Synthesis of witness statements and views ERRE* / Synthèse des positions prises par les témoins au comité ERRE**
PRReprésentation proportionnelleReferendumRéférendumPreferred SystemSystéme préconisé ou suggéréComments / Commentaires
In EnglishEn françaisIn EnglishEn françaisIn EnglishEn français
Witness / Témoin - in chronological order / en ordre chronologiqueMeeting #
FPTPRural-urban PROtherPR - any optionVUTRPMVote préféren-
Scrutin de listeSMUTRP rurale-
AutreRP - toute option serait bonne
Maryam Monsef, Minister of Dem. Inst's3----------------------
Marc Mayrand (directeur général des élections)4----------------------
Jean-Pierre Kingsley (directeur général des élections, 1990-2007)5E-F--E-F-E*---E*-F*---F*--
R. Kenneth Carty, professeur émérite, The University of British Colombia6-E-F--------E-----F---
Brian Tanguay, professeur, Science politique, Wilfrid Laurier University6E-F--E-F-E-----F------
Nelson Wiseman (directeur, Programme des études canadiennes et professeur, Département de science politique, Université de Toronto, à titre personnel)6E-F--E-FE-----F-------
Michael Marsh, professeur émérite, Trinity College Dublin (par vidéoconférence : Dublin, Irlande)7E-F-----E-----F-------Marsh was critical about referendums in general, but did not pronounce himself on whether it would be appropriate in this case except to lay out the conditions that would have to be met.
Michael Gallagher, professeur de politique comparée, Trinity College Dublin (par vidéoconférence : Dublin, Irlande)7E-F-----E-----F-------Gallagher has written on referendums and refers to referendums in Ireland on big issues as "il seems right and proper." However, he also recognizes the different sides of referendums, and did not voice an opinion specifically on the Canadian case.
Patrice Dutil (professeur, Université Ryerson, à titre personnel)8-E-FE-F-----E-----F---
Peter Russell (professeur émérite, Département de science politique, University of Toronto, à titre personnel)8E-F-E-F-E-----F-------
Robert Peden (Chief Electoral Officer of New Zealand)9E-F------E-----F------See below. Same argument applies to Peden as to Rogers. Both explained how referenda are used in NZ and limited themselves to that.
Tom Rogers (commissaire électoral, Australian Electoral Commission, à titre personnel)9----------------------Rogers spoke to the use of referendums in NZ, but said, "I'm not at all in a position to comment on what might be appropriate for Canada. That is very much something for the Canadian Parliament and people."
André Blais (professeur, Département de science politique, Université de Montréal, à titre personnel)10----E-F---------------Considers AV to be more "acceptable" that FPTP, but recognizes its limitations. In response to a quesiton about preferences, he said: "I will not directly answer the question, but I might, after we have been grilled many times. We'll see." See also 20 octobre Université McGill, Forum de discution
Alex Himelfarb (greffier du Conseil privé, 2002-2006, à titre personnel)10E-F--E-FEE---EEFF---F-F
Henry Milner (chercheur invité, Département de science politique, Université de Montréal, à titre personnel)10E-F--E-F-E-----F-----
Hugo Cyr (doyen, Faculté de science politique et de droit, Université du Québec à Montréal, à titre personnel)11E-F--E-F-E-----F-----
Larry LeDuc (professeur émérite, University of Toronto, à titre personnel)11E-F--E-F---E-----F---
Leslie Seidle (directeur de recherche, Évolution de la communauté fédérale canadienne, Institut de recherche en politiques publiques)11E-FE-F-EE----FF-----" the issue is broader than just whether 40% of the vote ends up as 40% of the seats in the House of Commons. I think any system should bring us fairly close to that. We shouldn't have huge discrepancies." He did not take a strong position on options but liked the choice offered by STV and by open list MMP.
Maryantonett Flumian (présidente, Institut sur la gouvernance)12-----E-F-------------Flumian wished to avoid providing a conclusion on systems, although she did say, " I would come to the conclusion that there's enough pressure for some form of reform." Still, this was not enough to put her down as coming out in favour of PR.
