Lit Review - Critical Need #1
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TimestampYour name(s)/group/departmentTitle of Article and AuthorBibliographic InformationSummaryRecord 3-5 good quotes from your articleYour evaluation of the source.How could this article be utilized in developing your intervention/plan? Please copy and paste the article here.
2
9/28/2015 15:29:11Engliish DepartmentIntrinsic Motivation

Theroux, P.
Theroux. P. (1994) Instrinsic motivation. Davidson Institute for Talent Development. Retrieved from http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10648.aspx.The articles summarizes how teachers can encouage students can be instrinsically motivated rather than externally motivated by their grades. They discuss strategies on how to challenge students, build on strengths, offer choices or decision making abilities, provide a secure environment where they feel safe to fail, teach them how to make tasks more managable, use reward and punishment with caution, help students develop internal control, avoid power struggle, use ambiguity occassionally, self-evaluation, positive and negative reinforcement, competion, understanding the relevance of school activities, downplaying perfectionism, reinforce required strategies, teach a variety of organizational strategies, role models, differentiated instruction/scaffolding and use of computers"Poorly motivated students are often very manipulative. Never get into a power struggle unless if you have the means to win. Children who engage in power struggles need to be offered choices, but the choices must be limited to the ones you find acceptable."

"In my experience . . . achivement depends on willingness to accept the challenge, take risks, make errors and a belief that one has the control over the outcome. Achievement is hindered by a perfectionism, fear of failure, and the belief that the control, credit and or/blame belong to someone else."

"Even the most challenging task can be made more manage by breaking them down into smaller parts and the prioritize the steps."
It reiteriates good teaching strategies. It is a little dated; however, it is still relevant to teaching in the 21st century.We will continue to evaluate our students' needs based on this article. We will think critically about how we motivate our students and the effect it has on them. see url above
3
9/29/2015 10:49:13Linal Miller"THE COLLEGE AND
CAREER READINESS AND
SUCCESS ORGANIZER"
College and Career Readiness and Success Center. Available from: American Institutes for Research. 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street NW, Washington, DC 20007. Tel: 800-634-0503; Fax: 202-403-5875; e-mail: CCRSCenter@air.org; Web site: http://www.ccrscenter.orgThe "College and Career Readiness and Success Organizer" is a graphic that displays a consolidated overview of the many elements that impact a learner's ability to succeed in college and careers at both the institutional and individual levels. The "Organizer" is intended to be a comprehensive and visual representation of the complexities of the college and career readiness and success universe and is a composite of essential considerations that are equal in importance and interconnected. Each of the four strands presents a distinctive topic area essential to college and career readiness and success and can be used to facilitate discussions and inform collaboration within and across various stakeholder communities. Additionally, it can contribute to strategic planning, conceptualization, and decision making as well as alignment of strategies and initiatives to ensure that all learners achieve college and career readiness and success. "To encourage purposeful use of college and career knowledge and promote action, learners must
first have knowledge of personal interests and skills and related pathways. With a heightened
sense of direction and self-awareness, learners may be able to determine postsecondary personal
goals and aspirations aligned to their preferences." p. 5

"To be college and career ready, students must master a wide range of knowledge and a diverse set of skills that
extend beyond academic content knowledge." p. 6

"Academic and engagement-related indicators of readiness include student performance with respect
to attendance, credit accumulation, course performance (grade point average and demonstration of
proficiencies in context), performance on summative assessments, competitive course-taking
patterns (Advanced Placement [AP], International Baccalaureate [IB], and career technical education
options), and course completion. Indicators of behavior and conduct, postsecondary aspirations,
as well as social and emotional learning benchmarks also are essential measures of student
readiness. Each of these indicators demonstrates students’ attitude toward learning as well as
their ability to set meaningful goals. Although measuring social, emotional, and engagement factors
is important, further research is needed to determine how to effectively evaluate these skills." p. 8

"College and career readiness and success should be determined by a variety of factors and driven by Goals
and Expectations. This content, and the measures that accompany it, should be developed in collaboration
with stakeholders from K–12 education, postsecondary institutions, and industry." p. 9

"Individual supports aid all learners in reaching their college and career goals, despite their varying
foundational knowledge, abilities, and skills. To foster and accelerate each learner’s progress toward
college and career readiness and success, schools must leverage individualized learning strategies
for all students (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010).
For some learners, individual pathway planning and classroom-based supports are insufficient
scaffolds to attain their college and career goals. Students may require additional targeted and
intensive interventions to meet academic standards or develop lifelong learning skills that
ensure preparedness for postsecondary environments. Students who demonstrate severe
behavioral problems or learning disabilities may be appropriate candidates for wraparound
services. These resources include physical and mental health programs, nutritional programs,
afterschool mentoring and tutoring, early childhood development, and family engagement. It is
essential that supports cater to the needs of each student, regardless of required services, so
that all learners can graduate ready for success." p. 11

"Pathways and Supports must provide students with opportunities to master common skills while still allowing
them to tailor individualized learning programs to pathway-specific goals based on their postsecondary aspirations." p. 12

"Finally, institutions must develop an infrastructure to support and maintain data systems and
multiple measures. The structure for these systems should be designed to house data from
various sources, including longitudinal and accountability data, so that college and career
readiness and success stakeholders and education agencies can have access to and make
evidence-based decisions using comprehensive information." p. 14

"

The source makes some strong points that validate our critical need(s) AND give some concrete ways to address the need(s). If we use the tool included as a resource, it can pave the way for more productive professional development and school wide focus.It is my goal to complement the existing college going culture to include the career piece that is vital to a complete program. This article validates the work I am doing individually and as part of the counseling team and helps bring teachers school wide into the process. It emphasizes a more individualized plan for all students that includes intervention and support along the way.http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED555672.pdf

4
9/29/2015 11:16:16Linal Miller, Counseling, Career"COLLEGE & CAREER
READINESS & SUCCESS Center
at American Institutes for Research"
College and Career Readiness and Success Center. Available from: American Institutes for Research. 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street NW, Washington, DC 20007. Tel: 800-634-0503; Fax: 202-403-5875; e-mail: CCRSCenter@air.org; Web site: http://www.ccrscenter.orgThis article notes that not all states in the US have clear definitions of what College and Career Readiness really means. The report gives definitions from multiple states and stresses the importance of defining what we are trying to achieve." “A career ready person capitalizes on personal strengths,
talents, education and experiences to bring value to the workplace and the community through
his/her performance, skill, diligence, ethics and responsible behavior… When students are career
ready, they are prepared for the next step in their lives—whether that means getting their first job
or beginning their college ‘career’ (which eventually leads to the workplace as well)! Being career
ready also means being ready for life” (Nebraska Department of Education, 2009). p. 2

"Twenty-one states’ definitions of “college and career readiness” mention concrete knowledge, skills,
and dispositions that students must demonstrate mastery of to be prepared for postsecondary
success. These skills fit into six categories, and more than half of the 21 states include at least four
of the following six actionable categories.
Academic knowledge ...Critical thinking and/or problem solving ... Social and emotional learning, collaboration, and/or communication ... Grit/resilience/perseverance ... Citizenship and/or community involvement ..." pp. 3-4

"A review of state college and career readiness definitions yields insight into state priorities and
nationwide trends. State definitions included in this review reflect the recognition that readiness
for college and careers is multifaceted, encompassing academic readiness, as well as knowledge,
abilities, and dispositions that impact academic achievement. Research on this latter group is still
emerging and, in some instances, is controversial as we have yet to conclusively determine the
impact that instruction and educational supports can have on the development of these lifelong
learning skills. What is clear is that the world economy has changed and educational shifts are
necessary if the nation’s students are to be competitive in this new environment. States are taking
on this challenge by exploring more broadly what it means to be ready for college and careers." p. 6


I like the conciseness of the article. It is a good reminder of how important it is to establish a clear definition of what we mean by College and Career Readiness before we begin doing things. All stakeholders must understand the common goal, in order to create assessments, analyzed data, and evaluate progress.It is a terrific springboard to help our department as well as the whole faculty develop a clear vision for implementation. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED555670.pdf

5
9/29/2015 11:23:33Bonnie MayeDefining College and Career Readiness Resource Guide" by NHSChttp://www.betterhighschools.org/CCR/documents/NHSC_DefiningCCRResourceGuide_2012.pdf

Explains the many visions and definitions of what college and career readiness is and the views and then objectives that are assigned based on that point of view. What is college ready?
College today means much more than just pursuing a four
-
year degree at a university. Being
“college ready” means being prepared for any postsecondary education or training experience,
including study at two
-
and four
-
year institutions leading to a postseco
ndary credential (i.e. a
certificate, license, Associate’s, or Bachelor’s degree). Being
ready
for college means that a high
school graduate has the English and mathematics knowledge and skills necessary to qualify for
and succeed in entry
-
level, credit
-
be
aring college courses without the need for remedial
coursework. pg. 4
Useful to help us develop our definition of what college and career readiness is that we are looking to strive towards and to attain. Since there are many different views, it seems it would make sense for us to agree on a definition and a vision of what we mean by college and career readiness. By developing a firm description and definition of what college and career readiness is would help us to make our goals and to see if we are making progress towards them.
DRAFT
National High School Center
1
Defining College and Career Readiness
The National High School Center’s
(the Center)
resource guide
synthesizes
information collected through a scan of more than 70
organizations focused on college and career
readiness
(CCR)
. A compilation of the
se and other CCR
resources
can be
accessed at
[insert NHSC
database
].
As the word cloud
1
on the cover represents,
CCR
is a diverse and i
ncr
easingly complicated
topic
, and
there is a wide range of
definitions and framew
orks that offer
clues to
what it means for students to be college and career ready. Th
e resources here
provide
a snapshot of those frameworks and definitions, as well as an overview of the focuses of various organizations
.
T
his
resource guide
was initiall
y
used to facilitate state level conversations about
CCR
and
was
used in conjunction with the
the
Center’
s Action Planning Template [insert hyperlink]
.
It can be used at the SEA, LEA, or school level to help facilitate similar
conversations, or can be pair
ed with
other Center products [insert general link to CCR page on NHSC website]
to help make
sense of the growing
CCR
landscape
.
The resource guide includes the following:

Organizational Focus on Outcomes

A snapshot of how organizations are framing their
college and career readiness
discussion in terms of outcomes, where those outcomes overlap, and prevalence of these outcomes.

Definitions

A compilation of definitions from organizations that have developed explicit language around what
college and career r
eadiness means for their work.

