Nobel Prize Winners (16/17)
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YEARPHYSICSCHEMISTRYLITERATUREPEACEECONOMICSPHYSIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
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NAME OF WINNERNATIONALITY OF WINNERREASON FOR THE PRIZENAME OF WINNERNATIONALITY OF WINNERREASON FOR THE PRIZENAME OF WINNERNATIONALITY OF WINNERREASON FOR THE PRIZENAME OF WINNERNATIONALITY OF WINNERREASON FOR THE PRIZENAME OF WINNERNATIONALITY OF WINNERREASON FOR THE PRIZENAME OF WINNERNATIONALITY OF WINNERREASON FOR THE PRIZE
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2016-David J. Thouless -F. Duncan M. Haldane -J. Michael Kosterlitz- Bearsden, United States - London, United Kingdom - Aberdeen, United states"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"- Jean-Pierre Sauvage - Sir J. Fraser Stoddart - Bernard L. Feringa - Paris, France - Edimbourg, United Kigdom -Barger-Compascuum, Netherlands"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"Bob DylanDuluth, United States "for having created ne"w poetic expressions within the great American song tradition.Juan Manuel SantosBogotá, Colombia"for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end".-Oliver Hart - Bengt Holmström


- London, United Kingdom - Helsinki, Finlandfor their contributions to contract theory"Yoshinori OhsumiFukuoka, Japan"for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy".
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2015Arthur B.McDonald

Takaaki Kajita
-Sydney,Canadádian -Japanese "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"-Tomas Lindahl -Paul Modrich -Aziz Sancar-Swedish -American -Turkish "for mechanistic studies of DNA repair".Svetlana AleksiévichUkrainian"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time".National Dialogue Quartet (is a group of four organizations that were central in the attempts to build a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia)Tunez"for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011".Angus DeatonEdinburgh, United Kingdom "for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare".-William C. Campbell -Satoshi Ōmura -Youyou Tu-Irish -Japanese -Chinese"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites" and the other half to Youyou Tu "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria".
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2014Akasaky Amano and NakamuraJapanThey invent the blue led lightWilliam E. Moerner, Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell
William E. Moerner, Eric Betzig are American and Stefan Hell is from GermanyDevelopment of "high resolution" microscopes employing "fluorescent molecules", a technique also called "nanoscopy"Patrick ModianoFrenchFor his art of memory with which he has evoked the most difficult human destinies to portray and reveal the world of the OccupationMalala Yoursafzai pakistaniDefend women's schoolingJean TiroleFrenchFor his analysis of "market power and regulation"John O'Keefe and May Britt Moser y Edvard I. MoserJohn O'Keefe american and May Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser norwegianStudies the orientation in space
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2013Peter Higgs and François EnglertPeter Higgs: Great Britain. François Englert: BelgiumBy the discovery of 'the particle de Dios'Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh WarshelMartin Karplus: Australia, Michael Levitt: South Africa and Arieh Warshel: IsraelThe development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".Alice MunroCanadaShe write very good booksOrganization for the prohibition of chemical weaponsThe Hague, Netherlands The extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons.Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peters Harsen and Robert J. ShillerUSA For their empirical analysis of asset pricesJames Rotheman, Randy W Sheckman and Thomas C. SüdhofJames Rotheman and Randy W Sheckman USA, and Thomas C. Südho GermanyFor their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells".
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2012Serge Haroche and David J. WinelandSerge Haroche: Paris, France and David J. Wineland: colorado USAfor ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems

Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. KobilkaRobert J. Lefkowitz: NY, USA and Brian K. Kobilka: MN, USAfor studies of G-protein-coupled receptors

Mo Yangaomi, chinawho with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporaryeuropean unioneuropean unionfor over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe

Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. ShapleyAlvin E. Roth: NY, USA and Lloyd S. Shapley: MA, USAfor the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market designSir John B. Gurdon and Shinya YamanakaSir John B. Gurdon: U.K. and Shinya Yamanaka: japanfor the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent

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2011Adam RiessAmericanfor the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Dan ShechtmanIsraelfor the discovery of quasicrystalsTomas TranströmerSwedishbecause, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to realityTawakkul KarmanYemènfor their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

