Consensus Compare - Storecoin vs. P2P Protocols and Payment Platforms
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PlatformMain Selling PointSpeed
(per Block)
(per transaction fees)
(transactions per second)
Consensus Mechanism# of Miners/
# of other decentralized workers to scale, secure, govern, and other the blockchain# of MasternodesCost to Run a Mining or Validator NodeCost to Run a
Master Node
Mainnet Launch DateProgramming LanguageSide ChainsPrivate ChainsQuick Sync
(Download of Full Chain Not Required)
Decentralized Token CreationAtomic SwapsBlockchain InteroperabilityWalletsToken Launch CostGovernanceSeparate decentralized worker for Governance?SecuritySeparate decentralized worker for Security?Throughput/ScalingSeparate decentralized worker for scaling throughput?
voters incentivized
Rewards: One block reward winner (leader-based) or all contributors earn proportionally (leaderless)Smart ContractsNative Support for dAppsNative Support for crypto-powered apps (cApps)Decentralized support for ChargebacksKYC/AML requirements for decentralized workersMoney Transmitter Licenses for the Protocol (MSBs)KYC requirements for token buyersAML requirements for token buyersPatents secured
*estimates are from live R&D results
Free transactions with robust on-chain governance0.039 secondsFree

Paid for with up to 6% yearly token inflation. Inflationary rewards grow as the number of decentralized workers grow.
10,100 TPS
in a 21-validator test setup with DyPOS built on Tendermint

159,700 TPS
in a 8-validator test setup with DyPOS built on Tendermint

5,000 TPS at launch
using 200 validators w/ DyPOS built on Storecoin's BlockFin

100,000 Projected TPS
using Masternode and unlimited validators with DyPOS
BlockFin, part of Dynamic Proof of Stake (DyPoS)21 Validators to launch the protocol; Phased caps thereafter (From 22, to 220, to 300, to 22,000+) as new decentralized workers are added to scale and secure the blockchain, +1,000,000 validators is the goal for StorecoinMasternodes (scaling)

dGuards (security)

Govnodes (governance)
1 Masternode per 22 ValidatorsResearch in progressResearch in progressChecks and balances inspired by the US ConstitutionYes, the Govnode hosts data that powers the voting and communication inside of the four branches of Storecoin's Governance. Will launch before 5/27/21 -- or within 4 years of Storecoin's foundingThe Storecoin Threat Level System determines real-time prices for DyPoS. dGuards study transactions and Validator activity and report potential spam or attacks to Storecoin, IncdGuards secure the blockchain by finding bad actors across the validator pool, the Wallet SDK network, and in transactions. dGuards run full nodes to study transactions and behavior- Parallel block assembly and validation by all validators
- Leaderless consensus protocol
- Fork-tolerant
- Separate vote and count phases
Yes, the eAgent (encrypted Agent) that does in-process validation. Every Validator has one eAgent. Masternodes host +20 eAgents per host. Masternodes are the separate dWorker.Leaderless

Estimated 2021

Estimated 2022

Estimated 2020

Estimated 2023

In Progress

In Progress

Key patents are being secured to protect against a malicious hard fork outside of Governance. Storecoin’s technology otherwise will be open-sourced to the public.
BitcoinOriginal blockchainc cryptocurrency. Store of value play10 mins$0.40 to $4.00+3-7 TPS (Scalability)

+12,000 active miners
Proof of Work~100,000 (~12,000 live)NoneNoneS9 Miner: $2,500; Electricity: $5/day per S9N/AJanuary 3, 2009C++iOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web, Ledger$0.07Primarily handled by core developers. No true structure, forks are form of governance. Changes come in the form of Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIP)Proof-of-Work protocol and 4.2 ExaHash hashrate guarantees security from 51% attack as cost of doing so would be prohibitiveHas scalability issues due to block size, standard block creation time and the large # of nodesLeader-based
Bitcoin LightningBitcoin but with quicker and more scalable transactionsNear InstantDepends on the # of node hops required to complete the transaction. Expected to be lower than Bitcoin mainTheoretically, there is no limit as transactions are processed indepdently off the main blockchainProof of Work plus off-chain transacion processing977NoneNoneSimilar to BitcoinN/AAugust 1, 2017C++, JavaScriptiOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web, Ledger$310The Lightning network is led by a few different development teams: ACINQ, Lightning Labs, BlockstreamWith every transaction, each user signs an updated balance sheet reflecting what changed with the transactionUses off-chain payment channels to speed up consensus and increase throughputLeader-based
EthereumFirst blockchain built with a Turing-complete programming language for building smart contracts. Can be used to build and launch other cryptocurrencies13-15 seconds0.16 to $0.33+15-20 TPS (Scalability)