Frameworks

A selection of college and career frameworks as examples of how CCR can be approached.
1
The graphic representation on the cover illustrates the most commonly used terms by organizations defining college and career
readiness.
National High School Center
2
Defining College and Career Readiness
College and Career Readiness: Organizational Focus on Outcomes
The National High School Center scanned organizations
2
t
hat promote
CCR
to identify trends in
organizational focus
. Some organizations emphasized
college access
and success, while others emphasized career access and success
.
O
ften, the organizations focused on multiple outcomes, including both
college and career access and success.
Additionally,
many organizations emphasized
d
ropout prevention. The following infor
mation briefly summarizes
the results of the scan, showing the areas of focus of the organizations and
describing trends in
strategies that
are
highlighted.
2
This organization scan does not represent an exhaustive compilation of all organizations that promote college and career read
iness but what was accessible during the
time searches were performed.
College Access and Success
Both College and Career Access and Success
College and Career Access Su
ccess and
Dropout Prevention
Institute for Higher Education Policy
Lumina Foundation
National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education
The College Board
Woodrow Wilson National
What Works Clearinghouse
Achieve
ACT
American School
Counselor Association
American Youth Policy Forum
America’s Promise Alliance
Annenberg Institute for School Reform
Carnegie Corporation of New York, Urban and Higher Education Program
Center on Education Policy
Common Core State Standards Initiative
Council of Chief State School Officers
Data Quality Campaign
Educational Policy Improvement Center
John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development
Metlife Foundation
National Academy Foundation
National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition
Na
tional Center for Educational Achievement
National Center on Education and the Economy
National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
National Office for School Counselor Advocacy
National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center
Nati
onal Youth Employment Coalition
Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers
Ready by 21
Rennie Center for Education Research and Policy
Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium
Southern Regional Education Board
The Center on Education a
nd Work, University of Wisconsin

Madison
The Forum for Youth Investment
The Future Ready Project
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills
The Thomas B. Fordham Institute
Alliance for Excellent Education
American Youth Policy Forum
America’s Promise Alliance
Association for Career and Technical Education
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Campaign for High School Equity
Center for American Progress
Center For Public Education
Coalition for a College and Career Ready America
Doing What Works
Education Trust
Georg
etown University Center on Education and the Workforce
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Institute for Educational Leadership
IDEA Partnership
Jobs for the Future
Linked Learning, Irvine Foundation, Connect Ed
National Assessment Governing Board
National Association of Secondary School Principals
National Association of State Boards of Education
National Center for Education Statistics
National Center for Learning Disabilities
National Dropout Prevention Center/Network
National High School Center
National Post
-
Secondary Outcomes Center, U of Oregon
National Research Center for Career and Technical Education
National Women's Law Center
NGA Center for Best Practices
North American Council for Online Learning
Career Access and Success
Center
for Postsecondary and Economic Success
Dropout Prevention
National Dropout Prevention Center for Students With
Disabilities
College Access and Success and Dropout Prevention
Annie E. Casey Foundation
Coalition for Community Schools
Institute
for Higher Education Policy
Pathways to College Network
National High School Center
3
Defining College and Career Readiness
Trends

Nearly forty
-
one
percent of the organizations
focus on
both college
and
career
access and success.

Fifty
-
six
percent of the organizations cite the importance of creating alignment
between secondary and postsecondary expectations. When strong secondary
-
postsecondary alignment is present, graduation requirements and curriculum
standards
will
reflect the expectatio
ns required for success in postsecondary
institutions and eliminate the need for remedial coursework in postsecondary
institutions.

Eighty
-
four
percent of the organizations
provide resources on
using data to make
decisions at the school, district, and sta
te levels.

Forty
-
eight
percent of the organizations stress the importance of training school and
district staff
to prepare
students for college and careers.

Forty
-
seven
percent of the organizations
provide
resources on career and technical
education (C
TE). Academic subject matter in CTE is taught with connection to real
-
world applications, and students develop workforce skills through vocational
training, internships, and interaction with the business community.

Sixty
-
six
percent of organizations highli
ght the importance of facilitating community
and family engagement, in which members of the business community,
postsecondary institutions, families, and other stakeholders are engaged to prepare
students for college and careers.

One and a
quarter
percen
t of the organizations are
focused on
both college access
and success and dropout prevention.

Many
organizations stress the importance of improving the college and career
readiness of
targeted
populations, including low
-
income and minority students (fift
y
percent)
, students with disabilities (thirty
-
one
percent), at
-
risk students (twenty
-
seven
percent), and adult learners (fifteen
percent).

Fifteen percent of organizations cite technology
-
based learning as a powerful
strategy in promoting college and ca
reer readiness.
T
he use of technology
-
based
learning
is promoted as a means to enhance instruction, engage students in learning,
enable real
-
world interactions, facilitate credit recovery and remediation, and
increase accessibility for all.
College
Access and
Success
Career
Access and
Success
Dropout
Prevention
8.25%
47.5
%
1.25
%
1.25
%
40.5
%
1.25
%
0
%
National High School Center
4
Defining College and Career Readiness
College and Career Readiness
:
Definitions
Although the phrase “college and career readiness” has become increasingly popular among
federal,
state, and local education agencies
as well as a number of foundations and professional organizations
, it
can be challenging to define
precisely
. In order to assist practitioners and policymakers in formulating a
clear
definition for “
CCR, t
he Nat
ional High School Center has collected excerpts from websites and
publications
where
national organizations
provide definitions of CCR
. Some definitions conflict with
others on the list, so users should note differences and be careful to formulate definiti
ons that meet
their local context.
This list of definitional language should not be considered an exhaustive or static list of
CCR
definitions,
nor should
they
be accepted without thorough
discussion and
consideration. The language is quoted
directly from
publications and websites; its inclusion in the document does not imply the Center’s
endorsement of any definition or organization. If you use language from this document, please cite the
source appropriately.
Excerpt Citation: Achieve. (n.d.).
W
hat is college
-
and career
-
ready?
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved
January 3, 2012, from
http://www.achieve.org/files/CollegeandCareerReady.pdf
.
It is commonly said that the goal of hig
h school reform is to ensure all students graduate
“college
-
and career
-
ready.” But as often as this mantra is repeated, confusion remains over
what it actually means. Simply put, “college and career readiness” refers to the content
knowledge and skills hi
gh school graduates must possess in English and mathematics

including,
but not limited to, reading, writing communications, teamwork, critical thinking, and problem
solving

to be successful in any and all future endeavors. Of course, readiness for college
and
careers depends on more than English and mathematics knowledge; to be successful after high
school, all graduates must posse
s
s the knowledge, habits, and skills that can only come from a
rigorous, rich, and well
-
rounded high school curriculum.
What is

college
” ready?
College today means much more than just pursuing a four
-
year degree at a university. Being
“college ready” means being prepared for any postsecondary education or training experience,
including study at two
-
and four
-
year institutions leading to a postseco
ndary credential (i.e. a
certificate, license, Associate’s, or Bachelor’s degree). Being
ready
for college means that a high
school graduate has the English and mathematics knowledge and skills necessary to qualify for
and succeed in entry
-
level, credit
-
be
aring college courses without the need for remedial
coursework.
What is “
career
” ready?
In today’s economy, a “career” is not just a job. A career provides a family sustaining wage and
pathways to advancement and requires postsecondary training or educatio
n. A job may be
obtained with only a high school diploma but offers no guarantee of advancement or mobility.
Being
ready
for a career means that a high school graduate has the English and mathematics
knowledge and skills needed to qualify for and succeed i
n the postsecondary job training and/or
education necessary for their chosen career (i.e., technical/vocational program, community
college, apprenticeship, or significant on
-
the
-
job training).
National High School Center
5
Defining College and Career Readiness
Is ready for
college
and ready for
career
the same thing?
With
respect to the knowledge and skills in English and mathematics expected by employers and
postsecondary faculty, the answer is yes. In the last decade, research conducted by Achieve as
well as others shows a convergence in the expectations of employers and
colleges in terms of
the knowledge and skills high school grads need to be successful after high school.
Excerpt Citation: Association for Career and Technical Education. (2010).
What is “career ready”?
Alexandria, VA: Author. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from
http://www.acteonline.org/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_Online_Media/files/
Career_Readiness_Pap
er_COLOR.pdf
.
All too often, the terms “career ready” and “college ready” are used interchangeably, and
discussions around career readiness are lim
ited to traditional academic skills that allow students
to successfully enroll in posts
econdary education. While there is no debate that a rigorous level
of academic proficiency, especially in math and litera
cy, is essential for any post
-
high school
endeavor, the reality is that it takes much more to be truly considered ready for a career.
Career readiness involves three major skill areas:
core academic skills
and the ability to apply
those skills to concrete situations in order to function in the workplace and in routine daily
activities;
em
ployability skills
(such as critical thinking and
responsibility) that are essential in
any career area; and
technical, job
-
specific skills
related to a specific career pathway. These skills
have been emphasized across numerous pieces of research and allow students to enter true
career pathways that offe
r
family
sustaining wages and opportunities for advancement.
Excerpt Citation: Hooker, S., & Brand, B. (2009).
Success at every step: How 23 programs support youth
on the path to college and beyond
. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved January 3,
2012, from
http://www.aypf.org/publications/SuccessAtEveryStep.pdf
.
AYPF takes a broad view of the concept of college
and career readiness, expanding it to include
the concept of success, not just readiness. By this definition, readiness means being prepared to
successfully complete credit
-
bearing college coursework or industry certification without
remediation, having t
he academic skills and self
-
motivation necessary to persist and progress in
postsecondary education, and having identified career goals and the necessary steps to achieve
them. Readiness also requires the developmental maturity to thrive in the increasingl
y
independent worlds of postsecondary education and careers, the cultural knowledge to
understand the expectations of the college environment and labor market, and the employer
-
desired skills to succeed in an innovation
-
based economy. In order for students
to be successful
in this broader framework of expectations, they need rigorous academic preparation, college
and career planning, academic and social supports, employer
-
desired skills, and personal
resources.
It is also important, in the discussion of col
lege and career readiness, to recognize that youth will
choose their own paths in life, with some young people charging forward on a traditional four
-
year college pathway and others moving equally quickly to pathways that are more technically
or occupation
ally oriented.
National High School Center
6
Defining College and Career Readiness
Excerpt Citation: Soares, L., & Mazzeo, C. (2008).
College
-
ready students, student
-
ready colleges: An
agenda for improving degree completion in postsecondary education
. Washington, DC: Center for
American Progress. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from
http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2008/08/pdf/highered3.pdf
.
College
-
ready students are pre
pared learners and empowered customers with reliable
information and support in high school and college and flexible financial assistance, able to
design a college experience leading to degree completion and successful education
-
career
transitions.
Excerpt Citation
Source:
The
College Board National Office for School Counselor Advocacy: Eight
Components of College and Career Readiness Counseling.
Copyright © 2010. The College Board.
www.collegeboard.org
. Reproduced with permission.
The Eight Components of College and Career
Readiness Counseling chart a comprehensive,
systemic approach for school counselors’ use to inspire all students to, and prepare them for,
college success and opportunity

especially students from underrepresented populations. The
eight components build asp
irations and social capital, offer enriching activities, foster rigorous
academic preparation, encourage early college planning, and guide students and families
through the college admission and financial aid processes. By implementing these eight
componen
ts, school counselors provide information, tools
,
and perspective to parents,
students, schools
,
and their communities that build college and career readiness for all students.
Eight elements:

College
A
spirations

Academic Planning for College and Career
Readiness

Enrichment and Extracurricular Engagement

College and Career Exploration and Selection Processes

College and Career Assessments

College Affordability Planning

College and Career Admission Processes

Transition from High School Graduation to Colleg
e Enrollment
4
Excerpt Citation: Conley, D. T. (
2012
).
A brief summary of college and career readiness
.
Retrieved from
www.epiconline.org
The college and
career readiness model is composed of four “keys.”
3
College Board
TM
is a trademark registered the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and
does not endorse, this site.
This definition is shared with the National Office for
School Counselor Advocacy.
4
This definition is shared with the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy.
National High School Center
7
Defining College and Career Readiness
1.
Key Cognitive Strategies
describe the ways of thinking that are necessary for college
-
level work. They include formulating hypotheses and developing problem
-
solving
strategies, identifying sources and coll
ecting information, analyzing and evaluating
findings or conflicting viewpoints, organizing and constructing work products in a variety
of formats, and monitoring and confirming the precision and accuracy of all work
produced
.
2.
Key Content Knowledge
refers
to key foundational content and “big ideas” from core
subjects that all students must know well, and an understanding of the structure of
knowledge in core subject areas, which enables students to gain insight into and retain
what they are learning
.
3.
Key Le
arning Skills and Techniques
consist of two broad categories; student ownership
of learning, which includes goal setting, persistence, help seeking, and self
-
efficacy; and
specific learning techniques, such as time management, study skills, strategic readi
ng,
memorization techniques, collaborative learning, and self
-
monitoring
.
4.
Key Transition Knowledge and Skills
, or “college knowledge,” encompasses specific
knowledge necessary to select an appropriate college, to apply and be admitted, to
obtain financial
aid, to be focused on an appropriate career or major upon admission, to
understand college
-
level norms and expectations, and to be a self
-
advocate within the
institutional framework of colleges
.
College and career readiness refers to the content knowledge,
skills, and habits that young
people and adults must possess to be successful in postsecondary education or training that
leads to a family sustaining career. Prerequisite skills and capabilities include, but are not limited
to, proficiency in reading a r
ange of types of material, with an emphasis on informational texts;
fluent writing in several modes, most notably expository and descriptive; quantitative literacy
through algebra and including geometry, combined with the ability to understand and interpre
t
data; an understanding of the scientific method and some insight into the organization of
knowledge in the sciences; an awareness of how social systems operate and how they are
studied; basic proficiency in a second language and awareness that languages
reflect cultures;
and experiences in and appreciation of creative and expressive arts. While not every student
needs exactly the same proficiency in each of these areas, a student’s interests influence the
precise knowledge and skill profile necessary to b
e ready for postsecondary studies
.
A student who is ready for college and career can qualify for and succeed in entry
-
level, credit
-
bearing college courses without the need for remedial or developmental coursework
.
Some states have defined, or are in the m
idst of establishing, college and career readiness
benchmarks based on outcomes in postsecondary institutions. These benchmarks can take the
form of assessments or course completion
.
Being college ready and career ready are similar but not necessarily exac
tly the same. Analyses
of college courses are finding that the learning skills and foundational knowledge associated
with college success overlap considerably those necessary for success in training programs that
lead to careers. Given this overlap, it ser
ves no useful purpose to separate students into two
groups, one bound for college, the other for work. All students aspire to enter the workforce,
and, to do so, all will need a comparable set of foundational skills and learning abilities if they
are to su
cceed in their careers
.
National High School Center
8
Defining College and Career Readiness
Excerpt Citation: Internationals Network for Public Schools. (n.d.).
College readiness.
New York: Author.
Retrieved January 3, 2012, from
http://www.internationalsnps.org/our
-
services/our
-
services
-
college
-
readiness.html
.
Internationals Network’s College Readiness Initiative links and supports Intern
ational High
School activities that promote a greater awareness of postsecondary educational access and
success for immigrant English language youth. College readiness entails promoting an early
awareness of the U.S. postsecondary system, strengthening con
tent and language development
in preparation for postsecondary success, and a program of transition into the postsecondary
system. Our Initiative builds on the assets of the immigrant experience and aligns that
experience with a successful integration into
college and/or the world of work.
Excerpt Citation: Reyna, R. (2010).
Setting statewide college
-
and career
-
ready goals.
Washington, DC:
NGA Center for Best Practices. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from
http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1008COLLEGECAREERREADYGOALS.PDF
.
In setting state education goals, governors can define the vision and inspire the change
necessary to
prepare all students for success in college and careers. However, to date, very little
guidance exists for states seeking to create education goals.
All states should instead report on these five key college
-
and career
-
ready performance
measures:

Percent
age of students completing (or on track to complete) a college
-
and career
-
ready
course of study

Percentage of students demonstrating proficiency on “anchor” assessments

Percentage of students obtaining college credit or a career certificate in high school

Four
-
year cohort graduation rate

Percentage of traditional, first
-
year students enrolling in remedial coursework at a
postsecondary institution
The integration of ambitious goals into state education policy, based on a process with broad
stakeholder invol
vement and transparency, is a crucial first step for states to realize system
improvement. With clear expectations, schools, districts, state education agency officials,
nonprofits, business representatives, and policymakers can work together to meet a com
mon
mission: preparing all students for college and careers.
Excerpt Citation: Patrick, S., & Sturgis, C. (2011).
Cracking the code: Synchronizing policy and practice for
performance
-
based learning.
Vienn
a, VA: International Association for K

12 Online Learning. Retrieved
January 3, 2012, from
http://www.inacol.org/research/docs/iNACOL_CrackingCode_full_report.pdf
.
National High School Center
9
Defining College and Career Readiness
In
redesigning policy, states can facilitate the adoption of a set of comprehensive competencies.
The Common Core is absolutely critical to college and career readiness, but it is not sufficient on
its own. States should also consider students’ needs for life
long learning competencies, such as
navigating new environments, social
-
emotional literacy, and skills to make the transition to
college and careers.
Excerpt Citation: Achieve. (n.d.).
Preparedness of 12
th
Graders.
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved
March 13, 2012, from
http://nagb.org/newsroom/PressReleasePDFs/12thgrade
-
brochure.pdf
.
How
the
N
ational Assessment of
E
ducational
P
rocess (NAE
P) w
ill
d
ef
ine p
reparedness
:
T
he Technical Panel recommends research that will develop NAEP reports of academic
preparedness:

For college, academic preparedness refers to the reading and mathematics knowledge
and skills necessary to qualify for placement into entry
-
level college credit courses that
meet general education requirements without the need for remedial coursework.

For
the workplace, academic preparedness refers to the reading and mathematics
knowledge and skills needed to qualify for job training; it does not necessarily mean that
the
qualifications
to be hired for a job have been met.
Excerpt Citation: Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2010).
21st century readiness for every student: A
policymaker’s guide.
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from
http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/policymakersguide_final.pdf
.
For students to succeed in college and careers, they must be able to learn, apply, and adapt in
all subjects. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) believes that 21st cent
ury readiness is
within reach of every student if our schools incorporate essential, higher
-
order thinking skills
into all core subjects.
Core subject knowledge and higher
-
order thinking skills should be indivisible. Mastery of core
subject knowledge and h
igher
-
order thinking skills should be measurable

and a basis for
student outcomes and accountability under federal law.
Students, parents, employers, and K

12 and higher education professionals agree that
integrating higher
-
order thinking skills and core s
ubjects makes learning more rigorous,
relevant, and engaging. Both core subject knowledge and skills are necessary for readiness in
college, work, and life. Preparing all students with content knowledge and essential skills will
empower them to meet new gl
obal demands.
Excerpt Citation: Southern Regional Education Board. (2010).
Frequently asked questions:
What does
college and career readiness mean?
Atlanta, GA: Author. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from
http://www.sreb.org/page/1511/question_ans.html
.
5
The National Assessment Governing Board is the group that oversees NAEP.
6
9/30/2015 19:19:00L.O.T.E."Listening Strategies in the L2 Classroom: More Practice, Less Testing."
by Cecilia Aponte-de-Hanna
Listening Strategies in the L2 Classroom: More Practice, Less Testing
Aponte-de-Hanna, Cecilia
College Quarterly, v15 n1 Win 2012

Descriptors: Testing, Listening Skills, Listening, Second Language Learning, Language Acquisition, Long Term Memory, Short Term Memory, Questionnaires, Listening Comprehension
Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology. 1750 Finch Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M2J 2X5, Canada. Tel: 416-491-5050; Fax: 905-479-4561; Web site: http://www.collegequarterly.ca

Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: N/A
Facebook TwitterDepartment of EducationInstitute of Education Statistics
(From the abstract) Discusses history of listening strategies development and how this theory can be incorporated into classroom teaching that fosters practice, not testing. Examines the type of needs analysis and diagnostic tools teachers can use & how using these lessons can encourage the learners' autonomy. (Includes Anderson's comprehension model.) "Listening is now recognized as an active mental process, it is still 'difficult to describe'....There is no doubt that teaching listening is even more challenging than teaching reading, writing, or speaking."

"The listener selects and interprets information in order to understand it. This process, known as Anderson's model of comprehension, intricately describes what happens to information the moment the listener receives it by way of audio or audio-visual means. The stages, are also known as perceptual processing, parsing, and utilization."

"Teachers need to help learners recognize what is relevant from what is not because the goal is for meaningful information to reach long-term memory. Once information reaches the listener's longterm memory, it will become part of either declarative knowledge or procedural knowlege."

"With the right strategy training, less effective learners can improve their listening skills and achieve parity with the more skillful peers."

"Thus, the focus of language listening in the classroom should not be testing, it should be on practicing listening comprehension through a variety of sources that takes into consideration the proficiency level of each listener, and offers ample opportunities for learning. Learning listening, therefore, requires the interactive 'orchestration' between metacognitive, cognitive, and socioaffective strategies to facilitate comprehension and to make learning more effective. "

"Practice is important in a strategy based approach to teaching listening; therefore, teachers cannot rely on only one type of listening task or on assessing listening through traditional test questions as a way of validating comprehension."
Listening skills can be learned and practiced in all classrooms. It was very practical, with helpful information and strategies. The article helped to identify specific strategies for improving listening skills:
"Teachers should:
1. Find out what strategies students are using. Ask & record responses;
2. Select one or two strategies found to be missing and identify them by name. Then explicitly explain to the students why and when these strategies could be used during the listening process;
3.Model how to use each strategy by incorporating 'think aloud' protocols;
4. Ask students to describe what they heard/observed;
5. Give opportunities for students to practice their listening strategies, and ask them to assess how well they used them by engaging them in discussions.
6. Encourage students to practice their strategies on a variety of tasks on a continuous basis."

