International Women's Representation_Updated March 2019
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Lower or Singular LegislatureUpper House or Senate
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RankCountryVoting SystemDescription of Voting SystemGender QuotaSeats
Women% WomenElection Date (or Date of Change)Gender QuotaFemale Head (since 2000)SystemDescriptionQuotaSeatsWomen% Women
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1RwandaProportionalClosed Party List for parliament (first-past-the-post only for President)Reserved Seats804961.3%2018-09RS0Other Members indirectly elected by members of the Executive Committees/AppointedReserved Seats261038.5%
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2CubaMajoritarian
Majority: Direct voting with absolute majority system
No Official Quota60532253.2%2018-03NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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3BoliviaMixed
Simple Majority/Party List
Legislated Candidate/Party1306953.1%2014-10LCP0ProportionalParty List Majority System Legislated Candidate /Party 361747.2%
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4MexicoMixedSimple Majority in Single Member Districts/Proportional Party List in Multimember
Legislated Candidate
50024148.2%2018-07LC0MixedMajority 64 seats to party with largest vote number, 34 to second largest party vote/ 32 by party listLegislated Candidate1286550.8%
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5SwedenProportional Members are elected under the closed-party list system with preferential vote;
distributed according to the modified Sainte-Laguë method
Party 34916547.3%2018-12P0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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6GrenadaMajoritarianSimple majority voteNo Official Quota15746.7%2018-03NQ1OtherAppointed N/A13430.8%
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7NamibiaProportionalParty List - using the simple quotient and greatest remainders systemParty 1044846.2%2014-11P1OtherNational Council members are indirectly elected by members of the Regional CouncilsNone421023.8%
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8Costa RicaProportionalClosed Party List
Legislated Candidate
572645.6%2018-02LC1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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9NicaraguaProportionalClosed party lists using a national or departmental/regional quotient, depending on the seatLegislated Candidate/Party 924144.6%2018-12LCP0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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10South AfricaProportionalParty List- Direct VoteParty 39317043.3%2019-03P1OtherAppointed/Indirect Elections: parties represented in each of the nine provincial legislatures nominate 10 Senators based on the percentage of votes they received in the provincial elections. N/A541935.2%
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11FinlandProportionalParty List/Multimember
Legislated Candidate/Party
2008442.0%2016-12LCP1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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12SenegalMixedParty Block Vote (PBV)/List Proportional Representation (List PR) system
Legislated Candidate
1656941.8%2017-01LC1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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13SpainMixedMulti-member: blocked party lists and the d'Hondt system of proportional representation/ Single-member: simple majority vote Legislated Candidate/Party35014441.1%2018-12LCP0OtherDirectly elected Senators: simple majority vote/Indirectly elected SenatorsLegislated Candidate/Party 26610138.0%
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14NorwayProportionalParty-list system with proportional distribution of seats according to the modified Sainte- Laguë method. Party 1696940.8%2018-12P6N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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15New ZealandMixed
Single Majority Vote/Party List
Party 1204840.0%2018-12P1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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16FranceMajoritarian
Single-Member Majoritarian Systems in two rounds
Legislated Candidate/Party57722939.7%2018-12LCP0OtherIndirectly Elected Legislated Candidate/Party 34810229.3%
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17MozambiqueProportionalParty List System- uses d'Hondt method; 5% vote threshold for parties to gain parliamentary representation. Party 2509939.6%2014-12P1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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18 (tied)ArgentinaProportionalParty list
Legislated Candidate/Party
2559938.8%2017-12LCP1MajoritarianLimited Vote (the party list in each district with the highest number of votes earns two seats, the party list with the second highest number of votes earns one seat)Legislated Candidate & Party723041.7%
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18 (tied)EthiopiaMajoritarianFirst Past the PostParty 54721238.8%2015-06P1OtherIndirectly ElectedParty 1534932.0%
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20North MacedoniaOtherClosed Party List
Legislated Candidate
1204638.3%2018-08LC1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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21IcelandProportional
Closed Party List: Multi-Member
Party 632438.1%2017-10P1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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22 (tied)BelgiumProportionalParty list
Legislated Candidate
1505738.0%2016-12LC0Other Indirectly electedLegislated Candidate 603050.0%
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22 (tied)EcuadorMixed First-past-the-post system for 116 members/Proportional representation system for 15 members.
