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1 | short name | full name | google hits | AKA | Born | middle age | Field | quick summary | Specific contributions | gap | when? | Western equivalent discovery -where possible | quality of link | Extras/general | Died | Location | Sources | The House of Wisdom' by Jim al-Khalili | Lost History' by Michael Hamilton Morgan | http://www.iep.utm.edu/ibnrushd/ | https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ibn-Zuhr | https://www.britannica.com/biography/al-Battani | ||||||

2 | 999 | 623 | 1621 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

3 | al-Khwārizmi | Abū Abdullah Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmi | 2910000 | Algorithmus | 780 | 815 | mathematics, astronomy | Hindu numerals | With Al-Kindi, introduced Hindu numerals to the Arab world (using characters representing 0-9, that can be arranged to show any number). Prior to the Hindu decimal system there were only two ways of working with numbers: the finger counting method and a complicated process of using Arabic letter characters. | 161 | 976 | The first record of numerals in the west are found in the Codex Vigilanus of 976. Pope Sylvester II tried to spread knowledge of numerals in Europe from the 980s, & Fibonacci promoted numerals in his Liber Abaci published 1202. | direct | The word algebra is derived from the title of his book, 'Kitab al-Jebr'. | 850 | Possibly from Uzbekistan. | ||||||||||||

4 | Abū Kāmil | Abū Kāmil Shujā | 490000 | The Egyptian Calculator | 850 | 890 | mathematics | several | First Arabic mathematician to solve indeterminate problems, first to work freely with irrational coefficients, extended the range of geometric proofs, worked with higher powers of the unknown than x squared, right up to x to the power of 8... | 312 | 1202 | Abu Kamil Shuja's work was a major source for Fibonacci's treatment of algebra in Liber abbaci, De practica geometrie and Flos. Many of the problems & solutions laid out in Abu Kamil's book appear in Liber abbaci. | direct | 930 | Egypt | |||||||||||||

5 | al-Bīrūni | Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūni | 2170000 | 973 | 1011 | mathematics | cubic equations | Developed mathematic techniques for solving cubic equations and extracting numerical roots. | 192 | 1202 | Fibonacci provided a positive solution to the cubic equation in 1202, which was 3 thrillionths off the correct value. Scipione del Ferro found a solution for a specific class of cubic equations, but kept it secret until just before his death in 1526. In the late 16th c François Viète discovered the trigonometric solution for the cubic with 3 real roots, & Descartes extended his work. | direct | 1048 | Uzbekistan | ||||||||||||||

6 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | the moon illusion | Described the motion of the planets. First to explain the moon illusion (the way we see the moon as larger when it's near the horizon) as an illusion of perception – the 'size-distance invariance principle'. | 265 | 1267 | Building on Alhazen's work, Roger Bacon was the first to explain the moon illusion through the enlarged apparent distance of the horizon by the presence of intervening objects. | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

7 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | refraction & dispersion of light | One of the first to experiment with the colours in light, shadows, rainbows and eclipses. Described the refraction and dispersion of light into constituent colours. | 265 | 1267 | Roger Bacon theorized (but couldn't prove) that rainbows were a function of reflection & refraction of sunlight through raindrops. Newton proved that white light is made up of colours through his prism experiments (1665). | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

8 | al-Uqlīdisi | Abū al-Hassan al-Uqlīdisi | 34300 | 920 | 950 | mathematics | decimal fractions | First mathematician known to use decimal fractions (although some suggest he didn't recognise their importance or do much with them). | 400 | 1350 | Immanuel Bonfils used decimal fractions in 1350, but did not create a symbol to represent them. Simon Stevin was thought to be the first to present a thorough account of demical fractions, & to use them in mathematics, until 1948 when P. Luckey showed that Al-Kashi's account of decimal fractions was just as clear & thorough as Stevin's. | associative | The 'al-Uqlidisi' part of his name refers to Euclid. | 980 | Damascus | |||||||||||||

9 | al-Qalasādi | Abū al-Hasan ibn al-Qalasādi | 16000 | 1412 | 1449 | mathematics | algebraic symbolism | Developed algebraic symbolism by using short Arabic words or letters as mathematical symbols. | 40 | 1489 | The + & - mathematical symbols first appeared in print in Johannes Widman's 1489 text. Michael Stifel's Arithmetica integra (1544) used symbols for mathematical notation. In the 18th & 19 centuries Euler, Leibniz, Cantor, Wallis & Gauss came up with many of the symbols still used today. | direct | 1486 | Born Bastah, died Tunisia | ||||||||||||||