+21,000 active miners
Proof of Work~21,000 liveNoneNoneRX 580 Card: $470 ; Electricity; $0.45/day per cardN/AJuly 30, 2015C++, G0-Lang, Python, SolidityiOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web, Ledger2000 ETH per 1 BTC during pre-sale

Roughly equals $0.25 per token
Lead by creator Vitalik and Ethereum core developer team. EIP's are the change request format worked by the developer teamProof-of-Work protocol and 3.0 TeraHash hashrate guarantees security from 51% attack as cost of doing so would be proibitiveCurrently has an issue with scale due to hardcoded block times. Looking at solutions such as off-chain transactions and shardingLeader-based
DashMasternode network enhances scaling and mixed-in transactions provides less visibility into a user's transactions2.63 mins$0.39 to $0.58+48 TPS (Scalability)

+4,800 active miners
Proof of WorkNo data availableMasternodes (scaling)4,815 (4,732 active)N/A1,000 DASH (~$515,425) and $10-$160 per month (Cost of a VPS that can handle Masternode Traffic)January 18. 2014C++, Scrypt-basediOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web, Ledger$0.21 a few weeks after launchMasternodes vote on proposals, which can then be implemented (or not) by Dash’s developersTransactions are confirmed by 200 TerraHash of X11 ASIC computing power guaranteeing security from 51% attack as cost of doing so would be prohibitiveDash relies on masternodes and its two-tiered system to scale the network throughputLeader-based
Filed application for its Evolution digital cash offering
*Claims from whitepaper and blog posts
Promising free transactions, high scalability and near-instant transactions0.5 secsFree

Paid for with 5% yearly token inflation. Developers must buy and stake tokens to enable free transactions (SaaS model)
No data available, 50,000 claimed

21 maximum validators
Delegated Proof of Stake21; hard codedNoneNoneN/AN/AJune 2, 2018WebAssembly (WASM) code such as C/C++, RustHas not launched yet. Currently, ICO purchases are just stored as ERC-20 tokensMainnet has not yet launched. Current valuation is: $15.19 (as of 5/11/18)Block producers determine which changes are approved. These producers are elected by token holders. Requires 17 of 21 nodes to approveDelegated Proof-of-Stake is the consensus protocol, which helps prevent large mining pools from forming. Security designed for dApps to be built on topHigh throughput is available due to the system architecture and its use of delegated POS for consensusLeader-based ✔ Purchase Agreement Gives EOS the Right to ask for ID Documents
*Claims from whitepaper and blog posts
Designed with a built-in on-chain governance model60 secsFees, but undeterminedNo data availableDelegated Proof of StakeUnlimitedMasternodes (scaling)Will use masternodes when liveN/A~1,000 when launchedTBDOCaml, Michelson scripting language??Has not launched yetMainnet has not yet launched. Current valuation is: $3.74 (as of 5/11/18)Has rules for stakeholders to approve
protocol upgrades that are then
automatically deployed on the
network. Governance is focus of offering
Uses formal mathematical verification, a technique which proves the fidelity of the code governing transactions and boosts the security of the associated smart contractsTezos Foundation is looking into options such as sharding and SNARKs/STARKsLeader-based
*Claims from whitepaper and blog posts
The first blockchain network that uses academically peer-reviewed open-source code20 secs~0.15 ADA

