East Before West: What Arab Thinkers Disovered Before the West
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short namefull namegoogle hitsAKABornmiddle ageFieldquick summarySpecific contributionsgapwhen?Western equivalent discovery -where possiblequality of linkExtras/generalDiedLocationSourcesThe House of Wisdom' by Jim al-KhaliliLost History' by Michael Hamilton Morganhttp://www.iep.utm.edu/ibnrushd/https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ibn-Zuhrhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/al-Battani
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al-KhwārizmiAbū Abdullah Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmi2910000Algorithmus780815mathematics, astronomyHindu numeralsWith Al-Kindi, introduced Hindu numerals to the Arab world (using characters representing 0-9, that can be arranged to show any number). Prior to the Hindu decimal system there were only two ways of working with numbers: the finger counting method and a complicated process of using Arabic letter characters. 161976The first record of numerals in the west are found in the Codex Vigilanus of 976. Pope Sylvester II tried to spread knowledge of numerals in Europe from the 980s, & Fibonacci promoted numerals in his Liber Abaci published 1202.directThe word algebra is derived from the title of his book, 'Kitab al-Jebr'. 850Possibly from Uzbekistan.
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Abū KāmilAbū Kāmil Shujā490000The Egyptian Calculator850890mathematicsseveralFirst Arabic mathematician to solve indeterminate problems, first to work freely with irrational coefficients, extended the range of geometric proofs, worked with higher powers of the unknown than x squared, right up to x to the power of 8... 3121202Abu Kamil Shuja's work was a major source for Fibonacci's treatment of algebra in Liber abbaci, De practica geometrie and Flos. Many of the problems & solutions laid out in Abu Kamil's book appear in Liber abbaci. direct930Egypt
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al-BīrūniAbū Rayhān al-Bīrūni21700009731011mathematicscubic equationsDeveloped mathematic techniques for solving cubic equations and extracting numerical roots. 1921202Fibonacci provided a positive solution to the cubic equation in 1202, which was 3 thrillionths off the correct value. Scipione del Ferro found a solution for a specific class of cubic equations, but kept it secret until just before his death in 1526. In the late 16th c François Viète discovered the trigonometric solution for the cubic with 3 real roots, & Descartes extended his work. direct1048Uzbekistan
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicsthe moon illusionDescribed the motion of the planets. First to explain the moon illusion (the way we see the moon as larger when it's near the horizon) as an illusion of perception – the 'size-distance invariance principle'.2651267Building on Alhazen's work, Roger Bacon was the first to explain the moon illusion through the enlarged apparent distance of the horizon by the presence of intervening objects. direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicsrefraction & dispersion of lightOne of the first to experiment with the colours in light, shadows, rainbows and eclipses. Described the refraction and dispersion of light into constituent colours.2651267Roger Bacon theorized (but couldn't prove) that rainbows were a function of reflection & refraction of sunlight through raindrops. Newton proved that white light is made up of colours through his prism experiments (1665). direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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al-UqlīdisiAbū al-Hassan al-Uqlīdisi34300920950mathematicsdecimal fractionsFirst mathematician known to use decimal fractions (although some suggest he didn't recognise their importance or do much with them). 4001350Immanuel Bonfils used decimal fractions in 1350, but did not create a symbol to represent them. Simon Stevin was thought to be the first to present a thorough account of demical fractions, & to use them in mathematics, until 1948 when P. Luckey showed that Al-Kashi's account of decimal fractions was just as clear & thorough as Stevin's. associativeThe 'al-Uqlidisi' part of his name refers to Euclid. 980Damascus
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al-QalasādiAbū al-Hasan ibn al-Qalasādi1600014121449mathematicsalgebraic symbolismDeveloped algebraic symbolism by using short Arabic words or letters as mathematical symbols. 401489The + & - mathematical symbols first appeared in print in Johannes Widman's 1489 text. Michael Stifel's Arithmetica integra (1544) used symbols for mathematical notation. In the 18th & 19 centuries Euler, Leibniz, Cantor, Wallis & Gauss came up with many of the symbols still used today.direct1486Born Bastah, died Tunisia