10 | al-Farghāni | Abū al-Abbās Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghāni | 71600 | Alfraganus | 800 | 831 | geography | circumference of the Earth | Estimated the circumference of the earth far more accurately than Ptolemy's figure. | 661 | 1491 | Columbus (incorrectly - failed to convert Arabic miles to Roman miles) used al-Farghani's value for the earth's circumference to persuade backers to fund his voyage. | direct | 861 | ||||||||||||||

11 | al-Uqlīdisi | Abū al-Hassan al-Uqlīdisi | 34300 | 920 | 950 | mathematics | decimal point | Credited with the invention of a symbol for the decimal point. | 580 | 1530 | Francesco Pellos or Pellizzati was the first to use the decimal point in a printed work, although he did not recognise its significance. Christoff Rudolf used a decimal symbol (the bar) in 1530. Unlike Pellos, he understood how to use it. | direct | 980 | Damascus | ||||||||||||||

12 | Abū Ma'shar al-Balkhi | Abū Ma'shar Ja'far ibn Muhammad ibn Umar al-Balkhi | 194000 | Albumasar | 787 | 837 | astronomy | heliocentricity | Created a new planetary model, suggesting that all planets except earth orbit the sun. At the time it was commonly thought that celestial bodies orbitted the earth. | 707 | 1543 | Nicolaus Copernicus published his heliocentric model of the universe in 1543, describing the sun as a motionless body that earth & other planets orbit. This was radical for the time, when Greek geocentric models prevailed. | direct | 886 | Persia | |||||||||||||

13 | al-Tūsi | Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Tūsi | 3810000 | 1201 | 601 | astronomy | heliocentric | One of the first to advocate a heliocentric model (sun-centred) rather than a geocentric model (earth-centred). | 943 | 1543 | Nicolaus Copernicus published his heliocentric model of the universe in 1543, describing the sun as a motionless body that earth & other planets orbit. This was radical for the time, when Greek geocentric models prevailed. | direct | ||||||||||||||||

14 | ibn al-Nafīs | Ala' al-Dīn Abū al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi al-Hazm al-Nafīs | 258000 | 1213 | 1251 | medicine | pulmonary transit | First to correctly describe pulmonary transit. | 309 | 1559 | Realdo Columbo (aka Columbus), described pulmonary transit in 1559. This laid the foundations for William Harvey's discovery of circulation in 1616. | direct | 1288 | |||||||||||||||

15 | Omar Khayyām | Abū al-Fatah Umar ibn Ibrahīm al-Khayyāmi | 500000 | 1048 | 1090 | mathematics | solar year | Measured the solar year to within 6 decimal places of our modern value (which would be slightly different anyway on account of the earth's spin slowing). Created a calendar (the Jalali Calendar), with an approx. error of less than 1 second per year. | 493 | 1582 | Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian calendar, still used today in most of the world, in 1582. It contains an appox. error of 27 seconds per year. | direct | 1131 | |||||||||||||||

16 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | experimental approach | Wrote 'The Book of Optics'. | 602 | 1604 | The Book of Optics is regarded as equal in significance to Newton's 'Principa Mathematica' (1687). Alhazen's empirical method inspired Roger Bacon, Galileo, Kepler and others. Kepler was the first European to master Alhazen's experimental approach & advance his theories (1604). | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

17 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | light & the eye | First to correctly describe sight as a function of light from objects entering our eyes radially in straight lines, rather than as light being emitted from the eye, as thought by Euclid and Ptolemy. | 602 | 1604 | Kepler (directly influenced by Alhazen) presented the first theory of the retinal image. | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

18 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | pinhole camera | Made major contributions to the solution to the 'billiard-ball problem', or 'Alhazen's problem' - to do with finding the point of reflection. Described the pinhole camera and camera obscura. | 602 | 1604 | Kepler's theory of retinal images stemmed from comparing the eye to the camera obscura. | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

