low-level laser therapy on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats.Rat8301000.0314
(2p)
(?)
2500.028
cm2
70
/p
12"We conclude that the mentioned treatments were able to initiate a positive bone-tissue response, maybe through stimulation of osteoblasts, which was able to determine the observed morphometric modifications. However, the evoked tissue response could not determine either biomechanical or densitometric modifications."PubMed
73
BoneBone repairBashardoust TajaliCanada
(London)
2010J Orthop Surg ResEffects of low power laser irradiation on bone healing in animals: a meta-analysis.Meta-analysis"Studies indicate that low power laser irradiation can enhance biomechanical properties of bone during fracture healing in animal models. Maximum bone tolerance was statistically improved following low level laser irradiation (average random effect size 0.726, 95% CI 0.08-1.37, p 0.028).

While conclusions are limited by the low number of studies, there is concordance across limited evidence that laser improves the strength of bone tissue during the healing process in animal models."
PubMed
74
BoneBone repairKimKorea
(Busan)
2009Lasers Med SciExpression of receptor activator of nuclear factor -kappaB ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor -kappaB, and osteoprotegerin, following low-level laser treatment on deproteinized bovine bone graft in rats.Rat808960.8301.44
(3p)
8.3d =
3.84 mm
30
(3p)
7"The results of immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of RANKL (P = 0.199), OPG (P = 0.035), and RANK (P = 0.020) in the experimental group significantly increased from day 7, with a more even distribution than in the control group, and that this difference prevailed until the end of the experiment. Bone density of the experimental group after trichrome staining was also higher than in the control group.

These results suggest that LLL irradiation facilitates bone metabolism during bone healing at the sites of deproteinized bovine bone grafts in rats."
PubMed
75
BoneBone repairDinizBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2009Lasers Med SciEffect of low-power gallium-aluminum-arsenium laser therapy (830 nm) in combination with bisphosphonate treatment on osteopenic bone structure: an experimental animal study.Rat830504"It was concluded that the laser therapy associated with bisphosphonate treatment was the best method for reversing vertebral osteopenia caused by the ovariectomy."PubMed
76
BoneBone repairJavadiehIran
(Tehran)
2009Photomed Laser SurgThe effects of infrared low-level laser therapy on healing of partial osteotomy of tibia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.RatDiabetic rats89011.6
23.3
1
cm2
265
560
3/wk"LLLT in an experimental diabetic model enhanced bone repair with a higher bending stiffness and maximum force compared to the control group."PubMed
77
BoneBone repairPereiraBrazil
(Piracicaba)
2009Int J Oral Maxillofac ImplantsThe effect of low-intensity laser therapy on bone healing around titanium implants: a histometric study in rabbits.Rabbit"Low-intensity laser therapy did not affect the area of bone formed within the threads, but it may improve BIC in rabbit tibiae."PubMed
78
BoneBone repairDenadaiBrazil
(Campo Grande)
2009Lasers Med SciMorphometric and histological analysis of low-power laser influence on bone morphogenetic protein in bone defects repair.Rat650"We concluded that the association of low-power laser with a bone-inducing substance produced better results than when low-power laser or BMPs were used alone."PubMed
79
BoneBone repairBayatIran
(Tehran)
2009Photomed Laser SurgThe effects of low-level laser therapy on bone in diabetic and nondiabetic rats.RatDose response6331028.6
382.2
90
1200
"Maximum force (N) was significantly greater in laser-treated bones of groups 2 and 3 compared with their relevant control groups (paired Student t test, p = 0.05 and p = 0.007, respectively). Density of the bone lamella meshwork of compact bone in group 2 was significantly greater in comparison with its control group (paired Student t test, p = 0.005)."PubMed
80
BoneBone repairAbdiIran
(Tehran)
2009Photomed Laser SurgThe effects of helium-neon light therapy on healing of partial osteotomy of the tibia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.RatDiabetic rats6331066.8
369.4
"LT with a He-Ne laser in STZ-induced diabetic rats did not enhance bone repair of a partial transversal standardized osteotomy."PubMed
81
BoneBone repairAboElsaadEgypt
(Mansoura)
2009Lasers Med SciEffect of soft laser and bioactive glass on bone regeneration in the treatment of bone defects (an experimental study).Rat830404"Laser irradiation had significantly accelerated bone healing at 4 weeks and 8 weeks in comparison with that at the sites not irradiated. However at 12 weeks, complete healing of the defects had occurred with no difference detected. Our results have confirmed the positive effect of soft laser in accelerating bone regeneration."PubMed
82
BoneBone repairMatsumotoBrazil
(Bauru)
2009Lasers Med SciLow-level laser therapy modulates cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression during bone repair in rats.Rat16"Taken together, such results suggest that low-level laser therapy is able to improve bone repair in the tibia of rats after 14 days of surgery as a result of an up-regulation for cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in bone cells."PubMed
83
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2009Lasers Med SciBone repair following bone grafting hydroxyapatite guided bone regeneration and infra-red laser photobiomodulation: a histological study in a rodent model.Rat83040d =
0.6 mm
"When the groups irradiated with implant and membrane were compared, it was observed that the repair of the defects submitted to LPBM was also processed faster, starting from the 15th day. At the 30th day, the level of repair of the defects was similar in the irradiated groups and those not irradiated. New bone formation was seen inside the cavity, probably by the osteoconduction of the implant, and, in the irradiated groups, this new bone formation was incremental."PubMed
84
BoneBone repairPinheiroBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2008Photomed Laser SurgInfrared laser light further improves bone healing when associated with bone morphogenetic proteins and guided bone regeneration: an in vivo study in a rodent model.RatBMPs + LLLT"The results showed histological evidence of increased deposition of collagen fibers (at 15 and 21 d), as well as an increased amount of well-organized bone trabeculi at the end of the experimental period (30 d) in irradiated animals compared to non-irradiated controls."