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al-FarghāniAbū al-Abbās Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghāni71600Alfraganus800831geographycircumference of the EarthEstimated the circumference of the earth far more accurately than Ptolemy's figure. 6611491Columbus (incorrectly - failed to convert Arabic miles to Roman miles) used al-Farghani's value for the earth's circumference to persuade backers to fund his voyage. direct861
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al-UqlīdisiAbū al-Hassan al-Uqlīdisi34300920950mathematicsdecimal pointCredited with the invention of a symbol for the decimal point. 5801530Francesco Pellos or Pellizzati was the first to use the decimal point in a printed work, although he did not recognise its significance. Christoff Rudolf used a decimal symbol (the bar) in 1530. Unlike Pellos, he understood how to use it. direct980Damascus
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Abū Ma'shar al-BalkhiAbū Ma'shar Ja'far ibn Muhammad ibn Umar al-Balkhi194000Albumasar787837astronomyheliocentricityCreated a new planetary model, suggesting that all planets except earth orbit the sun. At the time it was commonly thought that celestial bodies orbitted the earth. 7071543Nicolaus Copernicus published his heliocentric model of the universe in 1543, describing the sun as a motionless body that earth & other planets orbit. This was radical for the time, when Greek geocentric models prevailed. direct886Persia
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al-TūsiMuhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Tūsi38100001201601astronomyheliocentricOne of the first to advocate a heliocentric model (sun-centred) rather than a geocentric model (earth-centred).9431543Nicolaus Copernicus published his heliocentric model of the universe in 1543, describing the sun as a motionless body that earth & other planets orbit. This was radical for the time, when Greek geocentric models prevailed. direct
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ibn al-NafīsAla' al-Dīn Abū al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi al-Hazm al-Nafīs25800012131251medicinepulmonary transitFirst to correctly describe pulmonary transit. 3091559Realdo Columbo (aka Columbus), described pulmonary transit in 1559. This laid the foundations for William Harvey's discovery of circulation in 1616. direct1288
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Omar KhayyāmAbū al-Fatah Umar ibn Ibrahīm al-Khayyāmi50000010481090mathematicssolar yearMeasured the solar year to within 6 decimal places of our modern value (which would be slightly different anyway on account of the earth's spin slowing). Created a calendar (the Jalali Calendar), with an approx. error of less than 1 second per year. 4931582Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian calendar, still used today in most of the world, in 1582. It contains an appox. error of 27 seconds per year. direct1131
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicsexperimental approachWrote 'The Book of Optics'.6021604The Book of Optics is regarded as equal in significance to Newton's 'Principa Mathematica' (1687). Alhazen's empirical method inspired Roger Bacon, Galileo, Kepler and others. Kepler was the first European to master Alhazen's experimental approach & advance his theories (1604). direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicslight & the eyeFirst to correctly describe sight as a function of light from objects entering our eyes radially in straight lines, rather than as light being emitted from the eye, as thought by Euclid and Ptolemy. 6021604Kepler (directly influenced by Alhazen) presented the first theory of the retinal image. direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicspinhole cameraMade major contributions to the solution to the 'billiard-ball problem', or 'Alhazen's problem' - to do with finding the point of reflection. Described the pinhole camera and camera obscura. 6021604Kepler's theory of retinal images stemmed from comparing the eye to the camera obscura.direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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Ibn BājjaAbū Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya 181000Avempace10951117astronomymilky wayRealised the Milky Way was made up of numerous individual stars. (n.b. there is debate over whether al-Bīrūni knew this already). 4931610Galileo discovered that the Milky Way was made up of individual stars in 1610.direct1139Spain
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ibn al-NafīsAla' al-Dīn Abū al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi al-Hazm al-Nafīs25800012131251medicinemetabolismCame up with the concept of metabolism. 3641614Santorio Sanctorius produced the first controlled experiments in human metabolism (1614). In the 19th c, the works of Louis Pasteur & Friedwich Wöhler contributed to the understanding of metabolic pathways. In the 20th c Eduard Buchner discovered enzymes & Hans Kreb discoverd the urea cycle, & with Hand Kornberg, the citric acid cycle & glyoxylate cycle. direct1288Born Damascus, lived in Cairo.