19 | Ibn Bājja | Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya | 181000 | Avempace | 1095 | 1117 | astronomy | milky way | Realised the Milky Way was made up of numerous individual stars. (n.b. there is debate over whether al-Bīrūni knew this already). | 493 | 1610 | Galileo discovered that the Milky Way was made up of individual stars in 1610. | direct | 1139 | Spain | |||||||||||||

20 | ibn al-Nafīs | Ala' al-Dīn Abū al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi al-Hazm al-Nafīs | 258000 | 1213 | 1251 | medicine | metabolism | Came up with the concept of metabolism. | 364 | 1614 | Santorio Sanctorius produced the first controlled experiments in human metabolism (1614). In the 19th c, the works of Louis Pasteur & Friedwich Wöhler contributed to the understanding of metabolic pathways. In the 20th c Eduard Buchner discovered enzymes & Hans Kreb discoverd the urea cycle, & with Hand Kornberg, the citric acid cycle & glyoxylate cycle. | direct | 1288 | Born Damascus, lived in Cairo. | ||||||||||||||

21 | al-Kāshī | Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Mas’ūd al-Kāshī | 9540000 | 1380 | 1405 | mathematics | pi | Calculated π to 9 sexagesimal places and translated this into 16 decimal places. The first to achieve such accuracy. | 217 | 1621 | The German Ludolph Van Ceulen calculated π to 35 decimal places (published posthumously). π was known as the Leudolphine number in Germany. | direct | 1429 | |||||||||||||||

22 | ibn Sahl | Abu Sa'ad al-'Alā' ibn Sahl | 417000 | 940 | 970 | physics | law of refraction | First major study of lenses for focusing light. Described the Law of Refraction in 984. | 667 | 1637 | Harriot rediscovered the Law of Refraction in 1602. Snell advanced the theory in 1621, but did not publish them in his lifetime. Descartes derived the law in new terms (heuristic momentum conservation) & published in 1637. | direct | 1000 | |||||||||||||||

23 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | least time | Discovered the principle of least time (the path taken between two points by a ray of light is the path that can be traversed in the least time). | 648 | 1650 | Fermat stated that light travelling from A-B always takes the quickest route, a notion that became known as Fermat's Principle. | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

24 | al-Samaw'al | al-Samaw'al Ibn Yahyā al-Maghribī | 78600 | 1130 | 1155 | mathematics | mathematical inductive logic | Developed the concept of proof by mathematical induction & contributed to the binomial theorum. | 510 | 1665 | The first explicit description of mathematical induction was given by Pasal in Traité du triangle arithmétique (1665). | direct | 1180 | |||||||||||||||

25 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | momentum | Discovered the concept of momentum. | 685 | 1687 | The concept of momentum was part of Newton's second law of motion. | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

26 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | inertia | Discovered the law of inertia (An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force). | 685 | 1687 | The law of inertia was later described by Newton (1686), became known as Newton's first law of motion. | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

27 | al-Bīrūni | Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūni | 2170000 | 973 | 1011 | mathematics | early calculus | Developed early calculus methods in his 'Mas-udi Canon' (completed around 1031). Used these methods to describe the laws of motion & acceleration of celestial bodies. | 677 | 1687 | Newton developed the Laws of Motion in Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. | direct | 1048 | Uzbekistan | ||||||||||||||

28 | Jābir ibn Hayyān | Abū Mūsa Jābir ibn Hayyān al-Azdī | 143000 | al-Sufi (the Mystic), Geber the Alchemist | 721 | 768 | chemistry | sulphuric & hydrochloric acid | Credited with discovery of sulphuric acid & hydrochloric acid, and possibly with the creation of aqua regia, which dissolves gold. | 968 | 1736 | In the seventeenth century, the German-Dutch chemist Johann Glauber prepared sulfuric acid by burning sulfur together with saltpeter (potassium nitrate, KNO 3), in the presence of steam. As saltpeter decomposes, it oxidizes the sulfur to SO 3, which combines with water to produce sulfuric acid. In 1736, Joshua Ward, a London pharmacist, used this method to begin the first large-scale production of sulfuric acid. | direct | 815 | ||||||||||||||

