DISCONTINUED ON JUNE 24, 2016 - Events during which someone died trying to reach or stay in Europe
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THIS DATABASE WAS LAST UPDATED ON JUNE 24, 2016
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This document lists all events during which a person lost his or her life in an attempt to come to or stay in Europe since 2000.
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Definitions:
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A Person is anyone who does not possess an EU citizenship and who is born (fetuses are not counted).
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Attempting to come to Europe means that a person is on his or her way to Europe or could be. A person traveling towards Tripoli or Istanbul might hope to settle there and be pushed by unforeseen circumstances to continue his or her journey towards Europe. Researchers are encouraged to add to the lists events that occurred on routes leading to Europe, even if the final destination of the deceased cannot be firmly established. Analysts are encouraged to take this into account when using the data. Previous research showed that about 1 in 5 person headed to Tripoli continues towards Europe, against two in three of those headed to Istanbul. However, such ratios change often. Deaths occurring after a deportation in a third country must be recorded.
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Attempting to stay in Europe means that a person is or was in Europe and died as a result of his or her condition of illegal alien. Most if not all aspects of life for an illegal alien are impacted by his or her administrative status, from the places he or she can visit to the company he or she finds him or herself in. Deaths resulting from depression, police violence, escape attempts, lack of care etc. must be recorded. Deaths occurring after a person was deported from Europe must also be recorded insofar as the researcher has reasons to believe that the death could have been prevented had the deceased been given the status of legal alien.
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Europe is understood as the Schengen area and the United Kingdom. The approximately 20,000 persons who died trying to reach Mayotte, a French colony of the Comoros Islands, are not to be counted.
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Intent of going to Europe: introduces the criteria of the doubt to the cases when the refugees have died outside the border of Europe, but could have been trying to reach it.Their death in a third counry i.e. Turkey, could have occured as the result of their status of refugee -- e.g. they were forced to take a dangerous journey, they weren't given enough medical help, etc.
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For each event, the researcher must record the Frontex-defined route on which it occurred, so that analysts can compute mortality rates by route. Because Frontex measures the number of people crossing the border according to a list of border crossing points and not the number of people actually on a route, researchers must apply the route that they think is appropriate. There is no correct choice, as refugees and migrants themselves often do not know at which BCP they will arrive (boats headed to Italy can be intercepted off the Greek coast, for instance). The routes are:
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Central Mediterranean: Attempt to reach Italy by sea.
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Eastern Mediterranean Land: Attempt to reach Greece or Bulgaria by land.
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Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Attempt to reach Greece, Bulgaria or Romania by sea.
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West African: Attempt to reach the Canary Islands.
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Western Balkan Route: Attempt to reach Hungary, Austria or Slovenia through Romania, Serbia and Croatia.
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Western Mediterranean: Attempt to reach Spain mainland, Ceuta or Melilla.
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Circular Route between Greece and Albania: Disused
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Apulia and Calabria: Disused
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Sources:
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Researchers are encouraged to use any reliable source available to document an event. Online sources should be saved using the Web Archive or Archive.is.
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