The article discusses many ways to help weak students develop better listening skills. Helping students learn better listening strategies will create better listeners for all levels of Spanish classes.

These strategies will be valuable in the language classroom and also across all subject areas. These skills will transfer to greater comprehension and understanding for critical thinking skills.
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ976453.pdf

(Sarah, we will send you a pdf copy for the article.)
7
10/1/2015 10:58:58David Reed
Photography/ Fine Arts
Electives Department
Sandra S. Rupper
Critical Evidence How the Benefit Student Achievement
ISBN 0-9777050-0-5
National Assembly of State Arts Agencies
2006
The United States as a nation is close to reaching a collective understanding that all students benefit from the opportunity to learn about and experience the arts.93% agree the arts are vital to providing a well rounded education for children pps5

86% agree an arts education encourages and assists in the child's attitude towards school pps5

Students who participate in arts learning experiences often improve their achievement in other realms of learning and life. pps8It
It reinforces the belief that what makes the United States strong is its ability to innovate and develop. This is base in a liberals arts education coupled with math and the sciences. It is what the rest of the world aspires where they may have terrific math and science scores however are unable to innovate. Its is biased towards the arts.Yes- in promoting the Fine Arts Pathway
8
10/25/2015 16:08:26Lauren Turner/Mathematics"Beyond the Rhetoric: Improving College Readiness Through Coherent State Policy" by The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)Southern Regional Education Board. Beyond the Rhetoric: Improving College Readiness Through Coherent State Policy, 2010, (1-14).There is a disconnect between getting a diploma/being deemed "college-ready" at the end of high school and truly being college-ready and ready for success at the postsecondary level. We need to work tightly with postsecondary institutions to raise the bar at the high school level to include indicators and standards in high school that ensure true college readiness."a college-prep curriculum is necessary but not sufficient to ensure college readiness" (p. 3)

"Schools and teachers are not accountable for teaching to college readiness standards." (p. 5)

"A college readiness designation could be included on a student’s high school transcript, or it could be signaled to colleges in other ways." (p. 6)
This was a very interesting read although I am uncertain if it was peer-reviewed unfortunately.

I find it useful for us possibly, in context of our first critical need. Perhaps we need to step up all of our instruction to bring up not only the 17% but all students at ESHS.
Wouldn't it be cool if we, at ESHS, could add some college-readiness standards to our transcripts? Or, even if we didn't do that, could we ALL add components to our overall assessments that signal to the kids that they are getting more ready for college via "reading, writing, critical thinking [tasks], and problem solving skills" (p. 7)?

I think we have a remarkable opportunity here to do something that almost no other high schools are doing right now.
http://www.highereducation.org/reports/college_readiness/CollegeReadiness.pdf
9
11/9/2015 15:09:20Special Education
Jessica Page/Katie Koppel/Julie Reese/Andrew Kelley/Joy St. Jacques
Behavior Management Through Self-Advocacy
"A Strategy for Secpndary Students with Learning Disabilities "

Author: Ronen Sebag

Council for Exceptional Children/ TEACHING Exceptional Children
July/August 2010
Discusses the importance of the implementation of the Self Advocacy Behavior Management (SABM) model.
This is a model that puts the student in charge of identifying their challenges and/or struggles and assists in devising a plan or strategy to improve this area and reflect on their progress and the process along the way.
This model focuses on student self determination and self-advocacy.
"The research on self-advocacy clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of placing the student in charge of identifying goals, devising strategies to achieve them, and reflecting on as well as making adjustments based on progress."

"This self-regulated and reflective process helps students become mindful of their actions and devise goals based on an informed and increasingly internalized knowledge of self."

"Self-determination and self-advocacy are sometimes used synonymously, and they do share an overarching goal: to move the student from the passenger seat to the driver seat of life."
We, as a team, used this article as a basis to create a new strategy and intervention tool for managing students self advocacy across the curriculum.

See aboveHard copy given to Doering.
10
4/8/2016 12:35:52Ray Gen/ EnglishThe Power of Feedback by John HattieReview of Educational Research
March 2007, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 81–112
DOI: 10.3102/003465430298487

http://rer.sagepub.com/content/77/1/81.full.pdf+html
Feedback should answer the questions of:
1. Where am I going? (What are the goals?),
2. How am I going? (What progress is being made toward the goal?), 3. Where to next? (What activities need to be undertaken to make better progress?) These questions correspond to notions of feed up, feed back, and feed forward.

4 levels feedback:
1. feedback can be about a task or product, such as whether work is correct or incorrect. This level of feedback may include directions to acquire more, different, or correct information, such as “You need to include more about the Treaty of Versailles.” (FT)
2. feedback can be aimed at the process used to create a product or complete a task. This kind of feedback is more directly aimed at the processing of information, or learning processes requiring understanding or completing the task. For example, a teacher or peer may say to a learner, “You need to edit this piece of writing by attending to the descriptors you have used so the reader is able to understand the nuances of your meaning,” or “This page may make more sense if you use the strategies we talked about earlier.” (FP)
3. feedback to students can be focused at the self-regulation level, including greater skill in self-evaluation or confidence to engage further on a task. For example, “You already know the key features of the opening of an argument. Check to see whether you have incorporated them in your first paragraph.” Such feedback
can have major influences on self-efficacy, self-regulatory proficiencies, and selfbeliefs about students as learners, such that the students are encouraged or informed how to better and more effortlessly continue on the task. (FR)
4. feedback can be personal in the sense that it is directed to the “self,” which, we argue below, is too often unrelated to performance on the task. (FS)

Timing of Feedback
Feedback on major assignments should take no longer than 5 days.

see above also

"Too often, the power of assessment feedback is aimed to “drive” students toward (often unspecified) goals or to “do more” or “do better.” Students receive little feedback information in these instances, primarily because the assessment feedback does not address the three major questions, and rarely does such feedback
enhance the processes (FP) and metacognitive attributes (FR) of the task."
EXCELLENT ARTICLE - current research pedagogical resourceurl provided above. See me for a pdf if desired.
11
4/8/2016 12:46:01Ray Gen/EnglishSeven Keys to Effective Feedback by Grant WigginsEducational Leadership
September 2012 | Volume 70 | Number 1
Feedback for Learning Pages 10-16
1. Goal-Referenced
2. Tangible and Transparent
3. Actionable
4. User-Friendly
5. Timely
6. Ongoing
7. Consistent

"Basically, feedback is information about how we are doing in our efforts to reach a goal."

"In light of these key characteristics of helpful feedback, how can schools most effectively use feedback as part of a system of formative assessment? The key is to gear feedback to long-term goals."
Excellent Article from one of the gods.pedagogical practiceHere is the url
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept12/vol70/num01/Seven-Keys-to-Effective-Feedback.aspx

12
9/13/2016 10:19:47English7 Key Characteristics Of Better Learning Feedback
by Grant Wiggins
Wiggins, G. (2015). 7 key characteristics of better learning feedback. TeachThought.com. Retrieved from http://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/7-key-characteristics-of-better-learning-feedback/Feedback is most effective when it is
1. Goal-referenced
2. Transparent
3. Actionable
4. User-friendly
5. Timely
6. Ongoing
7. Consistent
Not all feedback is equal. Hattie and other research have noted that "some 'feedback' works and other 'feedback' doesn’t."

"What effective coaches also know is that actionable feedback about what went right is as important as feedback about what didn’t work in complex performance situations."

" Feedback is thus not of much value if the user cannot understand it or is overwhelmed by it, even if it is accurate in the eyes of experts or bystanders. Highly-technical feedback to a novice will seem odd, confusing, hard to decipher..."

" If we truly realize how vital feedback is, we should be working overtime as educators to figure out ways to ensure that students get more timely feedback and opportunities to use it in class while the attempt and effects are still fresh in their minds. (Keep in mind: as we have said, feedback does not need to come from the students’ teachers only or even people at all, before you say that this is impossible. This is a high-priority and solvable problem to address locally.)"

"In education this has a clear consequence: teachers have to be on the same page about what is quality work and what to say when the work is and is not up to standard."
Excellent points.We will be implements a consistent feedback process for English writing.Key Characteristics Of Better Learning Feedback

by Grant Wiggins, Authentic Education

On May 26, 2015, Grant Wiggins passed away. Grant was tremendously influential on TeachThought’s approach to education, and we were lucky enough for him to contribute his content to our site. Occasionally, we are going to go back and re-share his most memorable posts. Yesterday we shared an article on close reading, and today Grant looks at providing better feedback for learning.

Whether or not the feedback is just “there” to be grasped or offered by another person, all the examples highlight seven key characteristics of helpful feedback.

Helpful feedback is –

Goal-referenced
Transparent
Actionable
User-friendly
Timely
Ongoing
Consistent
Though some of these traits have been noted by various researchers [for example, Marzano, Pickering & Pollock (2001) identify some of #3, #5, #1 and #4 in describing feedback as corrective, timely, specific to a criterion], it is only when we clearly distinguish the two meanings of “corrective” (i.e. feedback vs. advice) and use all seven that we get the most robust improvements and sort out Hattie’s puzzle as to why some “feedback” works and other “feedback” doesn’t. Let’s look at each criterion in turn.

1. Goal-referenced. There is only feedback if a person has a goal, takes actions to achieve the goal, and gets goal-related information fed back. To talk of feedback, in other words, is to refer to some notable consequence of one’s actions, in light of an intent. I told a joke – why? To make people laugh; I wrote the story – why? To paint vivid pictures and capture revealing feelings and dialogue for the reader to feel and see; I went up to bat – why? To get a hit. Any and all feedback refers to a purpose I am presumed to have. (Alas, too often, I am not clear on or attentive to my own goals – and I accordingly often get feedback on that disconnect.)

Given a desired outcome, feedback is what tells me if I should continue on or change course. If some joke or aspect of the writing isn’t working – a revealing, non-judgmental phrase – I need to know. To that end, a former colleague of mine when I was a young teacher asked students every Friday to fill out a big index card with “what worked for you and didn’t work for you this week.” I once heard an exasperated NFL coach say in a post-game interview on the radio: “What do you think we do out here, wind a playbook up and pray all season? Coaching is about quick and effective adjustment in light of results!”

Note that goals (and the criteria for them) are often implicit in everyday situations. I don’t typically announce when telling the joke that my aim is to make you laugh or that I wrote that short story as an exercise in irony. In adult professional and personal life, alas, goals and criteria for which we are accountable are sometimes unstated or unclear as well – leading to needlessly sub-par performance and confusing feedback. It can be extra challenging for students: many teachers do not routinely make the long-term goals of lessons and activities sufficiently clear. Better student achievement may thus depend not on more “teaching” or feedback only but constant reminders by teachers of the goal against which feedback is given: e.g. “Guys, the point here is to show, not tell in your writing: make the characters come alive in great detail! That’s the key thing we’ll be looking for in peer review and my feedback to you.” (That’s arguably the value of rubrics, but far too many rubrics are too vague to be of help.)