29 | Jābir ibn Hayyān | Abū Mūsa Jābir ibn Hayyān al-Azdī | 143000 | al-Sufi (the Mystic), Geber the Alchemist | 721 | 768 | chemistry | evaporation & other chemical techniques | Developed several chemical techniques, inc. crystallization, distillation, evaporation, calcination, sublimation. | 971 | 1739 | Nils Wallerius is considered the first to study & document evaporation. He was awarded a place as the 26th member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1739, chiefly for his work in evaporation. | direct | Origin of 'gibberish' comes from this guy – his works were obscure & hard to follow. Was obsessed with creation of life in a laboratory ('takwin'). | 815 | Born in Khurasan in Persia, moved to Kufa. | ||||||||||||

30 | Abbās ibn Firnās | Abū al-Qāsim Abbās Ibn Firnas | 113000 | Leonardo da Vinci of Islamic Spain | 810 | 849 | engineering | controlled aviation | The world's first aviator. Attempted controlled flight in a hand-glider type device aged 65. | 903 | 1751 | Andrea Grimaldi reportedly flew from Calais to London in a large bird-shaped glider. | direct | 887 | Andalucia | |||||||||||||

31 | ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi | Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi | 245000 | Rhazes | 854 | 890 | medicine | clinical trial | Conducted the earliest known example of a clinical trial using a control group. | 910 | 1799 | James Lind is thought to have conducted the first proper clinical trial in 1747, when he split his patients into groups, each of which received different treatments for scurvy. However, he did not use a control group. John Haygarth famously used a control group to identify the placebo effect in his study of a remedy called 'Perkin's tractors' in 1799. | direct | 925 | Born in Rayy | |||||||||||||

32 | ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi | Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi | 245000 | Rhazes | 854 | 890 | medicine | psychiatry | Father of psychology and psychotherapy'. Ran the psychiatric ward at Baghdad hospital while his Christian contemporaries were still claiming the mentally ill were possessed by the devil, & using punishment & confinement to treat them. al-Rhazi treated his patients with empathy & respect, took detailed patient histories, gave them money on discharge - the first known instance of psychiatric aftercare. | 912 | 1801 | Moral management of psychiatric disorders began in the early 19th century, with the use of comfortable surroundings, work therapy, & abolishment of punitive methods. For the first time, the mentally ill were treated as ill. In previous centuries they had been characterised as dangerous, possessed, bewitched, lunatics, animals, & morally weak. | direct | Challenged quacks and charlatans. | 925 | Born in Rayy | ||||||||||||

33 | al-Jāhith | Abū Uthmān al-Jāhith | 193000 | 776 | 822 | literature, biology | evolution | Argued that animals adapt to their environments, a break from Aristotle, who believed species were fixed as they were and could not evolve. | 980 | 1802 | Jean-Baptiste Lamarck is often credited with being the first to argue for the inheritability of acquired characteristics, an idea known as Lamarckism (later replaced by Darwinian evolutionary theory). Al-Jahith's views represented a rudimentary version of Lamarckism. | associative | Jahith translates as 'goggle-eyes' – he had famously huge eyes. Ruler al-Ma'mum hired him to tutor his kids, but had to fire him immediately because his kids were terrified by his eyes. | 868 | Born Basra, spent life in Baghdad. | |||||||||||||

34 | ibn Mūsa | Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Mūsa | 449000 | 803 | 838 | engineering, mathematics, astronomy | programmable machine | With his brothers Ahmed and Hassan Mūsa, wrote the 'Book of Ingenious Devices' (850), where they recorded and detailed their inventions. One of which is credited as the earliest known example of a programmable machine (a robot flute player). | 966 | 1804 | The Jacquard loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804, used punched cards to program & automate weaving. Charles Babbage invented the Analytical Engine in 1833, which was programmed using punched cards. | associative | 873 | |||||||||||||||

35 | Jābir ibn Hayyān | Abū Mūsa Jābir ibn Hayyān al-Azdī | 143000 | al-Sufi (the Mystic), Geber the Alchemist | 721 | 768 | chemistry | compounded ether | May have been the first to have compounded ether. | 1074 | 1842 | Raymond Lully is thought to have created compounded ether in the 13th c. In the 16th c. Valerius Cordus & Paracelsus observed that ether sent chickens to sleep. Robert Boyle, Issac Newton & Michael Farraday made similar observations. In 1842, Crawford Williamson Long had his surgical patient inhale ether from a towel before having two tumours exised, in the what is described as the first known use of inhaled surgical anaesthesia. The operation was successful & the patient reported that he had not felt the procedure. | direct | 815 | ||||||||||||||

