Learning Corner- Placement Perspective (Responses)
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Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SDMCET, Dharwad-580002
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LEARNING CORNER- Placement Perspective- Question and Answer Repository
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Note: This repository is as registered by students and is available in public. The department do not own anything written here interms of correctness or otherwise.
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Old repository( created in the Year 2015) is shifted to this new repository
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TimestampQuestion?Answer ? if you know, otherwise leave blank.
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11/15/2019 7:38:22What does awk stands for?Awk is mostly used for pattern scanning and processing.

AWK stands for first letter of its three author- Aho Weinberger & Kernighan

AWK was originally designed and implemented by authors in 1977 as an experiment to see how the unix tools grep and sed could be
generalized to deal with numbers as well as text.
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OLD REPOSITORY migrated here; as below
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There are 'N' people in a room standing in a circular fashion. Each of them are wearing hats, some wearing hats of green color some wearing hats of red color. But there is atleast one person who is wearing a green hat. One can see the color of others hats but not its own. They can't talk or make actions to communicate.
One or many people can leave the room in a day. There are guards at the door. Only the ones wearing green color hats can leave. If a person wearing a hat of red color leaves he/she will be killed. So, in how many days will all the people wearing green hats leave?
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A snippet to find the second largest element in a binary search tree?
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How to find the shortest path in a given network? Is the shortest distance always reliable? Explain with a real time example.The answer can be any algorithm that finds the shortest path(say, Dijkstra's algorithm). The shortest distance is not "always" reliable. Sometimes there will be a path or a node failure.
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Many puzzles were asked.The commonly held opinion by people who like to ask interview puzzles is that watching an interviewee solve a puzzle gives the employer a chance to see how an interviewee approaches problem solving. Just try to have fun with these riddles, and get ready for any brain teasers you may be asked
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Give an example of your own to show the working of stackThere can be multiple solutions. The one which i gave was, depth first search using stack to traverse all the nodes in the network.
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In oracle 11g what is the meaning of g and what is its significance?The starting in 2003 with version 10g and 11g, G signifies “Grid Computing” with the release of Oracle10g in 2003. Oracle 10g was introduced with emphasis on the “g” for grid computing, which enables clusters of low-cost, industry standard servers to be treated as a single unit
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What is a key ?The key is defined as the column or attribute of the database table. For example if a table has id,name and address as the column names then each one is known as the key for that table. We can also say that the table has 3 keys as id, name and address. The keys are also used to identify each record in the database table.
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What is Codd's third rule ?Systematic Treatment of NULL -:
This rule states about handling the NULLs in the database. As database consists of various types of data, each cell will have different datatypes. If any of the cell value is unknown, or not applicable or missing, it cannot be represent as zero or empty. It will be always represented as NULL. This NULL should be acting irrespective of the datatype used for the cell. When used in logical or arithmetical operation, it should result the value correctly.
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What is the difference between structure and union?The difference between structure and union is,
1. The amount of memory required to store a structure variable is the sum of the size of all the members.
On the other hand, in case of unions, the amount of memory required is always equal to that required by its largest member.

2. In case of structure, each member have their own memory space but In union, one block is used by all the member of the union.
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What is the difference between structure and union?The difference between structure and union is,
1. The amount of memory required to store a structure variable is the sum of the size of all the members.
On the other hand, in case of unions, the amount of memory required is always equal to that required by its largest member.

2. In case of structure, each member have their own memory space but In union, one block is used by all the member of the union.
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why java uses 2 bytes for storing a char value unlike in C ?When Java was originally designed, it was anticipated that any Unicode character would fit in 2 bytes (16 bits), so char and Character were designed accordingly. In fact, a Unicode character can now require up to 4 bytes. Thus, UTF-16, the internal Java encoding, requires supplementary characters use 2 code units.
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Difference between OSI and TCP/IP?Following are the key notable differences between OSI and TCP/IP.