2. Transparent and tangible, value-neutral information about what happened. Therefore, any useful feedback system involves not only a clear goal, but transparent and tangible results related to the goal. Feedback to students (and teachers!) needs to be as concrete and obvious as the laughter or its absence is to the comedian and the hit or miss is to the Little League batter. If your goal as a teacher is to “engage” learners as a teacher, then you must look for the most obvious signs of attention or inattention; if your goal as a student is to figure out the conditions under which plants best grow, then you must look closely at the results of a controlled experiment. We need to know the tangible consequences of our attempts, in the most concrete detail possible – goal-related facts from which we can learn. That’s why samples or models of work are so useful to both students and teachers – more so than the (somewhat abstract) rubrics by themselves.

Even as little pre-school children, we learn from such results and models without adult intervention. That’s how we learned to walk; that’s how we finally learned to hold a spoon effectively; that’s how we learned that certain words magically yield food, drink, or a change of clothes from big people. Thus, the best feedback is so tangible that anyone who has a goal can learn from it. Video games are the purest example of such tangible feedback systems: for every action we take there is a tangible effect. We use that information to either stay on the same course or adjust course. The more information “fed back” to us, the more we can self-regulate, and self-adjust as needed. No “teaching” and no “advice” – just feedback! That’s what the best concrete feedback does: it permits optimal self-regulation in a system with clear goals.

Far too much educational feedback is opaque, alas, as revealed in a true story told to me years ago by a young teacher. A student came up to her at year’s end and said, “Miss Jones, you kept writing this same word on my English papers all year, and I still don’t know what it means.” “What’s the word?” she asked. “Vag-oo,” he said. (The word was “vague”!). Sad to say, too much teacher feedback is ‘vagoo’ – think of the English teacher code written in margins (AWK, Sent. Frag, etc.) Rarely does the student get information as tangible about how they are currently doing in light of a future goal as they get in video games. The notable exceptions: art, music, athletics, mock trial – in short, areas outside of core academics!

This transparency of feedback becomes notably paradoxical under a key circumstance: when the information is available to be obtained, but the performers do not obtain it – either because they don’t look for it or because they are too busy performing to see it. We have all seen how new teachers are sometimes so busy concentrating on “teaching” that they fail to notice that few students are attending or learning. Similarly in sports: the tennis player or batter is taking their “eye off the ball” (i.e. pulling their head out instead of keeping your head still as you swing), yet few novice players “see” that they are not really “seeing the ball.” They often protest, in fact, when the feedback is given. The same thing happens with some domineering students in class discussion: they are so busy “discussing” that they fail to see their unhelpful effects on the discussion and on others who give up trying to participate.

That’s why it is vital, at even the highest levels of performance, to get feedback from coaches (or other able observers) and/or video to help us perceive what we may not perceive as we perform; and by extension, to learn to look for what is difficult but vital to perceive. That’s why I would recommend that all teachers video their own classes at least once per month and do some walk-throughs and learning walks, to more fully appreciate how we sometimes have blind spots about what is and isn’t happening as we teach.

It was a transformative experience for me when I did it 40 years ago (using a big Sony reel-to-reel deck before there were VHS cassettes!). What was clear to me as the teacher of the lesson in real time seemed downright confusing on tape – visible also in some quizzical looks of my students that I had missed in the moment. And, in terms of improving discussion or Socratic Seminar, video can be transformative: when students see snippets of tape of their prior discussions they are fascinated to study it and surprised by how much gets missed in the fast flow of conversation. (Coaches of all sports have done this for decades; why is it still so rare in classrooms?)

3. Actionable information. Thus, feedback is actionable information – data or facts that you can use to improve on your own since you likely missed something in the heat of the moment. No praise, no blame, no value judgment – helpful facts. I hear when they laugh and when they don’t; I adjust my jokes accordingly. I see now that 8 students are off task as I teach, and take action immediately. I see my classmates roll their eyes as I speak – clearly signaling that they are unhappy with something I said or the way I said it. Feedback is that concrete, specific, useful. That is not to say that I know what the feedback means, i.e. why the effect happened or what I should do next (as in the eye rolling), merely that the feedback is clear and concrete. (That’s why great performers aggressively look for and go after the meaning of feedback.)

Thus, “good job!” and “You did that wrong” and “B+” on a paper are not feedback at all. In no case do I know what you saw or what exactly I did or didn’t do to warrant the comments. The responses are without any actionable information. Here is a question we can easily imagine learners asking themselves in response, to see this: Huh? What specifically should I do more of and less of next time, based on this information? No idea. The students don’t know what was “good” or “wrong” about what they did.

Some readers may object that feedback is not so black and white, i.e. that we may disagree about what is there to be seen and/or that feedback carries with it a value judgment about good and bad performance. But the language in question is usually not about feedback (what happened) but about an (arguable) inference about what happened. Arguments are rarely about the results, in other words; they are typically about what the results mean.

For example, a supervisor of a teacher may make an unfortunate but common mistake of stating that “many students were bored” in class. No, that’s a judgment, not a goal-based specific fact. It would have been far more useful and less debated had the supervisor said something like: “I counted inattentive behaviors lasting more than 5-10 seconds in 12 of the 25 students once the lecture was well underway. The behaviors included 2 students texting under desks, 2 passing notes, and 7-8 students at any one time making eye contact with other students, etc.

However, when you moved to the small-group exercise using the ‘mystery text’, I saw such off-task behavior in only 1 student.” These are goal-related factual statements, not judgments. Again, it doesn’t mean that the supervisor is correct in the facts and it certainly doesn’t mean they are anti-lecture; it only means that the supervisor tries to stick to facts and not jump to glib inferences – what is working and what isn’t.

Such care in offering neutral goal-related facts is the whole point of the clinical supervision of teaching and of good coaching more generally. Effective supervisors and coaches work hard to carefully observe and comment on what was perceived, in reference to shared goals. That’s why I always ask when visiting a class: Given your goals for the class, what would you like me to look for and perhaps count or code?

In my years of experience as a teacher of teachers, as an athletic coach, and as a teacher of adolescents I have always found such “pure” feedback to be accepted, not debated; and be welcomed (or at least not resisted). Performers are on the whole grateful for a 2nd pair of eyes and ears, given our blind spots as we perform. But the legacy of so much heavy-handed inferencing and gratuitous advice by past coaches/teachers/supervisors has made many performers – including teachers – naturally wary or defensive.

What effective coaches also know is that actionable feedback about what went right is as important as feedback about what didn’t work in complex performance situations. (That’s why the phrase “corrective information” is not strictly-speaking accurate in describing all feedback.) Performers need feedback about what they did correctly because they don’t always know what they did, particularly as novices. It is not uncommon in coaching, when the coach describes what a performer successfully did (e.g. “THAT time you kept your head still and followed all the way through!”), to hear the performer respond quizzically, “I did??”

Similarly the writer or teacher is sometimes surprised to learn that what she thought was unimportant in her presentation was key to audience understanding. Comedians, teachers, and artists don’t often accurately predict which aspects of their work will achieve the best results, but they learn from the ones that do. That’s why feedback can be called a reinforcement system: I learn by learning to do more of (and understand) what works and less of what doesn’t.

4. User friendly. Feedback is thus not of much value if the user cannot understand it or is overwhelmed by it, even if it is accurate in the eyes of experts or bystanders. Highly-technical feedback to a novice will seem odd, confusing, hard to decipher: describing the swing in baseball in terms of torque and other physics concepts to a 6-year-old will not likely yield a better hitter. On the other hand, generic ‘vagoo’ feedback is a contradiction in terms: I need to perceive the actionable, tangible details of what I did.

When I have watched expert coaches, they uniformly avoid either error of too much overly-technical information or of unspecific observations: they tell the performers one or two important things they noticed that, if they can be changed, will likely yield immediate and noticeable improvement (“I noticed you were moving this way…”), and they don’t offer advice until they are convinced the performer sees what they saw (or at least grasps the importance of what they saw).

5. Timely. The sooner I get feedback, then, the better (in most cases). I don’t want to wait hours or days to find out which jokes they laughed at or didn’t, whether my students were attentive, or which part of my paper works and doesn’t. My caveat – “in most cases” – is meant to cover situations such as playing a piano piece in recital: I don’t want either my teacher or the audience to be barking out feedback as I perform. That’s why it is more precise to say that good feedback is “timely” rather than “immediate.”

A great problem in education, however, is the opposite. Vital feedback on key performances often comes days, weeks, or even months after the performance – think of writing and handing in papers and getting back results on standardized tests. If we truly realize how vital feedback is, we should be working overtime as educators to figure out ways to ensure that students get more timely feedback and opportunities to use it in class while the attempt and effects are still fresh in their minds. (Keep in mind: as we have said, feedback does not need to come from the students’ teachers only or even people at all, before you say that this is impossible. This is a high-priority and solvable problem to address locally.)

6. Ongoing. It follows that the more I can get such timely feedback, in real time, before it is too late, the better my ultimate performance will be – especially on complex performance that can never be mastered in a short amount of time and on a few attempts. That’s why we talk about powerful feedback “loops” in a sound learning system.

All adjustment en route depends upon feedback and multiple opportunities to use it. This is really what makes any assessment truly “formative” in education. The feedback is “formative” not merely because it precedes “summative” assessments but because the performer has many opportunities – if results are less than optimal – to adjust the performance to better achieve the goal. Many so-called formative assessments do not build in such feedback use.

If we truly understood how feedback works, we would make the student’s use of feedback part of the assessment! It is telling that in the adult world I am often judged as a performer on my ability to adjust in light of feedback since no one can be perfect.

This is how all highly-successful computer games work, of course. If you play Angry Birds, Halo, Guitar Hero, or Tetris you know that the key to the substantial improvement possible is that the feedback is not only timely but ongoing. When you fail, you can immediately start over – even, just where you left off – to give you another opportunity to get, receive and learn from the feedback before all is lost to forgetfulness. (Note, then, this additional aspect of user-friendly feedback: it suits our need, pace and ability to process information; games are built to reflect and adapt to our changing ability to assimilate information.

Do you see a vital but counter-intuitive implication from the power of many ‘loops’ of feedback? We can teach less, provide more feedback, and cause greater learning than if we just teach. Educational research supports this view even if as “teachers” we flinch instinctively at this idea.. That is why the typical lecture-driven course is so ineffective: the more we keep talking, the less we know what is being grasped and attended to. That is why the work of Eric Mazur at Harvard – in which he hardly lectures at all to his 200 students but instead gives them problems to solve and discuss, and then shows their results on screen before and after discussion using LRS ‘clickers’ – is so noteworthy. His students get “less” lecturing” but outperform their peers not only on typical tests of physics but especially on tests of misconceptions in physics. [Mazur (1998)]

7. Consistent. For feedback to be useful it has to be consistent. Clearly, I can only monitor and adjust successfully if the information fed back to me is stable, unvarying in its accuracy, and trustworthy. In education this has a clear consequence: teachers have to be on the same page about what is quality work and what to say when the work is and is not up to standard. That can only come from teachers constantly looking at student work together, becoming more consistent (i.e. achieving inter-rater reliability) over time, and formalizing their judgments in highly-descriptive rubrics supported by anchor products and performances. By extension, if we want student-to-student feedback to be more helpful, students have to be trained the same way we train teachers to be consistent, using the same exemplars and rubrics.