36 | Abū al-Qāsim al-Zahrāwi | Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn Abbās al-Zahrāwi | 158000 | 936 | 975 | inhaled anesthesia | Pioneered the use of inhaled anaesthesia (sponges soaked in narcotics). | 868 | 1842 | Raymond Lully is thought to have created compounded ether in the 13th c. In the 16th c. Valerius Cordus & Paracelsus observed that ether sent chickens to sleep. Robert Boyle, Issac Newton & Michael Farraday made similar observations. In 1842, Crawford Williamson Long had his surgical patient inhale ether from a towel before having two tumours exised, in the what is described as the first known use of inhaled surgical anaesthesia. The operation was successful & the patient reported that he had not felt the procedure. | direct | 1013 | ||||||||||||||||

37 | al-Jāhith | Abū Uthmān al-Jāhith | 193000 | 776 | 822 | literature, biology | common ancestry | Argued that animals with similar features must share common ancestry. | 1037 | 1859 | Darwin proposed common descent in On the Origin of Species. | direct | 868 | |||||||||||||||

38 | ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi | Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi | 245000 | Rhazes | 854 | 890 | chemistry | classification of elements | Building on Jābir ibn Hayyān's work, classified all known substances into groups in 'The Book of Secrets'. First time elements had been grouped according to scientific observations rather than philosphical notions (such as those used by the Greeks, e.g. earth, air, fire, water). | 980 | 1869 | Mendeleev's 1869 Periodic Table grouped substances with similar properties & by atomic weight. This kind of classification (i.e. by empirical observation) dates back to Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi. | associative | 925 | Born in Rayy | |||||||||||||

39 | ibn Sīna | Abu Ali al-Hussein ibn Abdullah ibn Sina | 2180000 | Aristotle of Islam, Galen of Islam, Avicenna | 980 | 1009 | physics | light = particles | Believed light was composed of particles. | 897 | 1905 | Newton particle theory of light was published in 1704. His theory dominated for 100 years, losing favour when it failed to explain diffraction, interference and polarization of light. Einstein revived Newton's theory in the 20th c, explaining the compositon of light through wave-particle duality. | direct | 1037 | Uzbekistan | |||||||||||||

40 | ibn Zuhr | Abū Marwān Abd al-Malik ibn abi-l-'Ala' Zuhr | 84300 | Abumeron, Avenzoar | 1091 | 1127 | medicine | cataracts | Developed surgical procedures for cataracts | 621 | 1747 | Jacques Daviel successfully extracted cataracts in 1747. | associative | 1162 | ||||||||||||||

41 | ibn Zuhr | Abū Marwān Abd al-Malik ibn abi-l-'Ala' Zuhr | 84300 | Abumeron, Avenzoar | 1091 | 1127 | medicine | kidneys | Developed surgical procedures for kidney stones. | 850 | 1976 | Fernstrom & Johansson conducted kidney stone removal surgery in 1976. | associative | 1162 | ||||||||||||||

42 | Ibn al-Haytham | Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham | 291000 | Alhacen, Alhazen | 965 | 1003 | physics | atmospheric refraction | Introduced the study of atmospheric refraction. | 809 | 1811 | Friedrich Bessel produced tables of atmospheric refraction. Won the Lalande Prize for this work in 1811. | direct | 1040 | Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt. | |||||||||||||

43 | al-Bīrūni | Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūni | 2170000 | 973 | 1011 | polymath | circumference & radius of the earth | Introduced triangulation methods – calculated the circumference of the earth from the height of a mountain – a new & much more efficient technique than had been used in the past. | 607 | 1617 | Snel used triangulation methods to calculate the circumference of the earth, which he published in his Eratosthenes Batavus in 1617. | direct | 1048 | Uzbekistan | ||||||||||||||

44 | ibn al-Shātir | Ala' al-Dīn Abu'l-Hassan Ali ibn Ibrahīm ibn al-Shātir | 81000 | 1304 | 1340 | astronomy | planetary models | Removed the eccentric deferent & equant of the Ptolemaic models, using secondary epicycles instead. This new method corrected defects in Ptolemaic models. | 204 | 1543 | al-Shātir's plantary theories are identical to many of Copernicus'. This was only discovered in the 1950s, it had previously been thought that Copernicus invented those theories. | direct | 1375 | Syria | ||||||||||||||