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al-KāshīGhiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Mas’ūd al-Kāshī954000013801405mathematicspiCalculated π to 9 sexagesimal places and translated this into 16 decimal places. The first to achieve such accuracy. 2171621The German Ludolph Van Ceulen calculated π to 35 decimal places (published posthumously). π was known as the Leudolphine number in Germany. direct1429
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ibn SahlAbu Sa'ad al-'Alā' ibn Sahl417000940970physicslaw of refractionFirst major study of lenses for focusing light. Described the Law of Refraction in 984.6671637Harriot rediscovered the Law of Refraction in 1602. Snell advanced the theory in 1621, but did not publish them in his lifetime. Descartes derived the law in new terms (heuristic momentum conservation) & published in 1637. direct1000
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicsleast timeDiscovered the principle of least time (the path taken between two points by a ray of light is the path that can be traversed in the least time).6481650Fermat stated that light travelling from A-B always takes the quickest route, a notion that became known as Fermat's Principle. direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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al-Samaw'alal-Samaw'al Ibn Yahyā al-Maghribī7860011301155mathematicsmathematical inductive logicDeveloped the concept of proof by mathematical induction & contributed to the binomial theorum. 5101665The first explicit description of mathematical induction was given by Pasal in Traité du triangle arithmétique (1665). direct1180
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicsmomentumDiscovered the concept of momentum.6851687The concept of momentum was part of Newton's second law of motion.direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicsinertiaDiscovered the law of inertia (An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force).6851687The law of inertia was later described by Newton (1686), became known as Newton's first law of motion. direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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al-BīrūniAbū Rayhān al-Bīrūni21700009731011mathematicsearly calculusDeveloped early calculus methods in his 'Mas-udi Canon' (completed around 1031). Used these methods to describe the laws of motion & acceleration of celestial bodies.6771687Newton developed the Laws of Motion in Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. direct1048Uzbekistan
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Jābir ibn Hayyān
Abū Mūsa Jābir ibn Hayyān al-Azdī143000al-Sufi (the Mystic), Geber the Alchemist 721768chemistry sulphuric & hydrochloric acidCredited with discovery of sulphuric acid & hydrochloric acid, and possibly with the creation of aqua regia, which dissolves gold. 9681736In the seventeenth century, the German-Dutch chemist Johann Glauber prepared sulfuric acid by burning sulfur together with saltpeter (potassium nitrate, KNO
3), in the presence of steam. As saltpeter decomposes, it oxidizes the sulfur to SO
3, which combines with water to produce sulfuric acid. In 1736, Joshua Ward, a London pharmacist, used this method to begin the first large-scale production of sulfuric acid.
direct815
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Jābir ibn Hayyān
Abū Mūsa Jābir ibn Hayyān al-Azdī143000al-Sufi (the Mystic), Geber the Alchemist 721768chemistry evaporation & other chemical techniquesDeveloped several chemical techniques, inc. crystallization, distillation, evaporation, calcination, sublimation. 9711739Nils Wallerius is considered the first to study & document evaporation. He was awarded a place as the 26th member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1739, chiefly for his work in evaporation. directOrigin of 'gibberish' comes from this guy – his works were obscure & hard to follow. Was obsessed with creation of life in a laboratory ('takwin'). 815Born in Khurasan in Persia, moved to Kufa.
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Abbās ibn FirnāsAbū al-Qāsim Abbās Ibn Firnas113000Leonardo da Vinci of Islamic Spain810849engineering controlled aviationThe world's first aviator. Attempted controlled flight in a hand-glider type device aged 65. 9031751Andrea Grimaldi reportedly flew from Calais to London in a large bird-shaped glider. direct887Andalucia
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ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi245000Rhazes854890medicineclinical trialConducted the earliest known example of a clinical trial using a control group. 9101799James Lind is thought to have conducted the first proper clinical trial in 1747, when he split his patients into groups, each of which received different treatments for scurvy. However, he did not use a control group. John Haygarth famously used a control group to identify the placebo effect in his study of a remedy called 'Perkin's tractors' in 1799.direct925Born in Rayy
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ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi245000Rhazes854890medicinepsychiatryFather of psychology and psychotherapy'. Ran the psychiatric ward at Baghdad hospital while his Christian contemporaries were still claiming the mentally ill were possessed by the devil, & using punishment & confinement to treat them. al-Rhazi treated his patients with empathy & respect, took detailed patient histories, gave them money on discharge - the first known instance of psychiatric aftercare. 9121801Moral management of psychiatric disorders began in the early 19th century, with the use of comfortable surroundings, work therapy, & abolishment of punitive methods. For the first time, the mentally ill were treated as ill. In previous centuries they had been characterised as dangerous, possessed, bewitched, lunatics, animals, & morally weak. directChallenged quacks and charlatans. 925Born in Rayy
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al-JāhithAbū Uthmān al-Jāhith 193000776822literature, biologyevolutionArgued that animals adapt to their environments, a break from Aristotle, who believed species were fixed as they were and could not evolve. 9801802Jean-Baptiste Lamarck is often credited with being the first to argue for the inheritability of acquired characteristics, an idea known as Lamarckism (later replaced by Darwinian evolutionary theory). Al-Jahith's views represented a rudimentary version of Lamarckism. associativeJahith translates as 'goggle-eyes' – he had famously huge eyes. Ruler al-Ma'mum hired him to tutor his kids, but had to fire him immediately because his kids were terrified by his eyes. 868Born Basra, spent life in Baghdad.