Equivalent to $0.035 USD

250 TPS

No data available for decentalization
Ouroboros leader-based consensus. Nodes assigned slots on when to lead block productionCurrently, completely centralized. Will roll out more nodes in 2018NoneNoneN/AN/ASeptember 29, 2017HaskellDaedalus$0.0217 during first daysNo governance model at the moment. It's on the Cardano roadmapUtilizes a secure multiparty implementation to make the leader selection process fully random. Security has been vetted by many academicsNo specific info on how the network will scale is available. Will in part be aided by the consenus algorithmLeader-based Planned for FuturePlanned for Future
Nano / RaiblocksImmediate and free transactions make it a true medium of exchangeNear InstantFee-less. Nano nodes are very cheap to run and besides altruistic motivation, running a node can be used by a business to get representative votes. To mitigate spam, an account needs to perform an easy proof of work problem to add a transaction to its own blockchain 7,000 TPSDelegated Proof of Stake8 official nodes, unlimited "representatives"NoneNoneN/AFree*March 4, 2017Uses RPC commandsiOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web$0.0091 during first daysCentralized, lead by core
developers on the project
Its DPOS system safeguards its ledger from cyber criminals, as an attacker would need 51 percent of the voting power to breach the security of the block-lattice. Uses PoW so users cannot spam networkTransaction lookups scale logarithmically. Nano also utilizes node pruning techniquesNo Rewards
NEOHigh-scalability network that provides smart contracts with digital identity management and GAS currency dividends for use of the platform15 to 24 secsFree for basic transactions

Undetermined fees for smart contract-based transactions
1,000 TPS.

7 hard-coded validators
Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerant7 currently,
Can run up to 1,024
NoneNoneN/A$500-$1,500 in hardware costs for bookkeeping node + Internet connectionSeptember, 2016C++, Python, JavaScript, VB.NET, Java, F#, Golang, Kotlin, C#iOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web, Ledger$0.036 ICO price as AntSharesOn-Chain: Token holders are the owners, managing through voting on the network
Off-Chain: NEO Council is responsible for strategic and technical decision-making
Uses a delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT) consensus mechanism, which ensures finality of transactions and supports more transactions at any timeWill use "StateChannels" for off-chain transaction processingLeader-based

Has patent for its cross-chain distributed interoperability functionality
StellarDistributed open-source blockchain protocol for sending any type of currency to anyone else3-5 secsFraction of a penny

Fees go into a pool that is distributed back to the community via inflation spending
1,000 TPS.

28 active validators
Federated Byzantine AgreementUnknown: Anyone can run a node. They list 28 Full Nodes on their stats page.NoneNoneN/AN/A2014 C++, Go, JavaScript, Java, Python, Ruby, ShelliOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web, Ledger$0.0033 during first daysStellar's central organization has three boards that control the direction of the network: Board of Directors, Architecture Board, Expansion BoardUses industry-standard public key cryptopgraphy, the Ed25519 algorithm and compliance measures common in the banking world to secure their public networkProtocol allows for high number of TPS seemingly only limited by hardware/connectivity constraintsLeaderless
RippleTransaction medium for banks and financial institutions that offers fast speeds and lower fees than traditional means2-4 secs0.00001 XRP

Equivalent to a fraction of a penny
Currently, 1,500 TPS.

70+ validators
Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (Proof of Authority)>700 nodes worldwideNoneNoneSetting up a validator node does not require any fees or XRP staked. The maintenance cost for the electricity is similar to running an email server.N/A2012C++iOS, Android, Desktop (Windows, Mac, Linux), Web, Ledger$0.0059 during first daysThe on-chain governance works by using the main consensus process of the network to ratify proposed changes. Approved amendments are automatically added to the networkUsers form connections with other users that they trust. Once trust is established they can send money between them. Multiple connections allow for trust to grow exponentiallyValidators nodes only need to sync up to the latest ledger vs validate a full chainNo Rewards. All tokens have already been issues✔ Yes. Developed open-source smart contract project called "Codius" but are not emphasizing its use
*Claims from whitepaper and blog posts
Provides a platform for reengineering today's applications through decentralized smart-contracts built on a scalable high-throughput blockchain5-10 secondsNo mention of transaction fees or how the network compensates 'replicas' for providing capacity.1,000 TPS*Threshold-relay and notarization powered Proof of StakeTBD. Network not live yet. Test network had 500 nodes.NoneNoneA stake is required, but minimums not defined.N/ANot live yetHaskell & scripting in WASM-compatible languagesHas not launched yetHas not launched yet and will not be running an ICO priorManaged by a decentralized hybrid artificial intelligence called ‘BNS’ which is integrated into the blockchain and can make arbitrary changes. This acts to mitigate misuse, protect users, fix problems, optimize network configuration and upgrade its protocols.