Dennis Pilon (professeur agrégé, Département de science politique, York University, à titre personnel)12E-F--E-FEE----FF-----
Jonathan Rose (professeur associé, département d'études politiques, Queen's University, à titre personnel)12E-F--E-F-------------
Arend Lijphart (professeur émérite de recherche en science politique, University of California, San Diego, à titre personnel)13E-F--E-FEE----FF-----On the choice of systems, Lijphard said he had " no strong preference for a particular kind."
Benoît Pelletier (professeur titulaire, Faculté de droit, Université d'Ottawa, à titre personnel)13E-F-E-F--E-----F-----
Nathalie Des Rosiers (doyenne, Faculté de droit, Section de droit civil, Université d'Ottawa, à titre personnel)14E-F--E-F-E-----F-----
Christian Dufour (politicologue, auteur et analyste politique, à titre personnel)14EFE-F-----E-----F--
Harold Jansen (professeur en science politique, University of Lethbridge, à titre personnel)14E-F--E-FEE-E--FF-F---Jansen was not intent on opting for a particular system, and mentioned STV, MMP and List-PR. He did say at one point: "Thinking on the spot about how I would quickly design an electoral system, I would go for an MMP system."
Barry Cooper (professeur, University of Calgary, à titre personnel)15-E-F-E-F----E-----F--
Nicole Goodman (directrice, Centre for e-Democracy, chargée d'enseignement, Munk School of Global Affairs, à titre personnel)15E-F------------------
Emmett Macfarlane (chargé d'enseignement, University of Waterloo, à titre personnel)15----E-F--------------
Thomas S. Axworthy (titulaire de la chaire sur la politique publique, Massey College, University of Toronto, à titre personnel)16-----E-F-E--E--F--F--Mr. Axworthy did not speak either in favour or against reform. He emphasized that if there is to be reform, there are complementary measures that would need to be adopted. He mentioned that there is no crisis, but crisis or no, things can always be improved. We have left him as "neutral" on the subject of PR.
Matthew P. Harrington (professeur titulaire, Faculté de droit, Université de Montréal , à titre personnel)16-----E-F-------------
Pippa Norris (professeure des relations gouvernementales et chargée de cours lauréate, University of Sydney, conférencière McGuire en politique comparée, Harvard, directrice du Electoral Integrity Project, à titre personnel)16----E-F--------------
Yasmin Dawood, professeure agrégée, chaire d'études canadiennes en démocratie, constitutionnalisme et loi électorale, faculté de droit, University of Toronto (par vidéoconférence : Toronto, Ontario)17-----E-F-------------Solid material on the whole issue of legitimacy. Sees a referendum as an option, but not the only one, and does not consider a referendum to be devoid of partisan interest. Calls for a non-partisan approach focused on the needs of Canadians.
Jean-Pierre Charbonneau, ministre de la Réforme des institutions démocratiques, gouvernement du Québec (2002-2003)17E-F--E-F-E-----F-----
Ed Broadbent, président et fondateur de Institut Broadbent17E-F--E-F-E-----F-----
Peter John Loewen, directeur, École politique publique et gouvernance et professeur agrégé, Département de sciences politiques, University of Toronto, à titre personnel18-E-FE-F-----E-----F--
Eric Maskin, professeur de l'Université Adams, département des sciences économiques, Harvard University, à titre personnel18----------E(Maj)-----F(Maj)----Maskin was here to recommend something that ressembles AV. However, he considered PR to be the gold standard. He just thought that it would be too much change for Canada. He said, > There are many strong points to be said for proportional representation. The reason I didn't dwell on it at length in the brief or in my comments today is that it would be a far bigger change. It would be a radical change, moving away from single-member electoral districts, etc."