The OSI model is a “generic, protocol-independent standard”. The TCP/IP are regarded as the standard around which the internet has developed.
TCP/IP is a simple model because of fewer layers (four) as compare to OSI that defined seven layers in original version.
TCP/IP is more reliable model as compare to OSI model because the internet was developed around it.
The OSI model is bottom to up process of network connection whereas the TCP/IP is the top to bottom process structure for internet purpose.
The TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical into network access layer.
OSI model is a reference model while TCP/IP is an implementation of OSI model.
The main difference between OSI and TCP/IP is that OSI model is a reference model while TCP/IP is an implementation of OSI model.
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What are some new features of html5 ?HTML 5 New Doctype and Charset
HTML 5 New Structure
HTML 5 New Inline Elements
HTML 5 New Dynamic Pages Support
HTML 5 New Form Types
HTML 5 New Elements
etc
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Why is 'using namespace std' used inC++ ?We all know that we can't have functions, classes or any other kind of data that have the same name. Let's say that we have two libraries that both add a function, let's say print(). They both give a different function, but in naming they are indistinguishable. That's where namespaces come in. A namespace is like adding a new group name to which you can add functions and other data, so that it will become distinguishable.

namespace bla
{
void print()
{
// function bla::print()
}
}

namespace blabla
{
void print()
{
// function blabla::print()
}
}


Now, as you can see, there are two functions with the name print, yet there is no naming conflict, because of namespaces. The first function would be called by using: bla::print() and the second with blabla::print().

std is an abbreviation of standard. std is the standard namespace. cout, cin and a lot of other things are defined in it. (This means that one way to call them is by using std::cout and std::cin.)

The keyword using technically means, use this whenever you can. This refers, in this case, to the std namespace. So whenever the computer comes across cout, cin, endl or anything of that matter, it will read it as std::cout, std::cin or std::endl.
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What is the four main pillars ofobject oriented ??Encapsulation
Polymorphism
Abstraction
Inheritance
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What is the use of friend function in c++ ??
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1.Reversing the linked list
2. Finding the middle element of the linked list.
3. Check whether two arrays are equal or not.
4. what is virtual memory?
5. Explain how" System.out.println" works and write a similar statement .
6. Explain how an instruction is executed.
7. Which component maintain the sequence of instructions?
8. Differencebetween subquery and correlated subquerywith an example.
9. SQL query to get the details of an employee with second max salary.
10. How you initialize integer array?
11. Why we need two addresses for a machine i.e IP address and MAC address ?
12. How many network topologies are there and where can be used?
13. Explain referential integrity
14. Why java supports 4 bytes for characters?
15. What is the difference between cat and vi unix commands ?
16. JAVA program to check whether given string is palindrome or not.
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1. When a database is called as RDBMS?

HR interview:
1. Tell me about yourself
2. What are your future plans?
3. How can you justify your strengths and weaknesses mentioned in the resume?
4.Tell me onegood and one bad work you can do with a water bottle.
5. Why we have to hire you?
6. Why you want to join our company?
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Given the list of processes and their arrival time and burst time find theno of context switches using some scheduling techniquesSolve it by puttingthe gannt chart and then count the context switches
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What is garbage collector in javaIt isused to remove the unreferenced objectsin the program and realease the memory back to heap
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find maximum element in stack without destroying it!!!make it effecientuse 2 stack,one to store elements and another to store maximum elements in asc order
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why main is public static void
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1) how to implement queue using stack.
2) what happens when you enter url in browser.
3) what is disadvantage of fibonacci function that uses recursion.
4) dynamic array in c.
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algorithm to find loop in linked list
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There is a equilateral triangle and at each vertex there is a cockroach and
each cockroach can take either right direction or left, then find the probability
that two cockroaches collide each other.
Ans: 6/8
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Informatica UNIX Round : In a file which has huge record replace the every occurences of character 'P' to character 'A'.Write a unix command to do this jobCommand : sed -i -e 's/P/A/g'filename
where -i option is used to edit in place on filename.
s is used to replace the found expression "P" with "A"
g stands for "global", meaning to do this for the whole line.
-e option indicates a command to run.
P is the one which is to be repalced by A
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Informatica UNIX Round : In a file which has huge record replace the every occurences of character 'P' to character 'A'.Write a unix command to do this jobCommand : sed -i -e 's/P/A/g'filename
where -i option is used to edit in place on filename.
s is used to replace the found expression "P" with "A"
g stands for "global", meaning to do this for the whole line.
-e option indicates a command to run.
P is the one which is to be repalced by A
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Write a C program to display a calendarUsing a two dimensional array
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SQL query to display dateUsing date function
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TCP/IP protocol suite
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Difference between truncate and delete used in sqlDELETE :Deletes only the rows from the table based on the condition given in the where clause or deletes all the rows from the table if no condition is specified. But it does not free the space containing the table.