Note: This paper seems quite similar as Gerbi's paper, even though they were published separately and they are clearly not identical... Though, some of the photomicrographs are quite identical. Maybe they used the same animals, but wrote two slightly diffeerent manuscripts for some reason?
PubMed
85
BoneBone repairTorresBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2008Photomed Laser SurgDoes the use of laser photobiomodulation, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration improve the outcome of autologous bone grafts? An in vivo study in a rodent model.Rat79050108"The results showed that in all treatment groups, new bone formation was greater and qualitatively better than the untreated subjects. Control specimens showed a less advanced repair after 40 d, and this was characterized by the presence of medullary tissue, a small amount of bone trabeculi, and some cortical repair."

"We conclude that LPBM has a positive biomodulatory effect on the healing of bone defects, and that this effect was more evident when LPBM was performed on the surgical bed intraoperatively, prior to the placement of the autologous bone graft."
PubMed
86
BoneBone repairRibeiro & MatsumotoBrazil
(Santos)
2008J Oral RehabilLow-level laser therapy improves bone repair in rats treated with anti-inflammatory drugs.RatNSAID-treated rats7353016608?"Taken together, such results suggest that low-level laser therapy is able to improve bone repair in the tibia of rats as a result of an up-regulation for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in bone cells."

Comment: A nice, clear effect was noticed.
PubMed
87
BoneBone repairMárquez MartínezBrazil
(Camaragibe)
2008Lasers Med SciEffect of IR laser photobiomodulation on the repair of bone defects grafted with organic bovine bone.RatBone grafts + LLLT"There was histological evidence of improved collagen fiber deposition at early stages of the healing; increased amount of well-organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period on irradiated animals. It is concluded that LPBM has positive biomodulative effect on the healing process bone defects."PubMed
88
BoneBone repairGerbiBrazil
(Recife)
2008Photomed Laser SurgInfrared laser light further improves bone healing when associated with bone morphogenic proteins: an in vivo study in a rodent model.RatBMPs + LLLT830404
(?)
"The results showed histological evidence of increased deposition of collagen fibers (at 15 and 21 d), as well as an increased amount of well-organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period (30 d) in the irradiated animals versus the non-irradiated controls."PubMed
89
BoneBone repairLopesBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2007Photomed Laser SurgInfrared laser photobiomodulation (lambda 830 nm) on bone tissue around dental implants: a Raman spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy study in rabbits.RabbitDental titanium implant on the tibia83010867"It is concluded that infrared laser photobiomodulation does improve bone healing, and this may be safely assessed by Raman spectroscopy or SEM."PubMed
90
BoneBone repairMiloroUSA
(Omaha, NE)
2007J Oral Maxillofac SurgLow-level laser effect on mandibular distraction osteogenesis.Rabbit82040036
(6p)
"Ten millimeters of distraction was achieved in each rabbit bilaterally. Radiographically, the BHS was higher for the LLL-treated group at all time periods. Histologically, the area of new bone trabeculation and ossification was more advanced for the LLL-treated group, with less intervening fibrovascular intermediate zone in the bony regenerate, at all time periods. The formation of a complete inferior border occurred sooner in the treatment group than in the controls."

"LLL accelerates the process of bone regeneration during the consolidation phase after distraction osteogenesis. The adjunctive use of LLL may allow a shortened period of consolidation and therefore permit earlier device removal, with the avoidance of morbidity associated with prolonged device retention."
PubMed
91
BoneBone repairDa CunhaBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2007Photomed Laser SurgEffect of laser therapy on bone tissue submitted to radiotherapy: experimental study in rats.Rat7804040.04
cm2
100"Clinical examination revealed cutaneous erosions on experimental groups (II, III, and IV) starting at the 6th week after radiotherapy. The radiographic findings showed higher bone density in groups II and IV (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. The results further showed an increase of bone marrow cells, and number of osteocytes and Haversian canals in experimental groups II and IV (p < 0.05). It was also found an increase of osteoblastic activity, in groups II, III, and IV (p < 0.05)."