45 | al-Farghāni | Abū al-Abbās Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghāni | 71600 | Alfraganus | 800 | 831 | astronomy | martian year | Calculated a martian year - the Martian year part is cited again and again in published books on Dante, can't find anything concrete in sciency sources. The Jim Al Khalili book doesn't specify exactly what Dante used from al-Farghani's work, but confirms the link between Dante and al-Farghani's calcs. | 642 | 1472 | Dante used al-Farghani's writings to inform his Divine Comedy. For example, Dante gives Cacciaguida's age as 580 martian years – Dante knew from al-Farghani's work that a martian year = 687 earth days, dating Cacciaguida's birth to 1091. | direct | 861 | ||||||||||||||

46 | al-Zarqāli | Abū Ishāq Ibrahīm al-Zarqāli | 65400 | Arzachel | 1029 | 1058 | astronomy | Figured out that the path of the center of the primary epicycle of Mercury is not circular, but oval. However, he did not apply these findings to his theories. | when did the west discover this? - unclear. The book (and other sources) state that people wrongly claim his findings pre-empted Kepler's, but don't state what they DID pre-empt. Since Al-Zarqali didn't apply his findings, maybe this one could be excluded? | - | 1087 | |||||||||||||||||

47 | al-Khwārizmi | Abū Abdullah Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmi | 2910000 | Algorithmus | 780 | 815 | mathematics, astronomy | zero | Placed zero at the centre of mathematics by working out what it means and how it can be used (the concept of zero was developed earlier, principally by Brahmagupta, but his basics were incorrect) | 387 | 1202 | Fibonacci introduced zero to the west in his Liber Abaci. The concept of zero was vital to the work of Descartes & Newton, and Leibniz used it in his work on calculus. | direct | 850 | ||||||||||||||

48 | Omar Khayyām | Abū al-Fatah Umar ibn Ibrahīm al-Khayyāmi | 500000 | 1048 | 1090 | mathematics | cubic equations | Classified 13 types of cubic equation and provided a general theory for solving them. He developed algebraic & geometric methods using conical sections. | 113 | 1202 | Fibonacci provided a positive solution to the cubic equation in 1202, which was 3 thrillionths off the correct value. Scipione del Ferro found a solution for a specific class of cubic equations, but kept it secret until just before his death in 1526. In the late 16th c François Viète discovered the trigonometric solution for the cubic with 3 real roots, & Descartes extended his work. | direct | 1131 | |||||||||||||||

49 | al-Kāshī | Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Mas’ūd al-Kāshī | 9540000 | 1380 | 1405 | mathematics | decimal fractions | The first to write about, comprehend, and thoroughly use decimal fractions. Made important contributions to the use & understanding of decimal fractions. Provided an analogy of the two systems of fractions (sexagesimal & decimal). Applied decimal fractions to real numbers, including π. | 181 | 1585 | Immanuel Bonfils used decimal fractions in 1350, but did not create a symbol to represent them. Simon Stevin was thought to be the first to present a thorough account of demical fractions in his 1585 account, & to use them in mathematics, until 1948 when P. Luckey showed that Al-Kashi's account of decimal fractions was just as clear & thorough as Stevin's. | direct | 1429 | |||||||||||||||

50 | al-Kindi | Abū Yūsuf Ya'qūb ibn Ishāq ibn al-Sabbāh al-Kindi | 700000 | Alkindus, The Philosopher of the Arabs | 800 | 837 | polymath | code-making | Developed new methods of code-making and breaking, and created the frequency analysis method. | 638 | 1474 | Cicco Simonetta wrote a manual for deciphering encryptions in 1474. | direct | First of the Abbasid polymaths. | 873 | His tribe was Yemeni. He was born in Basra but spent time in Kufa and Baghdad. | ||||||||||||