TRUNCATE : It is used to delete all the rows from the table and free the space containing the table.
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Why char data-type in C is of 1 byteBecause char is represented as ASCII and EBCDIC which is of7- 8 bit encoding
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The paramenter passing technique available in Cprogramming language is / are :
a) Call by value
b) Call by Result
c) Call by value and Result
d) Call by Reference
e) Call be Name
Call by Value.Because, the actual parameter and formal parameter do not share the memory location i.e they are different.

Study various parameter passing techniques available in PL-SQL : Stored Procedure topic--> IN ,OUT& IN OUT etc..
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1. From the given 2 dice represent date of a month. 2. Find/print the no.of times the sub string is repeating in given string. 3. What is foreign key. 4. One circle is at origin. And the other's origin is at 0.25(x-axis).Tell the number of intersecting points.
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Is it possible to get middle node of linked list by travelling only once?Yes!, take 2 pointers p1 and p2 increment p1 2 times and p2 1 time every iteration till p1 sees null value,at end the p2 will be pointing to middle node.
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Write C program that gives flavour of OOP inheritance effect?Use of structure in structure concept ,we can implement inheritance in C.
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what are the different types of database
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Createa Structure. Allocate memory to it.
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difference between malloc and calloc
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what is polymorphism? how can you achieve reusablity?
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You have 5 jars of pills. Each pill weighs 10 grams, except for contaminated pills contained in one jar, where each pill weighs 9 grams. Given a scale, how could you tell which jar had the contaminated pills in just one measurement? .Take out 1 pill from jar 1, 2 pills from jar 2, 3 pills from jar 3, 4 pills from jar 4 and 5 pills from jar 5. Put all these 15 pills on scale. The correct Wight is 150 (15*10). But one of the jars has contaminated pills. So the weight will definitely less than 150. If the weight is 149 then jar 1 has contaminated pills because the there is only one contaminated pill. If the weight is 148 then jar 2, if the weight is 147 then jar 3, if 146 then jar 4, if 145 then jar 5.
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A frog is at the bottom of the well which is 20 meters deep. Everyday the frog jumps 5 meters upwards and fall 4 meters down. How many days it will take for the frog to reach the top? .:16 Days.
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What's the difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor ?
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Design a stack that supports getMin() in O(1) time.
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why javascript is needed?
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QUESTIONS ON DBMS
1. For a given STUDENT table different queries and SQL will be asked just like the way we do in DBMS lab
2. Difference between DELETE and DROP
3. Can you delete a table ? How?
4. Can you delete a schema? How? Have you ever tried it?
5. Explain execution of an SQL?
6. Find the 2nd highest salary or 10th least salary.
7. Questions on normal forms? Why is normalization necessary? Tell me one shortcoming on performing normalization
8. If DBMS project is mention in resume then, Draw ER-diagram , Which is the normal form used? Why?
9. What are the databases that you have worked with. Name any other database that exists other that what you haven't used.

QUESTION ON OOPS/ JAVA
1. What are the pillars of OOPS? (After you answer the 4 pillars) Is the sequence important?
2. How will you demonstrate polymorphism in java?
3. What do you understand by term "synchronization" in thread synchronization?
4. What is the resource that threads share ?
5. public static void main(Strings args[])... explain each term.
6. Question in keywords like final, finalize, throw, throws, static.
7. What is garbage collection?
8. How will you invoke garbage collection?

QUESTION IN C
1." Reusability" is an OOPS concept. How will you implement it in C?
2. Simple code like - swap without using temporary variable.
3. Long programs( code optimization is very necessary)- There are two files fileA and fileB, fileA has colums A,C,D and fileB hasP,Q,A.. The task is match each row of column A in both files if the match copy the matching entry and respective entries of C column from fileA and P and Q column from fileB.

QUESTION IN DATA STRUCTURES
1. Find the middle element of the linked list using single loop.