Jean-Sébastien Dufresne, président de Mouvement Démocratie Nouvelle18E-F--E-F-E-----F-----
Katelynn Northam, militante- réforme électorale Leadnow.ca19E-F--E-FEE----FF-----
Melanee Thomas, professeur adjoint, Département de science politique, University of Calgary, à titre personne (par vidéoconférence : Kelowna, Colombie-Britannique)19-E-F-E-FEE----FF-----
Louis Massicotte, professeur, Département de science politique, Université Laval, à titre personnel19E-F--E-F-E-----F-----
Joachim Behnke, professeur titulaire, Sciences politiques, Zeppelin University, Allemagne (par vidéoconférence : Munich, Allemagne)20E-F------E-----F--
Friedrich Pukelsheim, professeur, Institut für Mathematik, Universität Augsburg, Allemagne (par vidéoconférence : Munich, Allemagne)20E-F------E-----F-----
Mary Pitcaithly, présidente (par vidéoconférence : Falkirk, Royaume-Uni)20E-F--E-FE-----F------
Andy O'Neill, chef, Electoral Commission, Écosse (par vidéoconférence : Falkirk, Royaume-Uni)20-------------E-----F-Mr O'Neill affiche une neutralité totale tout au long de son témoignage. It's a bit tricky to say that any of the witnesses from abroad advocated for one system or another for Canada, but O'Neil did suggest we could consider an approach similar to what we are calling rural-urban (see main presentation around 10:15 and do a search on "rural."
Richard Johnston, Prof. of Political Science, University of Bristish Colombia21-----E-F--E----------Mr Johnston aurait changé d'idée avec le temps, mais il s'est déjà clairement prononcé pour une réforme vers la proportionnelle. Dans ces réponses, il semble afficher une certaine préférente pour un système préférentiel... c'est ce que je sens! Réal: I don't think there is a basis to say that Johnston came out in favour or against PR or AV in his testimony, so have just kept him as neutral on both. "I am neither in favour of nor opposed to a referendum" but does not see a referendum as necessary if some other way exists of adopting an evidence-based approach.
Darrell Bricker, président, Ipsos Affaires publiques21----E-F--------------Ce ne sont pas des opinons personnelles, mais des résultats de sondages
Gordon F. Gibson21----E-F--------------Aimez-vous le système tel qu'il est actuellement? "Vu les circonstances, il est acceptable, mais nous pourrions faire mieux."
Jane Hilderman, directrice générale, Samara22---------------------"Nous n'avons pas fait la promotion et nous ne faisons toujours pas la promotion d'un système électoral précis plutôt qu'un autre." - Jane Hilderman, DG Samara Canada
Dominic Vézina, conseiller stratégique, Institut du Nouveau Monde22E-F------E-----F-----
Taylor Gunn, Civix, président22----E-F--------------Mr Gunn n'a pas exprimé de préfrence, ni de sondage concernant les points abordés dans le présent document. Il insiste sur l'importance d'une plus longue campagne consultation et d'information, surtout envers les jeunes d'âge scolaire.
On the need for a referendum, he answered yes to Richards unless a more thorough alternative consultation process is undertaken.
David McLaughlin, à titre personnel23-E-FE-F--E-----F-----Re: electoral reform. Witness agrees with the others that the time is right, but adds that it is up the committee to convince the public of that
On the referendum, they had planned a referendum in N.B. He spoke of the value of a referendum, but proposed a "validating referendum. after two elections as an option - See near the end of his main presentation.
Craig Scott, professeur de droit, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, à titre personnel23E-F------E-----F-----Scott did not express himself explicitly on the referendum issue.
Graham Fox, président et chef de la direction, Institut de recherche en politiques publiques23----E F-------------
Mr. Michael Boda, Chief Electoral Officer of Saskatchewan24---------------------Mr. Michael Boda would not comment on recommendations on what electoral system should be selected for Canada's federal elections or offer any assessment on the various electoral systems being considered because of his position as an electoral administrator. Main concerns are minimizing administrative barriers and making voting easy.
Professor Charles Smith, St. Thomas More College at the University of Saskatchewan24E-F------------------Seems to think that there are problems with preferential ballots - refers to them as a "band-aid solution". In another instance offers rural-urban PR as a possibility, but does not seem to state a specific preference - only to "reform to a more proportional system . . that reflects our diversity."