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ibn MūsaAbū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Mūsa449000803838engineering, mathematics, astronomyprogrammable machineWith his brothers Ahmed and Hassan Mūsa, wrote the 'Book of Ingenious Devices' (850), where they recorded and detailed their inventions. One of which is credited as the earliest known example of a programmable machine (a robot flute player).9661804The Jacquard loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804, used punched cards to program & automate weaving. Charles Babbage invented the Analytical Engine in 1833, which was programmed using punched cards.associative873
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Jābir ibn Hayyān
Abū Mūsa Jābir ibn Hayyān al-Azdī143000al-Sufi (the Mystic), Geber the Alchemist 721768chemistry compounded etherMay have been the first to have compounded ether. 10741842Raymond Lully is thought to have created compounded ether in the 13th c. In the 16th c. Valerius Cordus & Paracelsus observed that ether sent chickens to sleep. Robert Boyle, Issac Newton & Michael Farraday made similar observations. In 1842, Crawford Williamson Long had his surgical patient inhale ether from a towel before having two tumours exised, in the what is described as the first known use of inhaled surgical anaesthesia. The operation was successful & the patient reported that he had not felt the procedure. direct815
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Abū al-Qāsim al-ZahrāwiAbū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn Abbās al-Zahrāwi158000936975inhaled anesthesiaPioneered the use of inhaled anaesthesia (sponges soaked in narcotics). 8681842Raymond Lully is thought to have created compounded ether in the 13th c. In the 16th c. Valerius Cordus & Paracelsus observed that ether sent chickens to sleep. Robert Boyle, Issac Newton & Michael Farraday made similar observations. In 1842, Crawford Williamson Long had his surgical patient inhale ether from a towel before having two tumours exised, in the what is described as the first known use of inhaled surgical anaesthesia. The operation was successful & the patient reported that he had not felt the procedure. direct1013
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al-JāhithAbū Uthmān al-Jāhith 193000776822literature, biologycommon ancestryArgued that animals with similar features must share common ancestry. 10371859Darwin proposed common descent in On the Origin of Species.direct868
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ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Rāzi245000Rhazes854890chemistryclassification of elementsBuilding on Jābir ibn Hayyān's work, classified all known substances into groups in 'The Book of Secrets'. First time elements had been grouped according to scientific observations rather than philosphical notions (such as those used by the Greeks, e.g. earth, air, fire, water). 9801869Mendeleev's 1869 Periodic Table grouped substances with similar properties & by atomic weight. This kind of classification (i.e. by empirical observation) dates back to Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi.associative925Born in Rayy
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ibn SīnaAbu Ali al-Hussein ibn Abdullah ibn Sina2180000Aristotle of Islam, Galen of Islam, Avicenna9801009physicslight = particlesBelieved light was composed of particles.8971905Newton particle theory of light was published in 1704. His theory dominated for 100 years, losing favour when it failed to explain diffraction, interference and polarization of light. Einstein revived Newton's theory in the 20th c, explaining the compositon of light through wave-particle duality. direct1037Uzbekistan
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ibn ZuhrAbū Marwān Abd al-Malik ibn abi-l-'Ala' Zuhr84300Abumeron, Avenzoar10911127medicinecataracts Developed surgical procedures for cataracts 6211747Jacques Daviel successfully extracted cataracts in 1747. associative1162
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ibn ZuhrAbū Marwān Abd al-Malik ibn abi-l-'Ala' Zuhr84300Abumeron, Avenzoar10911127medicinekidneysDeveloped surgical procedures for kidney stones.8501976Fernstrom & Johansson conducted kidney stone removal surgery in 1976.associative1162
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Ibn al-Haytham
Abū Ali al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham291000Alhacen, Alhazen9651003physicsatmospheric refractionIntroduced the study of atmospheric refraction. 8091811Friedrich Bessel produced tables of atmospheric refraction. Won the Lalande Prize for this work in 1811. direct1040Born Basra, spent his productive years in Egypt.