References

Bransford et al (2001) How People Learn. National Academy Press.

Clarke, Shirley (2001) Unlocking Formative Assessment: Practical Strategies for Enhancing Pupils’ Learning in the Primary Classroom. Hodder Murray.

Dweck, Carol (2007) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, Ballantine.

Gilbert, Thomas (1978) Human Competence. McGraw Hill.

Harvard Business School Press, Giving Feedback (2006)

Hattie, John (2008) Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement, Routledge.

James, William (1899/1958) Talks to Teachers. W W Norton.

Marzano, R ; Pickering, D & Pollock J (2001) Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, ASCD.

Mazur, Eric (1996) Peer Instruction: A User’s Manual. Benjamin Cummings.

Nater, Sven & Gallimore R (2005) You Haven’t Taught Until They Have Learned: John Wooden’s Teaching Principles and Practices. Fitness Info Tech.

Pollock, Jane (2012) Feedback: the hinge that joins teaching and learning, Corwin Press.

Wiggins, Grant (2010) “Time to Stop Bashing the Tests,” Educational Leadership March 2010 | Volume 67 | Number 6

Wiggins, Grant (1998) Educative Assessment, Jossey-Bass.

[1] To be published in the September 2012 issue of Educational Leadership. Please do not disseminate without permission.
[2] Human Competence, Thomas Gilbert (1978), p. 178
[3] See Bransford et al (2001), pp. xx.
[4] James, William (1899/1958), p. 41.
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9/20/2016 16:56:26Karen ByrdScience Writing: A Tool for Learning Science and Developing Language by "Educators Guide for Inquiry-based Science and English Language Development", a web resource created by the Institute for Inquiry.http://www.exploratorium.edu/education/ifi/inquiry-and-eld/educators-guide/science-writingStudents need opportunities for small and whole-group discussions for they are rehearsals for writing conclusions and lab reports. Quick-writes before a discussion can start ideas flowing. Discussion pushes students to clarify their ideas before they write their conclusions on their lab report.Effective science writing is much more likely to occur when teachers model the kinds of thinking and writing they want to encourage their students to produce.

It takes time for students to develop confidence and fluidity in their writing.

Science writing primary role is to support learning and communication of science ideas.
The article reinforces the idea that I have observed in over 30 years of teaching, which is "science writing and science talk are inextricably linked. Talking can be a precursor to writing and vice versa. This knowledge is why the Biology teachers have students write lab reports.As a department our intervention plan is to assist students in writing by having them write formal lab reports. By doing so the writing of the report will improve their writing skills in general and improve their ability to communicate science ideas.Science Writing: A Tool for Learning Science and Developing Language
Download a printable versionDownload a printable version

Science writing is a particular type of classroom writing that is integrated into inquiry-based investigations in order to further students’ understanding of science. It often takes the form of notebook entries, as well as classroom posters, charts and diagrams.


Investigation questions about shadows, grade three: Science writing can be informal in nature. Here students have written their questions about shadows on post-its and the teacher has collected them on a chart. This approach can be a quick, effective, low-pressure way to elicit students’ writing and share ideas across the class. (Click image to enlarge.)


Presentation poster about shadows, grade three: This poster was used by students’ to present their investigation findings to the class. It is an example of more formal writing, where the teacher may place an increased emphasis on grammar and spelling. (Click image to enlarge.)

“The student should record observations, thoughts, conclusions, questions, even whimsy that comes to mind, for discussion with others and later use. The record created in this way will serve the student well in organizing his or her thoughts. The notebook need not be beautiful, but a rule is that from it, after some length of time, the writer can reconstruct what was done, how it was done and what was found out. “

Jerome Pine, “The Science Notebook.” Unpublished Paper, 1996


Ladybug notebook page, grade three, intermediate ELL: This science notebook entry about a specific lesson in a ladybugs unit reveals how science writing can allow for ongoing dialog between a teacher and student. Notice how the teacher gives the student specific feedback about what they did well and asks for a response in an area that could be improved. (Click image to enlarge.)


Ladybug notebook page, grade three, early advanced ELL: This notebook entry was a final reflection at the end of a ladybug unit that included several opportunities to investigate, talk and write about ladybugs. Notice the teacher didn’t feel a need to ask the student for elaboration, but acknowledges a job well done. (Click image to enlarge.)

Science writing helps students analyze and clarify their thinking, synthesize their ideas, and communicate them with others. It accompanies and records the thinking that occurs when students are engaged in the science practices that take place during an investigation, such as asking questions, planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, and constructing explanations. It creates a record that can be returned to, responded to, and revised. Science writing can be shared with others, become part of the environmental print in the classroom (through posters, pictures, word walls, etc.), or provide a venue for written conversations between teacher and student. A piece of writing can be a repository for emerging ideas (a “silent partner” in an investigation) or result in a final product for sharing knowledge.

“writing in science is not only for communicating with others; it is also a tool for learning that supports scientists and students alike in clarifying thinking, synthesizing ideas, and coming to conclusions.”

Karen Worth et al., The Essentials of Science and Literacy, Heinemann, ©2009

Science writing supports the construction of new scientific understanding because it gives students the opportunity to articulate their thinking as they engage in the science practices during an investigation. The fact that the writing takes place in the context of hands-on science means that students can draw from direct experiences that are interesting, meaningful, and shared.

Language development is also supported by science writing. This mode of language use provides students with many opportunities to express and communicate their thinking. Science writing involves students in a metacognitive activity—they must consider the words they will use to communicate their thinking, reflecting and clarifying as they go. This process of reflection and clarification can lead students to develop their language as they refine their scientific thinking.


Earthworm notebook page, grade one, intermediate ELL: Even at a very young age, students can show their thinking in words or pictures. In this notebook page, a first grade student has used writing and drawing to communicate sophisticated ideas he has learned about earthworms. (Click image to enlarge.)

In addition to developing language by using it to exchange meaningful ideas, science writing also supports language development by creating artifacts that can be revisited at a later time to refine how one’s ideas are expressed. This is especially helpful for English language learners (ELLs). In revisiting a piece of writing, the written piece itself becomes a platform for further reading, talking, and writing. Science writing can also include drawing because it can be used to communicate students’ ideas and understanding. Many ELLs can draw their ideas before they can write them, making drawing an emergent form of writing.

Science writing can often be difficult, even for native English speakers. There are more skills that need to be in place for students to communicate in writing than they need to communicate orally. While it is not necessary for spelling, punctuation, or handwriting to be perfect for science writing to be effective, some degree of familiarity with these conventions is necessary in order for students to effectively capture their ideas in print.

There are also many language demands involved in writing (i.e., the language needed to express ones ideas and understand those of others) that need to be supported, especially for ELLs. A number of instructional practices and scaffolds can increase the likelihood that students can produce writing that will help them develop and effectively communicate their thinking.

Effective science writing is much more likely to occur when:

Students have had interesting experiences and investigations to write about
Teachers use prompts that clearly relate a writing task to a particular science phenomenon or experience
Teachers model the kinds of thinking and writing they want to encourage their students to produce (for example, demonstrating a shared notebook entry in front of the class)
Students are encouraged to use everyday language to express their ideas, and concentrate on communicating ideas clearly, even if spelling and grammar aren’t perfect
Students have a chance to talk before they write (if students can say something, they will have an easier time writing it)
Students are strategically paired or grouped to help each other write, and prepare to write, by talking
Language-rich environmental print (posters, word banks, charts, pictures) is an abundant resource in the classroom
Early writers are encouraged to express their thinking through pictures as well as words—drawing can be an effective practice to combine with writing
Students are given constructive feedback on their writing that pushes them to expand and clarify their thinking

Snail notebook page, grade three, early intermediate ELL: Students can use writing to make meaning and communicate their ideas without focusing on correct grammar and spelling. While there are spelling mistakes in this notebook entry, it’s clear that this student has made detailed observations about his snail and is able to communicate them. (Click image to enlarge.)

Even with these conditions in place, it takes time for students to develop confidence and fluidity in their writing. Writing becomes an integral tool for science instruction once students have grown accustomed to using it in connection with their investigations, internalized a number of science-writing entry types, and gained experience referring back to their own writing to develop their thinking. As writing becomes a more regular feature of classroom culture, students grow less hesitant to write–especially when they recognize that they do not need perfect grammar and spelling in order to express and develop their thinking. A teacher can encourage this by responding to the science ideas in students’ writing rather than correcting spelling and grammatical errors.

Over time, students find a genuine use for the specific vocabulary associated with the phenomena they are exploring because of the clarity and precision it can lend to the expression of their ideas. This specific language may or may not have been a part of their everyday language. In certain cases, teachers will want students to produce more formal pieces of writing—such as final reports or poster presentations—where grammar and spelling are attended to. In these cases, student’s grammar and spelling will need explicit support from the teacher.

While science writing can improve students’ writing in general, its main benefit to language development is not in practicing writing in and of itself. Its primary role is to support learning and the communication of science ideas. This gives writing a meaningful context, and it is through this role that it can best support the development of language.

“in the classroom [science writing and science talk] are inextricably linked. Small- and whole-group discussions are often rehearsals for writing conclusions and reports, and quick-writes before a discussion can start ideas flowing. Discussion pushes students to clarify their ideas before they write their conclusions or write a more formal piece about their science experiences.”

Karen Worth et al., The Essentials of Science and Literacy, Heinemann, ©2009

There is a strong reciprocal relationship between science writing and science talk. Talking can be a precursor to writing, and writing can be a precursor to talking. For instance, students can have a science talk before writing so they can listen to others and rehearse their own language and ideas before committing them to print. This practice can be especially beneficial for ELLs whose speaking skills are often more developed than their writing skills. In turn, writing can help students collect their thoughts without inhibitions before speaking. And a piece of science writing, such as an entry in a science notebook or on a posted word bank, can be a resource for students to refer to during a science talk. The combination of science talk and science writing supports the learning of science ideas and, in the process, helps students develop the language to express these ideas.

The Institute for Inquiry’s “Educators Guide for Inquiry and English Language Development” includes annotated classroom videos that show two teachers using science writing in their classrooms, often in different ways.

In the Snail Investigation videos, notice how the teacher supports science writing by having students keep their science notebooks open and ready to record their thinking during their investigation. Additionally, students have dedicated time to record thinking afterwards and review their writing before science talks. Students’ notebooks also remain available to them for reference during science talks.