Legislated Candidate
1375238.0%2017-02LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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24SerbiaProportionalList proportional representation system-Single Nation Wide Constituency
Legislated Candidate
2479337.7%2018-12LC1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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25DenmarkProportionalParty list, not limited to their nomination district/multi-member constituencies
No Official Quota1796737.4%2015-06NQ1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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26AustriaProportionalParty listParty1836837.2%2018-12P1OtherIndirectly electedN/A611931.1%
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27United Republic of TanzaniaMajoritarianSingle member plurality (First-Past-the-Post) for directly elected members/Indirectly elected (Reserved Seats/Party)Reserved Seats39314536.9%2018-12RS0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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28BurundiProportionalClosed Party ListReserved Seats1214436.4%2015-06RS0Majoritarian
Indirectly Elected (3 Round System)
Reserved Seats 391846.2%
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29TunisiaProportionalParty List
Legislated Candidate
2177835.9%2014-10LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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30 (tied)ItalyProportional
List Proportional Representation (FPTP to 2 areas)
Party 63022535.7%2018-03P0Proportional
List Proportional Representation (FPTP to 2 areas), six appointed "senators for life"
Voluntary Quotas by Political Party
32011335.3%
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30 (tied)PortugalProportionalClosed party-list system, with proportional representation based on the d'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate
2308235.7%2018-12LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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32UgandaMajoritarianSimple majority voteReserved Seats45916034.9%2018-12RS0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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33BelarusMajoritarianSimple majority voteReserved Seats1103834.5%2016-09RS0Majoritarian Majority: Secret ballot vote by majority system at sessions of local councils/ Indirectly elected and AppointedNA561730.4%
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34Timor-LesteProportionalParty List
Legislated Candidate
652233.8%2018-06LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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35MonacoProportionalParty List System No Official Quota24833.3%2018-02NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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36NepalMixed
240 First-Past-the-Post/335 Party List
Legislated Candidate
2759032.7%2018-02LC1N/AN/AN/A592237.3%
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37SwitzerlandMixedMulti-member: proportional representation using the Hagenbach-Bischoff method/Single-member: Majority System Party 2006532.5%2016-12P1MajoritarianSimple Majority (Exception: cantons of Jura and Neuchâtel)
Voluntary Quotas by Political Party
46715.2%
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38AndorraMixedMixed Member ParallelReserved Seats28932.1%2016-10RS1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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39United KingdomMajoritarian
Single member plurality systems (First-Past-The-Post)
Party 65020832.0%2018-12P1OtherAppointed
Legislated quotas for bishop appointees only
80520725.7%
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40 (tied)GuyanaProportionalClosed party-list based on the Largest Remainder system using Hare quota
Legislated Candidate
692231.9%2016-12LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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40 (tied)ZimbabweMajoritarian
First-Past-The-Post (Reserved Seats/Party)
Reserved Seats2708631.9%2018-12RS0ProportionalParty List Legislated Candidate/Party 803543.8%
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42NetherlandsProportional
Party-list system with proportional representation
Party 1504731.3%2018-12P0ProportionalParty List SystemParty 752634.7%
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43CameroonMixedMixed Direct- Simple Majority in Single Constituencies and Absolute Majority in List Party1805631.1%2013-09P0Mixed Indirectly Elected/AppointedN/A1002626.0%
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44 (tied)El SalvadorProportional
Closed Party List/Multimember
Legislated Candidate/Party842631.0%2018-06LCP0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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44 (tied)Trinidad and TobagoMajoritarian
Single member plurality systems (First-Past-the-Post)
No Official Quota421331.0%2015-09NQ1OtherAppointed None31929.0%
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46GermanyMixed299 members are elected under first-past-the post and the remaining seats are filled using the party list. Party70921930.9%2018-12P1OtherAppointedParty 692739.1%
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47 (tied)AngolaProportionalParty list