QUESTION IN OPERATING SYSTEM
1. Question on paging concept which includes a problem on either algorithm of paging .
2. Concepts of operating system like semaphores, thrashing, virtual memory.

QUESTIONS IN COMPUTER NETWORK
1. Difference between OSI model and TCP/IP model.
2. Given an url ex.-"www.google.com" what are the process tha takes place explain with the underlying layers and its protocols.
3. Difference between differentprotocols likeSMTP and POP.

QUESTIONS IN UNIX
1. UNIX architecture, commands
2. Given a command how will you find its parent process id.
3. A file has 'SDM' written several times along with other words. Write an UNIX command to count the number of times 'SDM' is repeated in the file.

QUESTION ON WEB PROGRAMMING (if mentioned in resume)
1. Difference between HTML5 and XHTML. Given a code how will you identify if it is HTML5 or XHTML.
2. Compulsory attributes of form tag.
3. Why CSS is required when styling can be done even in HTML.
4. Why PHP is used.
5. Know which are the server side and which are the client side languages.
6. What are cockies?

HR QUESTIONS
1. Questions on your strength and weakness.
2. Where you see yourself in next 5 years.
3. Questions on your parents profession.
4. Questions on your hobby.
5. What was the name of the HR of the PREVIOUS company that visited your college.
6. Did you find any mistakes in our pre-placement talk? What can be improved.
7. Tell me 5 good and 5 bad things about our interview that you faced today.
8. Tell me a joke.
9. Tell me our short term and a long term goal.
10. What rating do you give yourself among our classmates? Justify your answer.
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write script to find number of files in the directory
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there are 3 jars of different sizes.one jar holds 8 litres
of milk,the other 2 jars of 5 litres and 3 jars are
empty.There is no measuring level or marks in all the
jars.Juggle between these 3 jars and get 2 jars containing
4litres each at the end.
8ltr 5ltr 3ltr
------------------------------------
800
350
323
620
602
152
143
440