51 | ibn Khaldūn | Abū Zayd 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhmammad ibn Khaldūn al-Hathrami | 499000 | 1332 | 1369 | economics | economic theory | Developed mainstream economic concepts centuries before they were 'officially' described. e.g. labour value, division of labour, role of the state in the economy, & theories of population. | 293 | 1662 | These economic theories have been credited to various western thinkers: (e.g. Benjamin Franklin, John Locke, Thomas Aquinas), but significantly to Sir William Petty, who wrote about the role of the state in the economy and labour value in his Treatise of Taxes and Contributions. | direct | 1406 | |||||||||||||||

52 | ibn Mūsa | Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Mūsa | 449000 | 803 | 838 | engineering, mathematics, astronomy | as above so below | The first to suggest that the laws of physics on earth also governed celestial bodies. | 849 | 1687 | Being the first to provide a glimpse into the universality of the laws of nature, his work could be said to underscore Newton's Law of Gravitation. | associative | 873 | |||||||||||||||

53 | ibn Khaldūn | Abū Zayd 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhmammad ibn Khaldūn al-Hathrami | 499000 | 1332 | 1369 | economics | sociology | Father of sociology'. Wrote a treatise on the nature of the state and society, called 'Muqaddima' (literally translates as 'Introduction') | 469 | 1838 | Auguste Comte is known as the 'Father of Sociology'. He defined the scientific study of society as 'sociology'. | direct | 1406 | |||||||||||||||

54 | ibn Sīna | Abū Ali al-Hussein ibn Abdullah ibn Sīna | 2180000 | Aristotle of Islam, Galen of Islam, Avicenna | 980 | 1009 | medicines | splints | First to suggest the technique of delayed splintage for fractures, and offered a new technique for dealing with a specific type of fracture in the thumb. | 874 | 1882 | The specific type of fracture in the thumb that Ibn Sina derived a technique for solving is known as 'Bennett's Fracture', after the man who supposedly discovered it, Edward Bennett. | direct | 1037 | Uzbekistan | |||||||||||||

55 | ibn Sīna | Abū Ali al-Hussein ibn Abdullah ibn Sīna | 2180000 | Aristotle of Islam, Galen of Islam, Avicenna | 980 | 1009 | medicine | eye diseases | Discovered & explained contagious eye diseases. | 878 | 1886 | Robert Koch discovered two types of bacteria in 1883; John E. Weeks linked those bacteria with pink-eye in 1886; Henri Perinaud described a type of conjunctivitis transmissible from animals to humans in 1880, & a type of newborn conjunctivitis in 1874; Victor Morax & Theodor Axenfeld simultaneously described a chornic form of conjunctivitis in 1896-7. | direct | 1037 | Uzbekistan | |||||||||||||

56 | al-Kindi | Abū Yūsuf Ya'qūb ibn Ishāq ibn al-Sabbāh al-Kindi | 700000 | Alkindus, The Philosopher of the Arabs | 800 | 837 | astronomy | time | Argued that time can only have come into existence at the beginning of the universe, not before. | 1095 | 1931 | Georges Lamaître is credited with being the first to suggest that "the beginning of the world happened a little before the beginning of space and time" (1931). George Gamow & associates developed the theory, coined as the 'Big Bang' by the advocate of the opposing idea (the steady state model), Fred Hoyle (1949). | direct | 873 | ||||||||||||||

57 | al-Battāni | Abū Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Battāni | 88800 | Albategnus, Albategni, Albatenius | 856 | 893 | mathematics, astronomy | trigonometrical ratios | Discovered trigonometrical ratios, & replaced geometrical methods with trigonometry for astronomical calculations. | find Western equivalents? - I had no luck with this | - | 929 | Born Syria, died Samarra | |||||||||||||||

58 | al-Bīrūni | Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūni | 2170000 | 973 | 1011 | geography | The Americas | New research suggests Al-Biruni proposed the existence of the Americas in 1037. Based on geographical calculations, he theorized a landmass in the ocean between Asia and Europe, similar in size and type to the known continents. | 482 | 1492 | Columbus first landed in The Americas in 1492 while searching out a new route between Europe and the East Indies. He has been credited with 'discovering' America over the course of 3 voyages. | direct | 1048 | Uzbekistan | History Today, The Tribune | http://www.historytoday.com/s-frederick-starr/so-who-did-discover-america | https://tribune.com.pk/story/657163/new-research-al-biruni-may-have-discovered-america/ |

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