|Why might the ommission bias play in referree's favor in crucial game situations?|
People do not judge inaction with the same level of contempt as action. If the call is wrong, it's better to let it slip than to make the wrong call.
How does an umpire's definition of the strike zone change depending on the game situation?
The umpire's strike zone shrinks when there are already 2 strikes and it expands when there are 4 balls
|With the game on the line, how do referrees change their rate of called penalties?|
Objective calls are called at the same rate regardless of the time on the close, but subjective calls aren't called as much at the end of the game
|How does never punting in football follow the concept of loss aversion?|
Coaches often punt because it's seen as "the right thing to do" and if it doesn't work then they get blamed.
|How does sitting a star player in basketball follow the concept of loss aversion?|
Coaches are afraid the player will foul out and then they'll be blamed for losing, so they save the player for the end of the game
|How does waiting to pull a goalie in hockey follow the concept of loss aversion?|
Coaches should be pulling the goalie a minute earlier than they normally do, but they are afraid they'll look foolish if the other team scores
|How does hindsight bias affect our view of coach performance?|
When they do something we think is stupid (but statistically the right thing to do), we call them dumb if it fails. We consider them lucky if it works.
|When it comes to sports, why do we hate oligopolies and love competition?|
Consumers believe competition is somehow more fair and encourages innovation
|Why do longer seasons end-up favoring monopolies and oligopolies of the sports world?|
The NFL only has 16 games, so teams can "get lucky," but the longer seasons in NBA and MLB mean a good team has to be good for a longer time
|How is Tiger Woods similar to a stock investor or a gambler?|
In the face of a potential loss, most people act more aggresively than they should
|Why might one single statistics, like blocked shots, not be the same for all players?|
Some players have "good" versions of a stat and others have unhelpful versions of a stat. For example with blocks, it's more important to block a shot and give it to your teammate than to block it and knock it out of bounds, which would give the ball back to the other team
Why do sports league use simple versions of statistics instead of a better version to measure value?
It's easy count observable items, but measuring their value is much more complicated.
|What was the intended goal of the Rooney Rule? What happened after it was passed?|
The goal was to get more AA coaches into the NFL, but it ended up only bringing in under-qualified coaches
What is the support against the idea that home teams in the NBA are so successful because of the crowd?
The free-throw percentage in the NBA is the same for home and visitors despite crowds only booing the visitors
What is the support against the idea that home teams in the NHL are so successful because of the crowd?
During shoot-outs, the visiting teams are actually more likely to win
What is the support agasint the idea that home teams in the NBA are so successful because of travel fatigue?
Home teams still perform significantly better when playing teams from the same city or in a shared arena
What is the support against the idea that home teams are so successful because of the characteristics of their venue?
Basketball courts and football fields all have a standard size that are regulated across the league
Fans are rarely so deluded as to suggest that they could ___ the throwing arm of Peyton Manning or ___ defend Kobe Bryant or _____ return Roger Federer's serve.
|match; defend; return||7||Score1|
Who have devoted years of training and developed a vast range of skills and experiences?
|Most referees aren't what type of fans?||lucky sports fans||7||Score1|
|Mike Carey had the ability to make the right call, but he also had what?||referee's intuition||8||Score1|
|Mike Carrey was selected as a referee for which game?||Super Bowl XLII||8||Score1|
A defensive stop and the Patriots would become the first NFL team since which team to go through an entire season undefeated?
|1972 Miami Dolphins||8||Score1|
|David Tyree and Eli Manning had combined for what type of catch?||An impossible Velcro catch||9||Score1|
What type of ethics are referred to when referees practice "selective officiating" or "swallowing the whistle?"
People view acts of ______ as far less intrusive or harmful than acts of _____, even if the outcomes are the same or worse.
|Most parents opt not to do what to their children?||vaccinate||11||Score1|
Psychologists have found that people view _____ as less causal, less blameworthy, and less harmful than action even when the outcomes are the same or worse.
Our legal system draws a similar distinction, seldom assigning an ______________ to rescue.
|What type of errors are often attributed to an individual, and responsibility is assigned?||commission||13||Score1|
When referees are trained and evaluated in the NBA, what are the four basic kinds of calls they are taught?
correct calls; incorrect calls; correct noncalls; incorrect noncalls
|Random referee errors can't be predicted and tend to do what over time.||balance out||14||Score1|
The average baseball pitch starts out at _____, crosses the plate at more than ___, and usually has been garnished with all sorts of spin and movement.
|92 mph; 85 mph||14||Score1|
The authors have observed that umpires make the correct call what percentage of the time?
The authors have observed that on a two strike count, umpires have more than twice their normal error rate, in favor of which player?
Which bias suggests that umpires will be more reluctant to call the fourth ball, which would give the batter first base?
Looking at all pitches that are actually outside the strike zone, the normal error rate for an umpire is?
Rather than issue what, umpires seem to want to prolong the at-bat and let the players determine the outcome.
|walk or strikeout||15||Score1|
|Using which data, the authors track the location of every called pitch.||pitch f/x||15||Score1|
The strike zone is larger when there are how many balls and strikes and smaller when there are how many strikes and balls?
|3 and 0; 2 and 0||17||Score1|
|How large is the strike zone on 3-0 pitches compared to 0-2 counts.||188 square inches larger||18||Score1|
From Little League all the way up to the Major Leagues, managers, coaches, and hitting experts all encourage players to do what on 3-0 pitches?
|take the pitch||19||Score1|
|For as long as sports have existed, who has accused whom of favoring star players?||fans; officials||19||Score1|
Star players are treated differently by the officials, but not necessarily because officials want to do what for the best athletes?
|coddle and protect||19||Score1|
On two-strike counts, star hitters are much less likely to get called third strike than are nonstar hitters for the exact same what?