Handled by artificial intelligence, not a human actor
Uses AI to recognize nefarious accounts and other security dangers and to optimize network security

Handled by artificial intelligence, not a human actor
Scalability built in through consensus architecture. Will increase with future Tungsten releaseNot described in white paper or any other place.
*Currently, is a private (permissioned network)
Private network that attempts to provide the benefits of blockchains (distributed, decentralized) without the limitations (slow transactions, etc.)1-3 secondsN/A

A protocol, not a token
250,000 TPSSwirlds hashgraph consensus algorithm. Type of gossip protocolHedera network not live yet

Permissioned network cap at 1,000
NoneNoneNo data availableN/A2016 for Swirld's (parent company) founding

TBD for their public network
Java, LISPDoes not have a currencyDoes not have a currencyFor Hedera, will have a council of 39 members, each with equal voting power. Also sell private distributed ledger platforms that are managed privatelyIs 2/3rd non-deterministic and asynchronous byzantine fault tolerant. Curently, is a private (permissioned) network. Claims to be “bank grade security level”Not a blockchain. Each node can spread signed info to it's node neighbors on recently created transactions who then send info on to the next set of neighborsN/A

Has patents for distributed database technology. Currently, sells their distributed ledger platform as a private network along with an SDK, and licenses their tech for the new public Hedera network
BlockstackEcoystem for building dApps on top of the Bitcoin blockchainNodes only need to reach consenus on the virtual chain. Speeds to be similar to BitcoinBuilt on Bitcoin network so fees will be a reflection of current Bitcoin feesNodes only need to reach consenus on the virtual chain. Throughput to be similar to BitcoinProof of WorkBuilt on Bitcoin networkNoneNoneN/AN/ASeptember 2015dApps can be written in any language. The programs run off-chain.
Apps can run without downloading full chain first
Working on a native walletDoes not have its own currencyStill in progress but the idea is to provide community members the means to vote on changes. Votes will be weighted based on tokens held and users can delegate their vote to another userBlockstack allows user to own and control their data, rather than a centralized provider such as Dropbox or AmazonAll functions except name registration are handled off-chain so the limitations of the blockchain do not impact the scalabilityLeader-based. Built on Bitcoin network

Has patent for global decentralized naming systems without a centralized server
FIAT-POWERED PLATFORMSNon-blockchain-based payment systems
VISASwipe Card: < 2 secs

Chip Card: < 5 secs
$0.10 plus a 1.51% of transaction fee Up to 24,000 TPS
-5,000 TPS is generally believed for VISA

1,600 network endpoints
N/A1,600 network endpointsN/AN/AN/AN/A1958N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ACentralizedN/AMultiple layers of
security against data theft and fraud. Card chips increase transaction security. Consumers notified in near real-time if fraud is suspected
PayPalLess than 2 seconds for PayPal but 3-5 days for banks to process
$0.30 plus 2.9%, varies for foreign payments450 TPS

Centralized servers hosted by Paypal
N/ACentralized servers hosted by PayPal
N/AN/AN/AN/AOctober, 1999N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ACentralizedN/ACombination of encryption techniques, disputre resolution, 24/7 monitoring, fraud prevention. Info is stored in one place rather than multiple eCommerce sitesN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Western UnionA few minutes to a few days10% for small transactions
1% for larger transactions
30 TPS

Centralized servers hosted by Western Union
500,000+ locations
N/ACentralized servers hosted by Western Union

Can collect funds at 500,000 locations
N/AN/AN/AN/A1914 (via telegram)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ACentralizedN/AUses a variety of encryption techniques and registration process including verifying of user's identityN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
StripeNear instant2.9% + $0.30
for each successful card charge
20 TPS (rate-limited by Stripe)

Likely near-instant payments
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2011N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ACentralizedN/ACertified as a PCI Service Provider Level 1, most stringent certification in the payments industry.N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
SWIFT1 to 5 days$15-$35 for Domestic
$15-45 for International
350 TPS

Provides communication for 10,000,000+ institutions
N/A10,000,000 member insitutions that SWIFT provides communication forN/AN/AN/AN/A1973N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ACentralizedN/ASets mandatory and recommended security controls for its banking customers using the network N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
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