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al-BīrūniAbū Rayhān al-Bīrūni21700009731011polymathcircumference & radius of the earthIntroduced triangulation methods – calculated the circumference of the earth from the height of a mountain – a new & much more efficient technique than had been used in the past. 6071617Snel used triangulation methods to calculate the circumference of the earth, which he published in his Eratosthenes Batavus in 1617.direct1048Uzbekistan
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ibn al-ShātirAla' al-Dīn Abu'l-Hassan Ali ibn Ibrahīm ibn al-Shātir8100013041340astronomyplanetary modelsRemoved the eccentric deferent & equant of the Ptolemaic models, using secondary epicycles instead. This new method corrected defects in Ptolemaic models. 2041543al-Shātir's plantary theories are identical to many of Copernicus'. This was only discovered in the 1950s, it had previously been thought that Copernicus invented those theories. direct1375Syria
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al-FarghāniAbū al-Abbās Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghāni71600Alfraganus800831astronomymartian yearCalculated a martian year - the Martian year part is cited again and again in published books on Dante, can't find anything concrete in sciency sources. The Jim Al Khalili book doesn't specify exactly what Dante used from al-Farghani's work, but confirms the link between Dante and al-Farghani's calcs. 6421472Dante used al-Farghani's writings to inform his Divine Comedy. For example, Dante gives Cacciaguida's age as 580 martian years – Dante knew from al-Farghani's work that a martian year = 687 earth days, dating Cacciaguida's birth to 1091. direct861
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al-ZarqāliAbū Ishāq Ibrahīm al-Zarqāli65400Arzachel10291058astronomyFigured out that the path of the center of the primary epicycle of Mercury is not circular, but oval. However, he did not apply these findings to his theories. when did the west discover this? - unclear. The book (and other sources) state that people wrongly claim his findings pre-empted Kepler's, but don't state what they DID pre-empt. Since Al-Zarqali didn't apply his findings, maybe this one could be excluded? -1087
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al-KhwārizmiAbū Abdullah Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmi2910000Algorithmus780815mathematics, astronomyzeroPlaced zero at the centre of mathematics by working out what it means and how it can be used (the concept of zero was developed earlier, principally by Brahmagupta, but his basics were incorrect) 3871202Fibonacci introduced zero to the west in his Liber Abaci. The concept of zero was vital to the work of Descartes & Newton, and Leibniz used it in his work on calculus. direct850
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Omar KhayyāmAbū al-Fatah Umar ibn Ibrahīm al-Khayyāmi50000010481090mathematicscubic equationsClassified 13 types of cubic equation and provided a general theory for solving them. He developed algebraic & geometric methods using conical sections. 1131202Fibonacci provided a positive solution to the cubic equation in 1202, which was 3 thrillionths off the correct value. Scipione del Ferro found a solution for a specific class of cubic equations, but kept it secret until just before his death in 1526. In the late 16th c François Viète discovered the trigonometric solution for the cubic with 3 real roots, & Descartes extended his work. direct1131
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al-KāshīGhiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Mas’ūd al-Kāshī954000013801405mathematicsdecimal fractionsThe first to write about, comprehend, and thoroughly use decimal fractions. Made important contributions to the use & understanding of decimal fractions. Provided an analogy of the two systems of fractions (sexagesimal & decimal). Applied decimal fractions to real numbers, including π.1811585Immanuel Bonfils used decimal fractions in 1350, but did not create a symbol to represent them. Simon Stevin was thought to be the first to present a thorough account of demical fractions in his 1585 account, & to use them in mathematics, until 1948 when P. Luckey showed that Al-Kashi's account of decimal fractions was just as clear & thorough as Stevin's. direct1429
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al-KindiAbū Yūsuf Ya'qūb ibn Ishāq ibn al-Sabbāh al-Kindi700000Alkindus, The Philosopher of the Arabs800837polymathcode-makingDeveloped new methods of code-making and breaking, and created the frequency analysis method. 6381474Cicco Simonetta wrote a manual for deciphering encryptions in 1474. directFirst of the Abbasid polymaths. 873His tribe was Yemeni. He was born in Basra but spent time in Kufa and Baghdad.