Legislated Candidate
2206630.0%2018-12LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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47 (tied)AustraliaMajoritarian
Single-winner ranked choice voting
Party1504530.0%2018-12P1Proportional
Multi-winner ranked choice voting
N/A763140.8%
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47 (tied)LatviaProportional
Party-list system with preferential voting
No Official Quota1003030.0%2018-10NQ1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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47 (tied)Peru
Proportional
Closed Party List
Legislated Candidate
1303930.0%2018-12LC1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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51PhilippinesMixed 238 Seats First-Past-the-Post/59 seats filled by party lists nominees proposed by indigenous, but non religious, minority groupsParty 2928629.5%2016-12P1MajoritarianBlock VoteParty 24625.0%
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52Suriname
Proportional
Party list systemNo Official Quota511529.4%2018-12NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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53AlbaniaProportionalParty list
Legislated Candidate
1404129.3%2018-12LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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54IsraelProportionalDirect election based on closed party lists of candidates, with proportional distribution of seats according to the simple quotient and highest average system Party 1203529.2%2018-12P1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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55PolandProportionalParty List: distribution of seats being effected on the basis of the modified Sainte-Lague method
Legislated Candidate
46013429.1%2018-12LC1MajoritarianFirst-Past-the PostNone1001414.0%
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56South SudanOtherAppointed Reserved Seats38310928.5%2016-08RS0OtherAppointedReserved Seat 50612.0%
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57 (tied)EstoniaProportionalDirect party-list voting with proportional distribution of seats in three rounds of counting/MultimemberNo Official Quota1012827.7%2019-03NQ1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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57 (tied)AfghanistanMajoritarian
Single non-transferable vote
Reserved Seats2496927.7%2010-09RS0Other
Some indirectly elected, some appointed
Reserved Seats681826.5%
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57 (tied)SudanMixed50% under the majority system from constituencies at the state level/30% closed party lists at the national level/ 20% under the PR system using closed party lists at the national level. Reserved Seats 48113327.7%2018-12RS0OtherIndirectly Elected N/A541935.2%
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60Lao People's Democratic RepublicMajoritarianParty List System No Official Quota1494127.5%2016-03NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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61Kazakhstan
Proportional
Party List System No Official Quota1072927.1%2016-03NQ0N/AIndirectly elected: elected at a joint session of the deputies of all representative bodies of the respective oblast/ AppointedN/A47510.6%
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62CanadaMajoritarianSimple Majority- FPTP Party3379127.0%2017-12P1N/AAppointedN/A944345.7%
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63Dominican Republic
Proportional
Party List/Multi Member constituencies
Legislated Candidate
1905126.8%2016-06LC0MajoritarianSimple Majority N/A3239.4%
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64Viet NamMajoritarian
Majority vote in two rounds
No Official Quota49413226.7%2016-07NQ1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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65DjiboutiProportional Each elector votes for one list, without vote-splitting or preferential vote. Reserved Seats651726.2%2018-06RS0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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66 (tied)BulgariaMixed Members are elected using FPTP system and proportional representation (PR) system using the closed partNo Official Quota2406225.8%2018-12NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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66 (tied)AlgeriaProportionalParty list systemsReserved Seats46211925.8%2017-05RS0Majoritarian
Indirect simple majority election by electoral college
N/A143107.0%
70
68Republic of MoldovaProportionalParty List: Must surpass threshold. Remaining seats are distributed sequentially, by each party (or other socio-political organization, each electoral bloc), starting with candidate with largest number of votesNo Official Quota1012625.7%2019-02NQ1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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69Iraq
Proportional
Seats shall be allocated according to the Sainte-Laguë methodReserved Seats 3298325.2%2018-12RS0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
72
70 (tied)DominicaMajoritarian
Direct election. Simple majority vote.