In the Magnet Investigation videos, notice how the teacher supports science writing by having students refer to their science notebooks for procedural information, such as recorded investigation plans. She also discusses and models writing-entry types, such as claims and evidence. Students have oral practice before writing, are organized into collaborative groups so they can support each other while writing, have a lot of environmental print in the classroom (posters and charts showing useful words and ideas), and enjoy a culture where they regularly share and comment on their writing with each other.

Additional resources for information on science writing can be found in the Institute for Inquiry Resource Library.
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9/20/2016 17:03:59Donna Tucker/ ScienceHelping Failing Students: Part 1
The Actively Failing Student
By William Buskist and Christopher Howard

JavaScriptKit.com, B. (n.d.). Helping Failing Students: Part 1. Retrieved September 20, 2016, from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/2009/december-09/helping-failing-students-2.html
This article talks about two types of failing students,those students who actively participate in class, but still perform poorly, and those students who perform poorly because they seldom, if ever, attend class or complete their assignments. It is the first of a two part series and addresses the “Actively Failing” students (those who are trying but are unsuccessful still). In other words or “A for effort kids.”

Tips for helping actively failing students included:
1. Identify Struggling or Failing Students Early in the Semester
-initial exam during the first three to four weeks of a course provides a good opportunity to assess students’ level of understanding of course materials and possibly identify at-risk students.
2. Attempt to Identify and Remediate the Source of the Problem
-students may be in need of special assistance to remedy the peculiarities of their situation. Oftentimes, students may not be aware that special campus resources exist to help them address these issues. If so, we should refer students to offices such as a student success center, student counseling center, or the disability program
-teacher to invite students to meet on a regular basis to prepare for future assessments. These meetings may be one-on-one or in small groups or some combination of them.
3. Provide Specific Study Strategies
-In general, we have discovered in talking with struggling students that these problems take one of three forms: not spending enough time studying, poor concentration while studying, or poor reading comprehension.
-Using the general rule that students should study 2 hours outside of class for each credit unit.
-not “crammed” into the 1 or 2 days just prior to an exam or a quiz
-Find a quiet, distraction-free study area that is both convenient to your schedule and comfortable.
-Avoid unnecessary distractions, such as idle cell phone conversations, listening to an iPod or other electronic medium, or spending time exploring Facebook while you are studying.
-To minimize boredom and tiredness, study no longer than 20-30 min at time before taking a 2-3 minute rest break to clear your mind and to stretch or walk around a bit.
-Survey the chapter or material to be read before they actually read it. Convert key points, headings, and bulleted or bold-faced items into questions before moving on to the next section of the reading.Read the chapter and attempt to answer these questions.Summarize the major points and key ideas of the material they are reading in their own words and preferably in writing.
4. Set Realistic and Attainable Goals for Improvement
-These goals should promote gradual, not drastic, improvement over the course of the semester — after all, it is unreasonable for teachers to expect huge boosts in performance over a small interval for struggling students.
1. “Throughout the remediation process, and regardless of the approach that teachers adopt in working with actively failing students, they should closely monitor and stay in contact with their students.”
2. “Neglecting these students after first giving them the impression that we care about them will surely have a negative impact on their desire to do well in the course.”
3. “However, we all know that many students shy away from approaching us about their shortcomings in the course, leaving it to us to bear the responsibility for taking that first, and sometimes, second and third steps.”
The article seems to have some useful tools in that it does apply some basic steps that behavior analysts use to work with their clients to encourage change with successive approximations. Make a change, see some improvement and then keep going in that direction till you get where you want to be.
Well half the intervention is letting the kids know you care. The other half is actually staying on top of it and in touch with the kids for progress. Remembering to be reality grounded in expectations and continued growth.Helping Failing Students: Part 1
The Actively Failing Student
By William Buskist and Christopher Howard

Chris Keller is a hard working student. She never misses class, sits in the front row, and takes copious notes. She reads her text faithfully each week, completing her reading assignments well ahead of time. She makes flash cards to help her learn key terms and concepts and takes all the practice quizzes in her online study guide for the course. She often takes advantage of her professor’s office hours to ask questions about lectures, class discussion, and past quizzes and tests. Unfortunately, despite her “A effort,” Chris is failing her psychology course. Disappointed that her hard work is not paying off, Chris is becoming discouraged, and feels like she is wasting her time investing even more effort in the course.
Trey Anderson is also failing the same psychology course, but for a very different reason. He rarely attends class, showing up for only quizzes and tests. He puts in equally little time preparing for his tests and other assignments. He has never spoken to his professor nor e-mailed him. He knows he is failing, but doesn’t show any outward signs of being discouraged or upset at his performance. In fact, he gives the appearance that he couldn’t care less about the course and how well he understands the material.
Failure seems an inevitable part of the college classroom — to be sure, over the span of almost any given semester, we encounter students who struggle with our courses and who perform at substandard levels. Students fail courses for many reasons, although as our descriptions of Chris and Trey suggest, we may categorize failing students into two broad, non-overlapping categories: Those students who actively participate in class, but still perform poorly, and those students who perform poorly because they seldom, if ever, attend class or complete their assignments.
For actively failing students, poor performance may be isolated to a particular graded assignment (e.g., failing a specific exam) or may occur repeatedly across course assignments and course content (e.g., failing consecutive exams). Actively failing students are often the type of struggling student we are most likely to encounter through e-mail contact or office hours because they sometimes, although not always, seek help or express concern over their performance.
Passively failing students represent an altogether different kind of student. Whereas actively failing students are at least moderately engaged in the learning process (e.g., attend class, take notes), passively failing students show little or no such engagement. The names of these students appear on our class rolls, but the students themselves seldom appear in our classes. Helping this kind of student to improve their class performance is a much more difficult task because they are not likely to seek, or perhaps even desire, help.
The good news is that all teachers who have actively or passively failing students in their classes can adopt particular strategies and tactics of teaching that may prove beneficial in helping failing (and other poorly performing) students improve their course performance. The remainder of this essay outlines strategies and tactics for helping actively failing students improve their class performance. Next month’s Teaching Tips column will focus on helping passively failing students.
Helping Actively Failing Students
Helping failing students is a two-step process. First, we must identify these students, and second, we must figure out what we can do to help them in their particular situation.
Identify Struggling or Failing Students Early in the Semester
Gross Davis (1993) suggested an initial exam during the first three to four weeks of a course provides a good opportunity to assess students’ level of understanding of course materials and possibly identify at-risk students. Actually, an initial exam or other graded assignment may serve a two-fold purpose to (a) identify the skills and deficiencies of students early on, and (b) convey instructors’ academic expectations to students.
Once we have identified potentially at-risk students, we can contact them individually, setting up a time to meet. This meeting provides the opportunity to discuss the course, offer suggestions for study strategies, and just as importantly, get to know the student a bit. Establishing a positive professional contact with students may lead to developing rapport with them, which may benefit them by enhancing their motivation to attend class, study the material, and revisit us on their own initiative during office hours or via e-mail (Benson, Cohen, & Buskist, 2005).
Attempt to Identify and Remediate the Source of the Problem
During an individual meeting, teachers might ask students for their thoughts and reflections over their performance. In doing so, teachers should try to assess whether the failure is (a) specific to the course or occurs across other courses and (b) an isolated incident or a potentially recurring issue within the course. Undoubtedly, some course material will be more difficult for students to comprehend than other material. Some types of graded assignments will tap into skills or abilities that a student may lack (e.g., critical thinking), and personal situations outside of the classroom may affect students’ performance (Rossi, 2006).
If the failing performance is not isolated to the course or a single incident, and if pressing personal issues appear to be in play, then students may be in need of special assistance to remedy the peculiarities of their situation. Oftentimes, students may not be aware that special campus resources exist to help them address these issues. If so, we should refer students to offices such as a student success center, student counseling center, or the disability program (Foushee & Sleith, 2004).
If students seem to be struggling with understanding particular course content, then the obvious action plan is for the teacher to invite students to meet on a regular basis to prepare for future assessments. These meetings may be one-on-one or in small groups or some combination of them. Both types of meetings have their advantages. For example, individual meetings provide the opportunity for students to ask questions that they may be hesitant asking in front of their peers (in the desire not to look “stupid” before others). Group meetings have the advantage of being demonstrably more social, setting the occasions for these students to meet with one another outside of office hours in study sessions for the course.
Of course, both tactics have their limitations as well. Meeting individually with students could tax your office hours and discretionary time, especially if you have many struggling students. Holding group meetings with struggling students necessarily means that most, if not all, of these students become publically identified as poor-performing students, which may be embarrassing for some of them, thus decreasing their motivation to attend future meetings! However, casting the meetings as “general study sessions” open to all students may effectively sidestep this sort of stigma.
Provide Specific Study Strategies
Once we have identified failing or struggling students, invited those students into the office, and perhaps pinpointed some of the problems they are having with their performance in the course, it’s time to offer specific strategies for improving their performance. These suggestions should be tailored specifically to the nature of the particular student’s problem and not focused on building the student’s self-esteem — research has shown that the latter strategy is largely ineffective (Forsyth, Lawrence, Burnette, & Baumeister, 2007). In general, we have discovered in talking with struggling students that these problems take one of three forms: not spending enough time studying, poor concentration while studying, or poor reading comprehension.
Time on task. One of the first questions to ask actively struggling students is how much time they spend reading and studying for the course beyond attending class. If they reply that they are studying far less than 6 hours a week, we may have isolated one key variable underlying their poor performance. Using the general rule that students should study 2 hours outside of class for each credit unit, we feel that students should spend roughly 9 hours on task over the span of a week for a 3-credit hour course. In fact, we offer this advice during the first day of the semester and when we identify struggling or failing students, we remind them of it. We also add two caveats. First, we tell these students that those outside-of-class study hours should be distributed evenly over the week and not “crammed” into the 1 or 2 days just prior to an exam or a quiz. Second, we emphasize that outside-of-class study should involve an initial reading of the material to glean its gist, but further study should involve considerably more active engagement of the material.
We also ask our students how they have scheduled their semester and how that translates into organizing their weekly study routines. If they do not have a “master plan” for the semester, we advise them to develop a general overall schedule for the semester that includes, among other things, their class times; work responsibilities, if any; trips or special events such as visiting family, weddings, etc. We advise them that it is a good idea to evaluate and, if necessary, modify their schedule on a weekly basis — unpredictable events, such as illness or a change in work schedule, often require students to adjust their study plans accordingly.
Concentration while studying. When we ask our struggling students “how they study,” seldom do they respond by saying “I find a really nice, quiet, and comfortable study area where I first outline my study objectives and then set about accomplishing them.” Instead, their responses are more like “I study in my dorm room” or “I study at work.” This sort of student response always prompts us to offer students the following advice:
Find a quiet, distraction-free study area that is both convenient to your schedule and comfortable (good lighting, comfortable chair, table or desk).
Avoid unnecessary distractions, such as idle cell phone conversations, listening to an iPod or other electronic medium, or spending time exploring Facebook while you are studying. Make sure you have your necessary books, computer, paper, pencils, pens, etc.
To minimize boredom and tiredness, study no longer than 20-30 min at time before taking a 2-3 minute rest break to clear your mind and to stretch or walk around a bit.
This simple procedure will not guarantee that students will become more focused, but it will tip the balance in that direction. At the very least, it will minimize the sorts of distractions that all too often disrupt an otherwise productive study session.
Reading comprehension. When we feel that students are having difficulty gleaning the appropriate information from their reading, we suggest to them the time-tested Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review Method, or as it is better known, the SQ3R method (Robinson, 1946), although in recent years some teachers and researchers have added a fourth “R” (relate or reflect; see e.g., http://www.wvup.edu/academics/learning_center/sq4r_reading_method.htm). Martin (1985) showed the SQ3R method to be an effective learning tool, and more recently, McDaniel, Howard, and Einstein (in press) showed that a briefer version of the method focusing only in the “3Rs” (read, recite, review) also benefits student learning.
In its basic form, this method requires that students take the following steps:
Survey the chapter or material to be read before they actually read it. This process involves reading all headings and subheadings as well as bulleted or bold-faced points, figure and table captions, summaries, and any built-in pedagogy such as review questions or study tips.
Convert key points, headings, and bulleted or bold-faced items into questions before moving on to the next section of the reading. It is a good idea to suggest to students that they put these questions in writing so that they don’t forget to answer these questions as they read the chapter.
Read the chapter and attempt to answer these questions. In addition, break the reading into short segments and take small rest breaks in between. Suggest to students that they slow down the reading pace of the sections of the material that they are having difficulty understanding.
Summarize the major points and key ideas of the material they are reading in their own words and preferably in writing. They should rehearse these points and ideas before moving on to the next section of reading and write out answers to the questions that they originally posed about the reading when they first skimmed through it.
Review the chapter again as well as any notes that they’ve taken. Students also should test themselves on what they’ve learned by continuing to question themselves over the major points and key concepts that they’ve learned.
Other ideas. We also advise our students to adopt three other tactics to improve their performance in the course: (a) form a study partnership or group to discuss the materials, (b) take the practice quizzes and tests in the study guide (online or paper) that accompanies the text, and (c) study old quizzes and tests to identify reasons why they may have missed particular questions and why they got other questions correct (McKeachie & Svinicki, 2006). It can also be helpful to provide all students, and not just those who might be struggling, with examples of “good” and “poor” work to help them understand the criteria for acceptable performance (see Foushee & Sleith, 2004).
Set Realistic and Attainable Goals for Improvement
After identifying failing students and providing advice for improvement, teachers should consider setting performance goals that encourage their students to improve their scores on subsequent assignments (Pastorino, 1999). These goals should promote gradual, not drastic, improvement over the course of the semester — after all, it is unreasonable for teachers to expect huge boosts in performance over a small interval for struggling students (e.g., from the first to the second exam). Thus, rather than setting up false hope for failing students to earn an A on the next exam, encouraging these students to “shoot for” a C might be the wiser strategy (although, of course, it is possible that failing students could earn an A on a subsequent exam). However, once students have proven themselves capable of passing quizzes and exams, teachers should then encourage their students to do still better. This process is not unlike the method of shaping by successive approximations used by behavior analysts in generating desired behaviors in their clients or research participants.
Throughout the remediation process, and regardless of the approach that teachers adopt in working with actively failing students, they should closely monitor and stay in contact with their students. By staying on top of the situation, teachers can meet with these students and continue to provide positive encouragement to them in ways that reinforce both effort and achievement.
Imagine the downside for our students if we fail to stay involved in helping them with working toward doing better in our classes: Neglecting these students after first giving them the impression that we care about them will surely have a negative impact on their desire to do well in the course. It might also diminish their impression of our discipline and us as ambassadors of that discipline (Buskist & Saville, 2002). As Lowman (1995) pointed out, the classroom is not a neutral emotional space. Indeed, for students it is just the opposite — they are quite concerned what others (including teachers) think of them and focus to no small extent on the social relationships present in the classroom (Schaeffer, Epting, Zinn, & Buskist, 2003).
Final Thoughts
In a perfect classroom, all of our students would earn As. Unfortunately, our classrooms are seldom, if ever, perfect. Despite our most concerted pedagogical efforts, students vary in how well they perform in our courses. Some students work very hard and get good grades, whereas others work just as hard and get failing grades. And, of course, there are those students who do little, if any, work and also fail our courses. In the perfect classroom, failing students would approach us about how to become better students. However, we all know that many students shy away from approaching us about their shortcomings in the course, leaving it to us to bear the responsibility for taking that first, and sometimes, second and third steps.
Taking that first step signifies at least two things about us as teachers. First, it says that we are actively involved in helping all students in our courses, not just the “smart ones.” Second, and perhaps more importantly, it says that we care about our students’ academic welfare. Demonstrably caring for students, though, will not always yield the results we might hope for — some failing students will remain uninspired to participate in their education. Nonetheless, consider the opposite side of the coin: demonstrably showing that we do not care for our students’ academic success. That strategy surely would seem to guarantee that all failing students will remain uninspired, and perhaps this effect may generalize to students who are passing, indirectly causing them to become disinterested in our subject matter or to underperform in the classroom.
The relatively little effort required on teachers’ part to monitor their students’ classroom progress and extend failing students an invitation to visit them during office hours would seem to be justified by what is at stake for the student, for the class, and perhaps the entire educational system. We believe that Charles Brewer (2005, p. 507) was correct when he said that “the real reason for teaching is to make a difference. . .” Taking the time to reach out to failing students and working with them to pass our classes is surely one way of making the sort of difference Brewer had in mind. ♦
References and Further Reading:

Benson, T.A., Cohen, A.L., & Buskist, W. (2005). Rapport: Its relation to student attitudes and behaviors toward teachers and classes. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 236-238. Brewer, C.L. (2005). Reflections on an academic career: From which side of the looking glass. In S. F. Davis & W. Buskist (Eds.), The teaching of psychology: Essays in honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie and Charles L. Brewer (pp. 499-507). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Buskist, W., & Saville, B.K. (2001). Rapport-building: Creating positive emotional contexts for enhancing teaching and learning. APS Observer, 14, 12-13, 19. Forsyth, D.R., Lawrence, N.K., Burnette, J.L., & Baumeister, R.F. (2007). Attempting to improve the academic performance of struggling college students by bolstering their self-esteem: An intervention that backfired. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 447-459. Foushee, R.D., & Sleigh, M.J. (2004). Going the extra mile: Identifying and assisting struggling students. In B. Perlman, L. I. McCann, & S. H. McFadden (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 303-311). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society. Gross Davis, B. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Lowman, J. (1995). Mastering the techniques of teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Martin, M.A. (1985). Students’ applications of self-questioning study techniques: An investigation of their efficacy. Reading Psychology, 6, 69-83. McDaniel, M.A., Howard, D.C., & Einstein, G.O. (in press). The read-recite-review strategy: Effective and portable. Psychological Science. McKeachie, W.J., & Svinicki, M. (2006). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Pastorino, E.E. (1999). Students with academic difficulty: Prevention and assistance. In B. Perlman, L.I. McCann, & S.H. McFadden (Eds.). Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 193-199). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society. Robinson, F.P. (1946). Effective study. New York: Harper and Brothers. Rossi, M. (2006). Helping college students with personal problems: Should I help and how? In W. Buskist & S.F. Davis (Eds.). Handbook of the teaching of psychology (pp. 309-313). Maiden, MAL Blackwell. Schaeffer, G., Epting, K., Zinn, T., & Buskist, W. (2003). Student and faculty perceptions of effective teaching: A successful replication. Teaching of Psychology, 30, 133-136.
Observer Vol.22, No.10 December, 2009
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10/10/2016 15:05:38Victoria Stucken/English Department"Making a Connection between Student Achievement, Teacher Accountablity, and Quality Classroom Instruction" by Killi Ballard and Alan Bates - Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois"The Qualitative Report," Volume 13 Number 4 December 2008
http:''www.nova,edu/ssss/QR13-4/ballard.pdf
The importance of stardardized tests results is becoming more prevalent inthe structure of classroom instruction and the operation of schools due to pressure on educators and students from various levels of authority. The study describes several positive and negative aspects to standardized tests, along with ideas of who is responsible for test performance. Standardized tests rovide comparisons and are a tool for improvement. Too much emphasis is placed on high stake tests alsong with unrealistic expectations for some. The results indicate that ongoing assessment is effective for meansuring student learning and teacher effectiveness. The purpose of this student is to explore alternatives to hold educators accountable besides a single standardized test. Teacher Accountability - Evaluation of Teachers: It is important to think about evaluation methods of teachers that might or might not reflect quality teaching skills when it comes to holding teachers at such a high level for student achievement. The majority of educators agree with the fact that holding teachers accountable is imperative for student learning to take place (Bullough, Clark, & Patterson, 2003). Page 561

Impact of Testing on Instruction - Research shows that in many cases, classroom instruction is changing to better match the content found on high-stakes tests. Also, instruction focuses on test content or test-taking skills and ignores subject areas that are not on the tests. High-stakes tests limit the scope of the classroom instruction and student learning in undesireable ways (Stecher & Baron, as cited in Abrams et al., 2003). pg. 564

In order to use standardized tests as measures of student achievement, these tests must reflect classroom instruction, which must come from a standards-based curriculum and approach to teaching. In addition, different kinds of assessment for students must be administered to relect achievement and progress in learning. Just as students should be evaluated based on ongoing assessments, educators must also be able to display a variety of skill and expertise over a period of time in order to be held accountable for student achievement. pg. 566

In order to use standardized tests as measures of student achievement, these tests must reflect classroom instruction, which must come from a standards-based curriculum and approach to teaching. In addition, several different kinds of assessment for students must be administered to reflect achievement and progress in learning. Just as students should be evaluated based on ongoing assessments, educators must also be able to display a variety of skills and expertise over a period of time in order to be held accountable to student achievement. pg. 566
This article reveals that there are many variables that effect the results of standardized testing. All stakeholders need to participate in the process; when too much emphasis is put on the results of these tests, frustration is experienced by students who do not perform at grade level, or frustration is experiened for students who do not perform at grade level during high stakes tests. Many teachers thought that standardized tests do not reflect students' ability and that the testing environment is sometimes unnatural to the students.Although the pressure to "score high" is universal in education today, educators are the ones who know their students best. No matter how much schools or students prepare for standardized tests, there is no guarantee that performance will reflect this preparation. There must be a balance between "teaching to the test" and preparing students for life after high school, be it in the workplace or university.https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSc65iYSPleo2r_2e3sy-iSObjPiP52OlY8otoL6EmbV1cB_0Q/viewform
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