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ibn KhaldūnAbū Zayd 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhmammad ibn Khaldūn al-Hathrami49900013321369economicseconomic theoryDeveloped mainstream economic concepts centuries before they were 'officially' described. e.g. labour value, division of labour, role of the state in the economy, & theories of population. 2931662These economic theories have been credited to various western thinkers: (e.g. Benjamin Franklin, John Locke, Thomas Aquinas), but significantly to Sir William Petty, who wrote about the role of the state in the economy and labour value in his Treatise of Taxes and Contributions.direct1406
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ibn MūsaAbū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Mūsa449000803838engineering, mathematics, astronomyas above so belowThe first to suggest that the laws of physics on earth also governed celestial bodies. 8491687Being the first to provide a glimpse into the universality of the laws of nature, his work could be said to underscore Newton's Law of Gravitation. associative873
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ibn KhaldūnAbū Zayd 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhmammad ibn Khaldūn al-Hathrami49900013321369economicssociologyFather of sociology'. Wrote a treatise on the nature of the state and society, called 'Muqaddima' (literally translates as 'Introduction')4691838Auguste Comte is known as the 'Father of Sociology'. He defined the scientific study of society as 'sociology'. direct1406
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ibn SīnaAbū Ali al-Hussein ibn Abdullah ibn Sīna2180000Aristotle of Islam, Galen of Islam, Avicenna9801009medicinessplintsFirst to suggest the technique of delayed splintage for fractures, and offered a new technique for dealing with a specific type of fracture in the thumb.8741882The specific type of fracture in the thumb that Ibn Sina derived a technique for solving is known as 'Bennett's Fracture', after the man who supposedly discovered it, Edward Bennett. direct1037Uzbekistan
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ibn SīnaAbū Ali al-Hussein ibn Abdullah ibn Sīna2180000Aristotle of Islam, Galen of Islam, Avicenna9801009medicineeye diseasesDiscovered & explained contagious eye diseases. 8781886Robert Koch discovered two types of bacteria in 1883; John E. Weeks linked those bacteria with pink-eye in 1886; Henri Perinaud described a type of conjunctivitis transmissible from animals to humans in 1880, & a type of newborn conjunctivitis in 1874; Victor Morax & Theodor Axenfeld simultaneously described a chornic form of conjunctivitis in 1896-7. direct1037Uzbekistan
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al-KindiAbū Yūsuf Ya'qūb ibn Ishāq ibn al-Sabbāh al-Kindi700000Alkindus, The Philosopher of the Arabs800837astronomytimeArgued that time can only have come into existence at the beginning of the universe, not before. 10951931Georges Lamaître is credited with being the first to suggest that "the beginning of the world happened a little before the beginning of space and time" (1931). George Gamow & associates developed the theory, coined as the 'Big Bang' by the advocate of the opposing idea (the steady state model), Fred Hoyle (1949). direct873
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al-BattāniAbū Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Battāni 88800Albategnus, Albategni, Albatenius856893mathematics, astronomytrigonometrical ratiosDiscovered trigonometrical ratios, & replaced geometrical methods with trigonometry for astronomical calculations.find Western equivalents? - I had no luck with this-929Born Syria, died Samarra
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al-BīrūniAbū Rayhān al-Bīrūni21700009731011geographyThe AmericasNew research suggests Al-Biruni proposed the existence of the Americas in 1037. Based on geographical calculations, he theorized a landmass in the ocean between Asia and Europe, similar in size and type to the known continents. 4821492Columbus first landed in The Americas in 1492 while searching out a new route between Europe and the East Indies. He has been credited with 'discovering' America over the course of 3 voyages. direct1048Uzbekistan
History Today, The Tribune
http://www.historytoday.com/s-frederick-starr/so-who-did-discover-america
https://tribune.com.pk/story/657163/new-research-al-biruni-may-have-discovered-america/
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