Done
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You have eight balls all of the same size. 7 of them weigh the same, and one of them weighs slightly more. How can you find the ball that is heavier by using a balance and only two weighings?
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write c program to implement stack
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swap 2 numbers without using temporary variable using +,- and * , /
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difference between primary key and unique key.
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Using the numbers 1,2,6,7and operators +,-,*,/ ,qwrite the expression whose result equals to 17 .(same operator can be used multiple times)(6-1)*2+7=17
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Using the numbers 1,2,6,7and operators +,-,*,/ ,qwrite the expression whose result equals to 32 .(same operator can be used multiple times)(6-2)*(7+1)=32
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how android is different from windows OS.
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Difference in size of char in Java & C?Java uses Unicode, C generally uses ASCII by default.
There are various flavours of Unicode encoding, but Java uses UTF-16, which uses either one or two 16-bit code units per character. ASCII always uses one byte per character.
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Why is multiple inheritances not supported in Java ?Multiple inheritances does complicate the design and creates problem during casting, constructor chaining .etc and given that there are not many scenario on which you need multiple inheritance its wise decision to omit it for the sake of simplicity. Also java avoids this ambiguity by supporting single inheritance with interfaces. Since interface only have method declaration and doesn't provide any implementation there will only be just one implementation of specific method hence there would not be any ambiguity.
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Return value of printf() and scanf() functions in Cprintf() returns the number of characters successfully written on the output and scanf() returns number of items successfully read.
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Is C language a block structured language ?NO.The reason that C is not, technically, a block-structured language is that block structured languages permit procedures or functions to be declared inside other procedures or functions. However, since C does not allow the creation of functions within functions, it cannot formally be called block-structured.
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Is C languagea strongly typed language ?NO. C has several built-in data types, it is not a strongly typed language, as are Pascal and Ada. C permits almost all type conversions. For example, you may freely intermix character and integer types in an expression.
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Does C language demands strict type compatibility between a parameter and an arguments?C does not demand strict type compatibility between a parameter and an argument. As you may know from your other programming experience, a high-level computer language will typically require that the type of an argument be (more or less) exactly the same type as the parameter that will receive the argument. Such is not the case for C. Instead, C allows an argument to be of any type so long as it can be reasonably converted into the type of the parameter. Further, C provides all of the automatic conversions to accomplish this.
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Why C language more suited for system programming?C is special in that it allows the direct manipulation of bits, bytes, words, and pointers. This makes it well suited for system-level programming, where these operations are common.
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Why C language is called structured language ?The distinguishing feature of a structured language is compartmentalization of code and data. This is the ability of a language to section off and hide from the rest of the program all information and instructions necessary to perform a specific task. One way that you achieve compartmentalization is by using subroutines that employ local (temporary) variables. By using local variables, you can write subroutines so that the events that occur within them cause no side effects in other parts of the program. This capability makes it very easy for your C programs to share sections of code. If you develop compartmentalized functions, you need to know only what a function does, not how it does it. Remember, excessive use of global variables (variables known throughout the entire program) may allow bugs to creep into a program by allowing unwanted side effects.
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What is the use of code block in C language ?Code blocks allow many algorithms to be implemented with clarity, elegance, and efficiency. Moreover, they help the programmer better conceptualize the true nature of the algorithm being implemented.
You create a code block by placing a sequence of statements between opening and closing curly braces
Example:
if (x < 10) {
printf(''Too low, try again.\n");
scanf("%d", &x);
}
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Name the different data types inC language as per C89 standard?C89 defines five foundational data types: character, integer, floating-point, double floating-point, and valueless.
These are declared using char, int, float, double, and void, respectively.
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name the data type in C language based on C99 standard?To the five basic data types defined by C89 , C99 adds three more: _Bool,_Complex, and_Imaginary.
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What is the constraint on length of c identifier ?In C, identifiers may be of any length. However, not all characters will necessarily be significant.
In C89, at least the first 6 characters of an external identifier and at least the first 31 characters of an internal identifier will be significant. C99 has increased these values. In C99, an external identifier has at least 31 significant characters, and an internal identifier has at least 63 significant characters. As a point of interest, in C++, at least the first 1,024 characters of an identifier are significant. These differences may be important if you are converting a program from C89 to C99, or from C to C++.
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All local variables in C language must be declared at the start of a block, prior to any ''action" statements. State true or false.TRUE as per C89 standard. However, in C99 (and in C++),you can declare local
variables at any point within a block, prior to their first use.
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How to retain the values of local variablesbetween calls in C language ?use static modifier.
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What is the output of the following code ?
#include <stdio.h>
void f(void);
int main(void)
{
int i;
for(i=0; i<10; i++) f();
return 0;
}
void f(void)
{
int j = 10;
printf("%d ", j);
j++;
}
Prints ten time the number 10.
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What is the output of the program given below?
#include <stdio.h>
void sp_to_dash(const char *str);
int main(void)
{
sp_to_dash("this is a test");
return 0;
}
void sp_to_dash(const char *str)
{
while(*str) {
if(*str== ' ') printf("%c", '-');
else printf("%c", *str);
str++;
}
}
Prints a dash for each space in its string argument
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What is the use ofconst in the function " sp_to_dash"given below.

#include <stdio.h>
void sp_to_dash(const char *str);
int main(void)
{
sp_to_dash("this is a test");
return 0;
}
void sp_to_dash(const char *str)
{
while(*str) {
if(*str== ' ') printf("%c", '-');
else printf("%c", *str);
str++;
}
}
The use of const in the parameter declaration ensures that the
code inside the function cannot modify the object pointed to by the parameter.
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Semaphore is used for
a. process synchronization
b. IPC
c. Memory management
d. all of the above
a. Process synchronization
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consider the programming statement in C language

main(int argc, char *argv[])

What is the minimum value of argc ?
1.

By convention, argv[0] is the name of the program executed, so argc is atleast 1. If argc is 1 then there are no command-line arguments after the program name.
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What is the difference between
a)int ( *collections)[10]

b)int *collections[10]
a)collections is a pointer to an array of 10 elements of type integer

b) Collections is an array of 10 elements which are pointer to integer elements.
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What is the difference between
a)void *doit()

b)void (*doit) ()
a) doit is a function that returns a pointer to an integer

b) doit is pointer to a function that returns void
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What are system calls?System calls act as between interface between user and OS for availing OS services.
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What is thrashing?Thrashing is a high paging activity where processor spends most of its time in dealing with page faults.
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what is gang scheduling?Gang Scheduling: A set of related threads is scheduled to run on a set of
processors at the same time, on a 1-to-1 basis.
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What is the output of the following java code?Justify your answer.

class Test1
{
public static void main(String args[])
{

String s1 = "Hello";
String s2 =new String(s1);
System.out.println(s1.equals(s2));
System.out.println(s1==s2);

}
}
true
false

Reason:
s1.equals(s2)here contents of two string objects are compared are same in this case. hence the output is true.

s1==s2. Here two objects are compared and are different.hence the output is false.
89
Functional Independence results in to
a) Error isolation
b) Scope for re-suse
c) Understandability
d) all of the above.
d) all of the above.