No Official Quota32825.0%2016-12NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
73
70 (tied)LuxembourgProportionalParty List System Party 601525.0%2018-12P0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
74
70 (tied)San MarinoProportional
Party List using the d'Hondt method
Legislated Candidate
601525.0%2018-12LC1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
75
70 (tied)TurkmenistanMajoritarian
Single-Member Plurality Systems (First-Past-The-Post
No Official Quota1243125.0%2018-12NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
76
74ChinaMajoritarianAbsolute Majority RuleReserved Seats298074224.9%2018-03RS0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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75 (tied)SloveniaProportionalParty List- using the simple quotient and the preferential system with a threshold of a 4 per cent for 88 members Party 902224.4%2018-06P1Other
Indirectly elected by interest groups
None40410.0%
78
75 (tied)SomaliaOtherIndirect Elections: Electoral College selected by elders in consultation with their respective elders. The Electoral Colleges then elect 275 members to the House of the People. The election for each seat is only valid when it is contested by at least two candidates. Reserved Seats2756724.4%2017-02RS0Other Indirectly Elected: State executives shall nominate at least two candidates for each seat. The state assemblies shall then vote for each seat individually.Reserved seats541324.1%
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77ArmeniaProportionalParty list
Legislated Candidate
1323224.2%2018-12LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
80
78 (tied)Cabo VerdeProportionalClosed Party List
Legislated Candidate
721723.6%2016-03LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
81
78 (tied)United States of AmericaMajoritarian Single member plurality systems (First-Past-The-Post) (Georgia exception)No Official Quota43210223.6%2019-02NQ0Majoritarian
Simple majority vote (Georgia exception)
None1002323.0%
82
80MontenegroProportionalClosed Party List
Legislated Candidate
811923.5%2016-10LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
83
81LesothoMixed 80 Single member districts directly elected/ 40 seats through proportion of party
Legislated Candidate
1202823.3%2018-12LC0OtherAppointed N/A32825.0%
84
82SingaporeMajoritarianSimple MajorityNo Official Quota1002323.0%2017-08NQ1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
85
83GuineaMixed
Simple Majority/ National List
Legislated Candidate
1142622.8%2018-12LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
86
84ChileMajoritarianClosed Party ListParty 1553522.6%2018-03P1Majoritarian
Directly Elected Multimember Districts
N/A431023.3%
87
85 (tied)Czech RepublicProportional Proportional: Each elector votes for the party list of his/her choice and can also give four preferential votes to individual candidates on the list/multi-member constituenciesParty 2004522.5%2018-12P0MajoritarianMajority- Two Round Party 811316.0%
88
85 (tied)United Arab EmiratesMajoritarian
Single Non-Transferable Vote
No Official Quota40922.5%2017-07NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
89
87 (tied)Uruguay
Proportional
Party List Legislated Candidate/Party 992222.2%2018-12LCP0Proportional
Direct election, party-list proportional
Legislated Candidate/Party 31929.0%
90
87 (tied)Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)Mixed
Majority/Closed Party List
No Official Quota1673722.2%2016-12NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
91
87 (tied)Ireland
Proportional
Proportional representation under the single transferable vote system
Legislated Candidate
1583522.2%2016-02LC0OtherVoting conducted according to the single transferable vote system / AppointedNone601830.0%
92
90EritreaOther
Indirectly Elected ; Appointed
Reserved Seats1503322.0%2014-01RS0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
93
91KenyaMajoritarian First-Past-the-Post Reserved Seats 3497621.8%2017-08RS0MajoritarianFirst-Past-the PostReserved Seats682130.9%
94
92Bosnia and HerzegovinaProportionalParty lists or independent candidatures, using the simple quotient and greatest remainders formula for left-over seats.
Legislated Candidate
42921.4%2014-01LC0ProportionalAppointedN/A15213.3%
95
93LithuaniaMixed Majority with possible run-off depending on stipulations/Party List System Party 1413021.3%2016-10P1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
96
94SeychellesMixed
Directly elected by simple majority vote/Party List
No Official Quota33721.2%2016-09NQ0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
97
95HondurasMixed Proportional Closed-Party for Multimember districts/Simple Majority for Single-member districts
Legislated Candidate
1282721.1%2017-12LC0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
98
96Romania
Proportional
List Proportional Representation
Party 3296820.7%2016-12P1Proportional
List Proportional Representation
Party1361914.0%
99
97BangladeshMajoritarianPluralityReserved Seats3497220.6%2018-12RS1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
100
98 (tied)CroatiaProportional
Multi Member constituencies - Party List
Legislated Candidate/Party 1513120.5%2018-12LCP1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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