Ms. Darla Deguire, Director, Prairie Region, Canadian Labour Congress24E-F-EFE---F----Prefers the "open-list" form of MMP. Re: referendum - Not for or against, but doesn't think that a referendum is necessary
Mr. Jim Harding, co-chair, Qu'Appelle Valley Environmental Association, as an individual24E-F------------------Stated that they want to move to PR, but are not taking a position on the kind of PR.
Professor Lee Ward, associate professor of political science, Campion College, University of Regina24E-F--E-FE----F-----Preference is for the "runners-up" model of MMP. Re: referendum "I think there should be a sunset clause in the legislation whereby, after two elections with a new system, we have a referendum to compare it with the old one so that the public has a genuine choice. "
Mr. Russ Husum, as an individual24E-F------E----F----"I will refer to the alternative vote system as “ranked ballot” from here on. When I say “ranked ballot”, that's what I'm talking about." Not against other forms of PR, but thinks that ranked ballots/AV is easier to implement initially. But believes that the Borda counting method must be used for AV to be effective.
Mr. Richard Kidd, as an individual25E-F-----------E------FHas devised his own system of PR entitled the “every vote counts” system, or EVC, which appears to be a variant of MMP. He likes MMP, but thinks EVC is better because it eliminates the idea of superfluous votes. Expressed a preference for closed lists in response to Romanado")
Royce Koop, Associate Professor and Department Head, Department of Polical Studies, University of Manitoba25E-F--E-F-E*-----F*-----Wants proportionality, but thinks maintaining local representation/constituency MPs is most important.
Bryan Schwartz, Law Professor, University of Manitoba25----F-E--------------Favours either first past the post or what he calls "PR light". "The idea of “light” is that we would predominantly keep the benefits of the existing system and we would try to mitigate it by having a limited number of PR seats. By “light” I mean we could still get a fair number of majority governments."
Darren Gibson, Coordinator, Political Action Membership Mobilization
25E-F--E-F-------------"Unifor has deliberately avoided focusing on a detailed model to replace first past the post. However, we expect this all-party committee to reach a majority consensus and to recommend a proportional system that is understandable and explainable to our members and the community."
Gina Smoke, National Representative, Unifor25E-F------------------
Paul G. Thomas, Professor Emeritus, Political Studies, University of Manitoba26--------EEEFFF-Generally satisfied with first past the post, but recognizes its problems. If it was to be replaced he prefers AV or MMP model based on regions. However, is mostly agnostic about the situation and thinks there are better ways to reform democracy right now.
Carlos Sosa, Second Vice-Chair, Council of Canadians with Disabilities26F-E------------------Mr. Sosa would like reform in regard to accessibility for voters with disabilities, but did not speak to any particular voting system.
April D'Aubin, Member, Research Analyst, Council of Canadians with Disabilities26---------------------"CCD has not taken a position on whether Canada should continue with first past the post or adopt an alternative system. Whatever system Canada adopts, it needs to be fully accessible, inclusive, and understandable by grassroots Canadians with and without disabilities. "
Justin Di Ciano, City Councillor, Ward 5 Etobicoke-Lakeshore, City of Toronto27-E-FE-F-----E-----F--
Greg Essensa, Chief Electoral Officer, Elections Ontario27---------------------As an election administrator, Mr Essensa must remain neutral.
Laura Stephenson, political science professor, Western University27-
Diane Bergeron, Executive Director, Strategic Relations and Engagement, Canadian National Institute for the Blind27E-F------------------CNIB does not have an opinion on one particular system or another. Would like reform in regard to accessibility for voters with sight loss.
Donna Dasko, Fellow, School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto, as an individual 27E-F------------------Ms. Dasko favours some form of proportional representation because she believes it will increase the number of women elected. She prefers PR to MMP, but did not list a specific type.
Yvan Dutil, Consultant and Tutor, Université TELUQ28EF----------F------FMr. Dutil prefers the equitable majority voting method - a proportional system in which the existing electoral districts are maintained. Compensation is achieved by changing the weight of the votes. Each vote for each party is given more or less weight in order to achieve proportional representation.