On three-ball counts, star hitters are more or less likely to get a called ball, controlling again for pitch location.
Umpires want star hitters in particular to do what, and as a result give them more chances to swing at the ball.
|determine their own fate||20||Score1|
The closest thing to a fair comparison between stars and non-stars the authors found is what happens when two NBA players go after what?
|In the NBA, what type of ball is in play but is not in the possession of either team?||loose ball||21||Score1|
|A nonstar player will be assessed a loose ball foul about what percentage of the time?||57.40%||21||Score1|
|A star player will be assessed a loose ball foul about what percentage of the time?||42.60%||21||Score1|
When umpires miss a _____, they tend to expand their strike zone on the next pitch, and when they miss a called ball, they tend to shrink the strike zone on the next pitch.
|After an errant ball call, the strike zone magically grows how much?||70 square inches||23||Score1|
The omission bias suggests that the rate of officials' calls will _____ as the game nears its conclusion and the score gets closer.
In the NFL, more subjective calls to what as the game nears the end and the score is close?
Which officials are no better at overcoming omission bias than their American counterparts?
After Serena Williams struck her second serve but before the ball landed, Japanese lineswoman, Shino Tsurubuchi called a what?
What is a fairly obscure tennis rule dictating that no part of the server's foot touch the baseline before the ball is struck?
|In high school, punts seldom travel more than how many yards?||30 yards||35||Score2|
Kelley believes that the which people don't go far enough to validate the no-punting worldview?
In the years since he took over as head coach, Pulaski has lost how many games up until 2009? How many times did they win to the championship?
In the years since he took over as head coach, Pulaski has won how many games up until 2009? How many times did they go to the championship?
Based on data from more than 700 NFL games, Romer identified how many situations in which, statistically speaking, the right call would have been to go for it?
|The preferences of avoiding losses at the expense of acquiring gains is known as what?||Loss aversion||40||Score2|
|Which psychologists were credited with discovering the phenomenon of loss aversion?|
Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky
A study for ______ found that consumers switch companies twice as often when their carrier raises rates, as opposed to when the competition decreases its rates by the same amount.
Many homeowners looking to sell their houses right now would rather keep them on the market for an extra year than drop the price to what level?
|$5000 less than they paid||40||Score2|
Yale professors Ian Ayres and Dean Karlan launched a company known as what to help people facilitate personal commitment contracts for weight loss and other personal goals by using loss aversion.
The authors analyzed almost 5,000 NBA games from the 2006-2007 to 2009-2010 seasons and found that when a player receives his fifth foul, on average, there are how many minutes left to play?
The strategy of sitting a player down with five fouls to save him for the end of the game seems to be based on what?
|An NBA coach is much better off leaving a star player in a game with what?||five fouls||44||Score2|
Coaches are routinely giving up about how many points per game by sitting a star player in foul trouble?
If you lose the game by following convention and sitting your player down, you're doing what?
|escaping the blame?||44||Score2|
Conventional baseball wisdom dictates that managers use their best relief pitchers when? To do what?
end of the game; preserve victories
Which Notre Dame coach decided to employ a risky, newfangled strategy by using his quarterback and end?
|Dorais and Rockne worked what jobs on a Lake Erie beach near Sandusky, Ohio?||lifeguards||47||Score2|
|Dorais and Rockne would both go on to become revered what?||Hall of Fame coaches||47||Score2|
|In November 2009, which undefeated team hosted the New England Patriots?||Indianapolis Colts||48||Score2|
Crunching the numbers, the average NFL team converts on fourth and two what percentage of the time?
Punting the ball would put the Colts at roughly their own 30, which gave the Patriots what chance of winning?
New England's quarterback, Tom Brady, had thrown nearly how many yards that evening? What did he need on the critical fourth down?
|400 yards; 72 inches||50||Score2|
With seconds to play, Indianapolis scored a touchdown on a one-yard pass to win the game by what score?
|If you did the right thing but failed because of bad luck, you're considered what?||stupid||52||Score2|
If you did the wrong thing, but succeeded because of good fortune, you're considered what?
In 1993, Tony La Russa was managing the which team? What position was the team in the division?
|Oakland A's; last||53||Score2|
|Oakland's ____ had swollen to more than 5.00.||earned run average||53||Score2|
Major League batters' slugging percentage is about what the first time they face a pitcher?
|58 points lower||53||Score2|
The pitchers would take the mound how often, but would be fresher since they'd throw fewer pitches per outing.
|every 3 games||53||Score2|
|Major League batters hit how many points the first time they face a pitcher in a game?||27 points||53||Score2|
Major League batters' on base percentage is about what the first time they face a pitcher?
|27 points lower||53||Score2|
In La Russa's experiment, for the ____ he might get comparably effective results from journeyman pitchers who came at a fraction of the cost of the star pitchers, thus leaving extra money to spend on other players.
|first three innings||54||Score2|
La Russa had been the Oakland manager since what year? When did he take his teams to the World Series?
|1986; 1988, 1989, and 1990||54||Score2|
|La Russa was manager of the year in which season?||1992||54||Score2|
|You may have a better strategy, but if the athletes don't buy in, it's probably what?||not worth deploying||54||Score2|
By the end of the eighties, Westhead, a Shakespeare scholar who looked the part of a professor was coaching at the college level at _____.
|Kevin Kelley's strategy was that having more ____ opportunities and attempts, the better.||offensive||55||Score2|
|Statistics support attempting lots of "big plays" --- ______ in basketball.||three-pointers||55||Score2|
An unconventional approach upsets the opponents' preparation routines and displaces them from what?
|their comfort zone||55||Score2|
In the 1989-1990 season, tiny Loyola Marymount was the toast of college basketball, the up-tempo team averaging a whopping ____ a game.