"Laser therapy on bone tissue in rats presented a positive biostimulative effect, especially when applied before or 4 weeks after radiotherapy. However, the use of laser in the parameters above should be used with caution due to epithelial erosions."
PubMed
92
BoneBone repairLopesBrazil
(São José dos Campos)
2007J Photochem Photobiol BThe effect of the association of NIR laser therapy BMPs, and guided bone regeneration on tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis: Raman spectroscopy study.Rabbit790401640.5
cm2
"It is concluded that the use of NIR laser therapy associated to BMPs and GBR was effective in improving bone healing on the fractured bones as a result of the increasing deposition of CHA measured by Raman spectroscopy."PubMed
93
BoneBone repairLiuUSA
(Milwaukee, WI)
2007Photomed Laser SurgEffect of lower-level laser therapy on rabbit tibial fracture.Rabbit8300.2004028"The study suggests that LLLT may accelerate the process of fracture repair or cause increases in callus volume and BMD, especially in the early stages of absorbing the hematoma and bone remodeling."PubMed
94
BoneBone repairPretelBrazil
(Araraquara)
2007Lasers Surg MedEffect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: histological study in rats.Rat780351.4178d =
1.0 mm
401"The histological results showed bone formation in both groups. However, the laser group exhibited an advanced tissue response compared to the control group, abbreviating the initial inflammatory reaction and promoting rapid new bone matrix formation at 15 and 45 days (P<0.05).

On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the groups at 60 days."

Comment: In the conclusions they write about 830nm laser, even though methods section says they used 780nm.
PubMed
95
BoneBone repairPinheiro & GerbiBrazil
(Salvador, Bahia)
2006Photomed Laser SurgPhotoengineering of bone repair processes.Review"The results of our studies and others indicate that bone irradiated mostly with infrared (IR) wavelengths shows increased osteoblastic proliferation, collagen deposition, and bone neorformation when compared to nonirradiated bone. Further, the effect of laser therapy is more effective if the treatment is carried out at early stages when high cellular proliferation occurs. Vascular responses to laser therapy were also suggested as one of the possible mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical results observed following laser therapy."

"It is possible that the laser therapy effect on bone regeneration depends not only on the total dose of irradiation, but also on the irradiation time and the irradiation mode. The threshold parameter energy density and intensity are biologically independent of one another. This independence accounts for the success and the failure of laser therapy achieved at low-energy density levels."
PubMed
96
BoneBone repairLirani-GalvãoBrazil
(São Paulo)
2006Photomed Laser SurgComparative study of how low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound affect bone repair in rats.Rat78030112.512"In the bending test, maximum load at failure of LLLT group was significantly higher (p < 0.05). Bone histomorphometry revealed a significant increase in osteoblast number and surface, and osteoid volume in the LLLT group, and a significant increase in eroded and osteoclast surfaces in the LIPUS group."PubMed
97
BoneBone repairBlayaBrazil
(Santa Maria)
2006J Contemp Dent PractHistologic study of the effect of laser therapy on bone repair.685
830
35
50
10
10
15"Greater degrees of new bone formation and vertical regeneration were found in the irradiated groups than in the control group."PubMed
98
BoneBone repairMuniz RennoBrazil
(São Carlos)
2006Lasers Med SciThe effects of infrared-830 nm laser on exercised osteopenic rats.Rat830100120"Exercised animals showed higher bone strength and physical properties values. However, the LLLT did not improve the stimulatory effects of the exercise on the osteopenic rats."PubMed
99
BoneBone repairda Silva & CamilliBrazil
(Campinas)
2006J Craniofac SurgRepair of bone defects treated with autogenous bone graft and low-power laser.Rat7352.412"In both irradiated groups, a greater volume of newly formed bone occurred only in the first 2 weeks. The results demonstrated that laser irradiation at the grafted site stimulated osteogenesis during the initial stages of the healing process in a skull defect of the rat and that this effect was dose dependent."

Comment: The wavelength of 730 nm is usually considered to have no effect.
PubMed
100
BoneBone repairRennoBrazil
(São Carlos)
2006Photomed Laser SurgEffects of 830-nm laser light on preventing bone loss after ovariectomy.Rat830100120d =
0.6 mm
3424"Maximal load of O120 was higher than in control groups. Wet weight, dry weight, and bone volume of O120 did not show any difference when compared with SC."PubMed
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