Jean Rémillard, as an individual28E-F-----------F------FFavours a voting system entitled “rationalized majority”. "Very simply, keep our present system, because it's not a bad system—and there are various reasons for that—but amend it a little after each election so that small parties get a bigger voice." "MPs are awarded by rationalization, that is, people vote the same way they do now without any change. Mathematical adjustments are made after the fact."
Raymond Côté, as an individual28E-F------E----F-F----FMr. Cote favours the majority judgment system - but later states that he also supports MMP.
Jean-Pierre Derriennic, Associate professor, Department of political science, Université Laval28E-F-E------F------Favours what he calls moderate proportional representation with a preferential vote. "My preference is a simplified Irish single transferable vote, with less competition between the candidates from the same party and a less complicated way of calculating results. "
Éric Montigny, Executive Director, Research Chair on Democracy and Parliamentary Institutions, Department of political science, Université Laval28EF--------------
Bernard Colas, Attorney, CMKZ LLP, former Commissioner of the Law Commission of Canada28E-F--E-F-E-----F-----Prefers a mixed electoral system, based on the “66-33” method.
Csaba Nikolenyi, Professor, Department of Political Science, Concordia University29E-F-----E-----F------Favourite system is closed list PR, but believes this is too drastic for Canada.
Mr. Jon Breslaw (Professor Emeritus of Economics, Concordia University)29E-F-----------E------E-Prefers a system called "fractional representation". We vote the same way but votes are weighted differently so that we have more proportional representation
Mercédez Roberge, Campaigner, as an individual29E-F--E-F-E-----F------prefers a compensatory mixed proportional model for Canada and the use of other mechanisms to increase women's representation in parliament
France Robertson, Manager, Centre d'amitié d'autochtone de Lanaudière29EF------------------Voting system needs to be adapted to the needs of First Nations communities (voter id, voting locations). No comment made on specific systems.
Danielle Perreault, General Manager, FADOQ-Région Lanaudière29--------------Accessibility for seniors is primary concern
Fred-William Mireault, President, Regroupement des étudiants et étudiantes du Cégep de Lanaudière29E-F-E-F-E--F-----compensatory mixed proportional system with regional compensation - advocate electing one-third of the MPs through electoral lists and two-thirds using the first-past-the-post system. The lists would be closed. Not necessarily in favour of revising the number of MPs.
Kirk Cameron, as an individual30E-F-----EF
Gerald P. Haase, Green Party of Canada-Yukon30E-F-----------E------F"Fair Vote Canada suggests three different electoral systems for consideration. I'm not speaking on behalf of the Green Party at this point, but I believe that each of these systems, as well as the preferential ridings proportional system suggested by Dave Brekke of Whitehorse, would be a huge improvement over our current system."
David Brekke, as an individual30E-F--E-F------E------EHas devised a preferential ridings proportional system that he prefers. thinks that we should hold a referendum after the new system has been implemented and people are familiar with it.
John Streicker, as an individual30E-F-Supports proportionality, but does not want to lose local repesentation
Shelby Maunder, Executive Director, BYTE- Empowering Youth Society30E-F------E-----F----Strongly believes in lowering voting age to 16.
John Kenneth McKinnon, Former Senior Adviser on Electoral Reform, Yukon Government, as an individual30
Élaine Michaud, Representative, New Democratic Party Yukon federal riding association30E-F------E-----F----
Keith Archer, Chief Electoral Officer, Elections BC31----------------------Does not take a view of one electoral system over another and will not comment on whether or not to have a refendum.
Craig Henschel, Member, BC Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform31E-F-EFE------F------"Having a referendum about which system to have doesn't work. Maybe a better solution to find out what voters are thinking is to ask them about different values, in a polling sense or through the census guys in Canada. They could ask voters what their values are, what values they hold as important, and then take that advice and find a system that works for them."
Antony Hodgson, Fair Voting BC31E-F-----E----E-F----F-Supports RU-PR. Also addressed the issue of charter rights and representation in some detail. E