Thomas J. SargentAmericanfor their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomyJules Hoffmann
Luxemburgfor their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity
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2010Andre Geim, Konstantín NovosiólovSochi and Nizhni Taguil RusiaThe Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 was awarded jointly to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"Richard Heck, Akira Suzuki, Eiichi Negishi Springfield, Massachusetts, USA. Manchuria, República Popular China. Mukawa, Hokkaidō, Japón.The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 was awarded jointly to Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis".Mario Vargas Llosa Arequipa, PerúThe Nobel Prize in Literature 2010 was awarded to Mario Vargas Llosa "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat".Liu XiaoboChangchun, República Popular ChinaThe Nobel Peace Prize 2010 was awarded to Liu Xiaobo "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"Peter Diamond, Cristóbal Pissarides, Dale Mortensen Nueva York, Nueva York, Estados Unidos, Nicosia, Chipre, Enterprise, Oregón, Estados Unidos"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"Robert Edwards Batley, Reino UnidoThe Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 was awarded to Robert G. Edwards "for the development of in vitro fertilization".
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2009Charles Kuen Cao Willard S. Boyle George E. SmithShangai China Amherst Canada New York USAFor groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication and or the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensorAda Yonath Thomas A. Steitz Venkatraman RamakrishnanJerusalem Palestine Milwakee USA Nadu IndiaFor studies of the structure and function of the ribosomeHerta MüllerBanat RomaniaWho, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessedBarack ObamaHonolulu USAFor his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoplesOliver E. Williamson, Elinor OstromSuperior WI USA Los Angeles USAFor her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons and for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firmElizabeth H. Blackburn Carol W. Greider Jackel W. SzostackTasmania Astralia San diego USA Lundon UKFor the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase
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2008Yoichiro Namu, Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide MaskawaJapaneseYoichiro Nambu for the discover of the mechanismo of spontaneous and the other half joinly to Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa for the discovery of the origin of the broken symetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. TsienOsamu Shimomura was Japanese, and Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsine were americans.For the discovey and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP. Jean-Marie Gustave Le ClézioFrenchThe Nobel Prize in Literature 2008 was awarded to him for author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilizationMartti AhtisaariRussianThe prize was awarded to him for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international confictsPaul KrugmanAmericanThe prize was awarded to him for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity.Harald zur Hausen, Francoaise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc MontagnierHarald is German and Francoaise and Luc are french One half to Harald for his discovery of human papilloma viruses cousing cervical cancer and the other half to Francoaise and Luc for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus
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2007Peter Grunberg and Albert FerPeter Grunberg was Czech Republican and Albert Fer FrenchThey give the noble prize because of the disvovery about a giant magnetoresistanceGerhard ErtlGermanHe was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfacesDoris Lessing Iranian In awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy described her as "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"Al Gore and IPCCAmericanGore remained prominent as an author and environmental activist, whose work in climate change activism earned him (jointly with the IPCC) the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007.Eric Maskin, Roger B. Myerson and Leonid HurwiczEric Maskin and Roger B. Myerson were American, and Leonid Hurwicz RussianBecause of their work about theories of mechanismMartin Evans, Mario Capecchi and Oliver SmithiesMartin Evans is England, Mario Capecchi Italian and Oliver Smithies BritishFor their work on stem cells and genetic manipulation in animal modles
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2006John C. Mather
George F. Smoot
Roanoke, Virginia Yukon, Floridabecause of their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.Roger D. KornbergSt. Louis, Missouri, United Statesbecause of his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcriptionOrhan Pamuk
Istanbul"who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures".Muhammad Yunus
Grameen Bank
Bangladeshbecause of their efforts to create economic and social development from below.

Edmund S. Phelps
Evanston, Illinois,because of his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy.

Andrew Z. Fire
Craig C. Mello
CaliforniaNew Haven, Connecticut
because of their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA

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2005Roy J. Glauber John L. Hall Theodor W. HänschNew York (USA) Colorado (USA) Heidelberg (Germany)"For his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" "For their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"Yves Chauvin Robert H. Grubbs Richard R. SchrockFrance Texas (USA) Indiana EE.UU. "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis" "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis" "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"Harold PinterLondon (England)"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradeiViena (Austria) Egypt"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way" "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"Thomas Schelling Robert AumannOakland (CA, USA)"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis" "for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"Barry J.Marshall J. Robin WarrenKalgoorlie (Australia)"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
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2004H. David Politzer David J. Gross Frank WilczekNew York Washington D. C . New York"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction".

Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko Irwin RoseIsrael Hungria New Yorkfor the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradationElfriede JelinekAustriafor her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating powerWangari Muta MaathaiKeniafor her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peaceFinn E. Kydland Edward C. Prescott Noruega Estados Unidosor their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cyclesRichard Axel
Linda B. Buck
New York Washingtonfor their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
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2003Alexei A. Abrikosov,Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett

United kingdom , Russia "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids".Peter Agre and Roderick MacKinnonAmericanPeter:"for the discovery of water channels"
Roderick:"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"
John M. CoetzeeSouth Africa"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider".Shirin EbadiIranfor her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children".Robert F. EngleNew York“for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

Paul C. Lauterbur
Sir Peter Mansfield
SIdney and Londonfor their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
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2002Raymond Davis Jr. Masatoshi Koshiba Riccardo Giacconi USA (Washington) Japan Italy"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" (half to Davis and Koshiba) "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources" (the other half to Giacconi)Jonh B. Fenn




Koichi Tanaka





Kurt Wüthrich



NY USA




Japan





Switzerland
"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules" half to Jonh B. Fenn and "for the development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules" to Koichi Tanaka, the other half was to Kurt Wüthrich "for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution".Imre KertésnHungary"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"Jimmy Carter USA"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development".Daniel Kahneman Vernon L. Smith
Israel USA"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty" "for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"Sydney Brenner H. Robert Horvitz
John E. Sulston
South Africa (Chicago) USA United Kindom"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'".
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2001Eric A. Cornell
Wolfgang Ketterle
Carl E. Wieman
American, German, American"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates".William S. Knowles & Ryoji Noyori

K. Barry Sharpless
American Japanese
American
"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions" and the other half to K. Barry Sharpless "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions".

Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad NaipaulTrinidad"for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories".United Nations

Kofi Annan


Ghana
"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"

George A. Akerlof
A. Michael Spence
Joseph E. Stiglitz
American
American
American
for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information".

Leland H. Hartwell
Tim Hunt
Sir Paul M. Nurse
American
British
British
for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle".
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2000Zhores Ivanovich Alferov, Herbert Kroemer & Jack St. Clair CilbyZhores Russia, Herbert Germany & Jack United StatesFor developing semiconductor used in high-speed-and optelectronics. & for his part in the evention of the intergrated circuitAlan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDirmand & Hideki ShirawakaHeeger United States, MacDirmand United States and New Zeland & Shirawaka JapanFor their discovery and development of conductive polymersGao XingjianFrance and ChinaPor an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and dramaKim Dae-jungSouth CoreaDue to his job for the democracy and human rights in South Corea and Asia Oriental in general, and the peace and reco y la paz y reconciliation with North Corea in particularJames Hekman & Daniel MacFaddenUnited StatesBy designing methods to understand economic behavior of economies of familys and individualsArvind Carlssong, Erik Kandel & Paul GreengardUnited StatesFor their discoverings about the transduction of the signal of the nervous system
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1999Martinus J.G Veltman Jerardus't HooftNederlndsfor elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physicsAhmed Hassan ZewailDamanhur, Egiptfor his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopyGünter GrassGermanywhose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of historyDoctors without bordersParis, Francein recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continentsRobert MundellKingston, Canadaor his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areasGünter BlobelNiegosławice, Lubusz Voivodeship, Poloniaor the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell
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1998Robert B. Laughlin, Daniel Chee Tsui, Horst L. StörmerUnited StatesFor their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitationsWalter Kohn, John PopleWalter Kohn United States, John Pople EnglandWalter Kohn "for his development of the density-functional theory" and John A. Pople "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"José SaramagoPortugueseWho with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory realityJohn Hume, David TrimbleJohn Hume Irish, David Trimble BritishFor their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern IrelandAmartya SenIndianfor his contributions to welfare economicsRobert F. Furchgott, Ferid Murad, Louis IgnarroRobert F. Furchgott United States, Ferid Murad American Albanian, Louis Ignarro Americanfor their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system
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1997Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, William D. PhillipsAmerican, France and America"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light".Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. SkouAmerican, England, Denmark"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)" Dario FoItaly"he emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden".

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody WilliamsJody Williams= American"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines" Robert C. Merton, Myron S. ScholesAmerica (NY), America (Canada), for a new method to determine the value of derivatives.Stanley B. PrusinerAmerican"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection".
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JAROSLAV SEIFERT for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man.
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1983
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SIR WILLIAM GOLDING for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today.
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1982
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