Module having high cohesion and low coupling issaid to be functionally Independent of other modules

Read COHESION and COUPLING concepts of OO Design.
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IObject Oriented design is implemented using only OO language ?No.
It can also be implemented in conventional language with more efforts.
91
What is the use of bubble chart ?It is also called as DFD. ( Data Flow Diagrams)
DFDs arehierarchical graphical model of a system that shows the different processing activities or functions that the system performs and the data interchange among these functions.
92
Which is you're favourite subject/name any subject that fascinates you currentlyAnswer only subjects that u know thoroughly
93
Write a c program to swap three numbers without using temporary variable
94
Technical I - Given a bunch of pens, explain Abstraction n Encapsulation. Real time applications of stack,queue. Diff between quick sort n bubble sort interms of efficiency/performance. Program to convert char to string. Questions related to static keyword. Use of arraylist.How to find duplicate names in database.Technical I - Given a bunch of pens, explain Abstraction n Encapsulation. Real time applications of stack,queue. Diff between quick sort n bubble sort interms of efficiency/performance. Program to convert char to string. Questions related to static keyword. Use of arraylist.How to find duplicate names in database.
95
what are Constructors?why do you need constructor when you have abstract class,Interface that are very good and supported by java?No return type and Run time allocation of memory (Try to explain to the best either by concept or by a code snippet - code is much more preferred than theory concept explanation) are the only two reasons explain in detail.
96
Is there any similarity between Java and C++, if yes list them?
whether destructor are supported in java if yes why and how if no why and how?
List all similarities, Refer to Herbert Schildt or youtube videos for constructors and destrucctors.
NOTE: Try to explain every thing with an example.
97
Software Testing questions like given a pen and water bottle how will you test it from developer and as well as end user perspectiveFor Pen - From developer perspective area where it will be used, type of outer covering required either transparent or non transparent, type of ink needed either liquid i.e. ink pen/ gel/ Ball, considerable length and width.
From end user perspective Type of the pen, flexibility/ comfort in holding it, flow of ink i.e. smoothness in writing with it.
Similarly for water bottle also.
98
Difference between 'structure' in Cand 'structure' in C++. How 'structure'in C++ is different from 'class'in C++.Run this program and see it. Comments will help you to understand.

#include <iostream.h>
struct A
{
int a; // by default it is public
void show()// not possible in C language. i.e no Data
{ // initialization, allare public
x=30;
cout << "in c++ Structure"<<a<<""<<x<<endl;
}
private: int x;
};

class B
{

int b; // private by default
public:
void show()
{
cout << "in c++ Class"<< b <<endl;
}

};
int main()
{

struct A a1;
B obj;

a1.a=2;// a1.x;// not possible to access as x is private
a1.show();

//obj.b=3;//This is error;
obj.show();

}
99
How ' Reference Variable' in C++ works?Run this program and see. Comments will help you.

#include <iostream.h>
int main()
{
int x;
x=10;
cout<<x<<endl;
int & iRef=x;// iRef is a reference to x & must
// be initialized at the time of of declaration.

iRef=20;
cout<<x<<endl;// value 20 is printed
x++;
cout<<iRef<<endl; // value 21 is printed
} // end of main program
100
What is the output of this code? How code works?
#include <iostream.h>
int &demo();// function Prototype.

int x = 100;// global Variable.

int main()
{

demo()= 555;// put this in comment and check output
cout<<" Value of X is "<< x;

}

int & demo()
{
return x;// returning reference of variable x;

}
The concept is called return by reference.555 is put in the the address returned by demoi.e variable x ( Global Var) contains 555.Call to function on the left hand side of=.
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